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Full text of "Memorials of Christie's; a record of art sales from 1766 to 1896"

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From a print by R. DIGHTON, published March 25, 1794. 



FROM 1766 TO 1896 







" Hie Liber est conglutinatus ex tarn multis libris, quot 
unus pinguis Cocus Oves, boves, sues, grues, anseres, 
passeres, coquere, aut unus fumosus Calefactor centum 
magna hypocausta ex illis calefacere possit." 




HE chief difficulty experienced in 
the compilation of these " MEMORIALS 
OF CHRISTIE'S " has been, not the lack 
of material, but the wealth of it. 
To compress into two volumes the 
essence of many thousands of catalogues has been 
a task of no little difficulty, and I do not pretend 
to claim that every "lot" of importance is to 
be found mentioned within these covers. To 
compile a complete record of the sales at 
Christie's would require a lifetime of constant 
application, and a long series of volumes dealing 
with each of the many special objects which come 
under the hammer at Messrs. Christie, Manson 
and Woods'. Such a work would be of the 
greatest possible value, and in many respects of 
very considerable interest, but it naturally could 
not be undertaken by one upon whose time the 
daily press makes large demands. In the pre- 
paration of this work, I have gone through all the 
earlier Christie catalogues, page by page, and all 
the more important oaes of the later issues have 
been carefully scanned. I -think, therefore, that 


these two volumes will be found to contain a fairly 
exhaustive r6sum of the chief public sales which 
have been held at Christie's during the long period 
of nearly a century and a half. The task has been 
no light one, and if the results are commensurate 
with the amount of labour and time which it has 
involved I shall feel at all events that my work has 
not been in vain. 

If Messrs. Christie had not been, from the very 
first, in the habit of preserving their priced cata- 
logues, no such work as this could possibly have 
been carried into even an approximately successful 
issue. Even as it is, their earlier volumes of 
catalogues are in some instances incomplete, and 
a few of the first importance and interest are 
wanting : they were borrowed, when borrowing was 
not prohibited, and they have met the usual fate of 
borrowed books they have never been returned. 
Catalogues of art, as of book sales, become after a 
time excessively difficult to obtain, and some are 
absolutely unprocurable. A few of those absent 
from Messrs. Christie's invaluable " file," are to be 
found at the British Museum, and possibly else- 
where, and I have been able to make good some 
" gaps " from outside sources, and from con- 
temporary newspaper reports. Messrs. Christie 
have courteously given me every facility in the pre- 
paration of this work, which is not to be regarded as 
in any sense of an " official" nature produced under 
the auspices of the firm itself; and I desire here to 
express the deep sense of obligation I feel towards 
the members of the historic firm in this matter. 


Without Messrs. Christie's courtesy I could not 
have obtained permission to reproduce the series 
of collotype plates with which these volumes are 
illustrated, and in this matter Mr. L. Hannen has 
actively interested himself by obtaining permission 
from the various possessors of the pictures and 
other objects of art. I am also indebted to The 
Times for a generous selection from the many 
brilliant articles which have appeared in its pages 
when any great sale has been about to take 
place. My friend Mr. Gleeson White has 
assisted me in the selection of plates and in other 

" MEMORIALS OF CHRISTIE'S'* is not in any sense 
a rival of the late George Redford's " Art Sales," 
published in two volumes in 1888, from which it 
differs entirely, not only in arrangement, but in the 
fact that it is devoted entirely to Christie's. It is 
not easy to decide as to the most convenient plan 
for such a work as this. My own preferences would 
have been to model it on the system adopted by 
M. Charles Blanc in his " Tresor de la Curiosite, 
tir des Catalogues de Vente" (Paris, 1857-8), 
giving, in addition, some account of the collectors 
themselves, and relying on a very full index as the 
means of making it a valuable work of reference. 
That plan is, indeed, followed here, but with many 
important modifications, as one preferable to Mr. 
Redford's : had it been followed entirely, however, 
it would not have been possible to compress the 
information already contained in these pages into 
less than half-a-dozen volumes. A very consider- 


able percentage of the collectors were men who 
may be said to have had no individuality beyond 
their collections, and are consequently unconsidered 
by the various biographical dictionaries. I have, 
however, given a few brief personal details where 
such have been accessible. 

I do not think that any elaborate details as to 
the scope of the work are necessary, as my object 
has been to make the text as simple as possible. 
It may, nevertheless, be necessary to point out that 
several moderately important sales which do not 
appear as substantive articles will be found in- 
corporated with other auctions. The Heugh sales, 
for instance, included a number of important 
pictures, nearly all of which have occurred sub- 
sequently in other collections, where they are 
duly referred to. This practice has saved much 
valuable space. Another point may be mentioned 
to prevent any possible confusion. Where two or 
three pictures by one artist occur in a single sale, it 
has not been thought necessary to repeat the artist's 
name : the conjunction " and," of course, indicating 
that the second picture is by the same artist as that 
immediately preceding for example : Ruysdael, 
a Waterfall, oooo guineas, and a Cascade, oooo 
guineas. One of the great difficulties would have 
been to draw a hard and fast line as to prices. 
I have not attempted to draw any such line, but 
have mentioned objects which appeared to me to 
be worthy of note. Price is by no means an in- 
fallible guide as to the authenticity of a picture or 
its value as a work of art. Innumerable instances. 


have occurred in which a picture realized say 10 
in the early part of the century has within recent 
years sold for upwards of ,1,000. The tastes of 
collectors of works of art, as in everything else, 
undergo changes, and can be guided by no law 
of logic : in such a work as this, therefore, common 
sense and the absence of any kind of enthusiasm 
for any particular school of art are an author's most 
valuable attributes. 

The writer of an article in the first volume 
of the Library of the Fine Arts, March, 1831, 
says that James Christie, the elder, first started in 
Wardour Street, where he opened business as a 
book auctioneer. "Diligent and successful in his 
calling, he improved his means, and removing to 
Spring Gardens, Charing Cross, commenced as 
general auctioneer, under the firm of Christie and 
Ansell. It was here that he experienced his first 
great loss, the precursor of those misfortunes to 
which his generous nature too frequently exposed 
him throughout life. He became, under particular 
circumstances of friendship, security for a minor 
of great expectations, to the amount of ,20,000. 
The young gentlemen died just before the ex- 
piration of his minority, and Christie lost the 
whole sum. Happily he had many friends, 
amongst others, the illustrious Garrick. No sooner 
was this great player acquainted with Christie's 
loss, than he generously advanced him the loan of 
; 1 0,000 which the borrower within a given period 
repaid ; and such was his grateful recollection of 
the circumstance, that when deputed by Garrick's. 


widow to sell part of her honoured husband's 
effects, Christie very feelingly related the whole 
affair to his auditors from the rostrum." 

From the same writer we learn that of the two 
partners mentioned in vol. i., p. n, Sharp was a 
diamond merchant in the city, and that Harper was 
a brother of the wife of Jack Banister, the comedian. 
This writer also informs us that the first James 
Christie was not exactly a connoisseur, but to have 
" had the advantage of a constant and friendly 
intercourse with many of the distinguished artists 
and connoisseurs ; so much so that a certain coterie, 
who frequently partook of his venison and claret, 
were denominated Christie's Fraternity of God- 
Fathers, as they sometimes in the character of 
sponsors christened questionable graphic specimens 
of the genius obscure, Domenichino's, S. del 
Piombo's, Da Vinci's, etc." 

Garrick, Richard Wilson, and Gainsborough 
frequently dined with Mr. Christie, and it was on 
such occasions that Tcm Gainsborough and Davy 
Garrick gave loose to their crazy fancies, in their 
travesties of every remarkable picture that had 
passed the ordeal of the ivory hammer. 

The first Christie acquired " a universal reputa- 
tion for honour and integrity, and so boundless 
was his liberality that he was commonly designated 
the ' Princely-minded Christie.' He died honoured 
and respected but certainly not rich." According 
to the same writer, " Young Christie "- by which 
distinction he was known up to the time of his 
death" never cared for the auction business," 


which his father induced him, only after repeated 
efforts, to enter. He first entered the rostrum " in 
the spring of 1794, to relieve his father of the 
tedium of the six days' sale of the effects of J. 
Alexander Gresse, the artist and collector." The 
second James Christie was a member of the 
Spectacle Makers' Company, and his son George 
was eventually elected a member of the same 

The Christies' burial-place was at St. James's, 
Hampstead Road, where a runic cross now bears 
the names of nine members of the family. James 
Christie I. was an ardent Jacobite, and the names 
of all his children bear witness of his devotion to 
this cause. He first married Isabella Chapman, 
daughter of a Suffolk landowner ; and secondly 
Mrs. Urquhart, widow of a Scotch wine merchant. 

Two interesting relics of the founder of the firm 
are still in constant use at King Street, namely the 
fine old mahogany rostrum said to have been made 
by Chippendale, and the original ivory hammer 
which has sealed, so to speak, the fate of so many 
great collections. W. R. 


March, 1897. 


VOL. I. 


CHAP. I. James Christie and his Successors ..... i 

CHAP. II. Some Early Sales : English Porcelain Sir 
Robert Strange R. Ansell Captain O'Kelly 
Greenwood Samuel Dickinson H. E. J. Got de 
Grote Libraries Signer Biondi Samuel Foote 
W. Laws N. J. Desenfans The Chevalier D'Eon 
Sir Joshua Reynolds B. Vandergucht Hogarth's 
Marriage a la Mode John Trumbull 20 

CHAP. III. 1800-1810 : John Udny's pictures from the 
Colonna Palace and Florentine Gallery Lord Bess- 
borough Sir William Hamilton William Young 
Ottley Alderman Beckford Countess Holderness 
Guy Head Sir Simon Clarke and George Hibbert 
Walsh Porter The Novellara collection Robert 
Udny Pictures from the Barberini Palace Alder- 
man Boydell Welbore Agar Ellis Lafontaine 
Speaker Lenthall Walsh Porter (and sale) ... 54 

CHAP. IV. 1811-1847: William Young Ottley Duca 
San Pietro Duke of Roxburghe Henry Hope J. 
F. Tuffen Ph. Panne* Benjamin West Arthur 
Champernowne Marchioness of Thomond John 
Lamb Marquis of Bute Fonthill G. Watson 
Taylor David Garrick Nollekens Madame 
Murat Sir M. M. Sykes, H.R.H. the Duke of York 
Egyptian Antiquities Duke of Bedford Lord 
de Tabley Lord Carysfoot George Canning 
Lord Gwydyr Sir Thomas Lawrence Earl of Mul- 
grave Lord C. Townshend W. G. Coesvelt Sir 



Simon H.Clarke John Penrice Edmund Higgin- 

son of Saltmarshe Edward Solly 88 

CHAP. V. 1848-1854: The Stowe collection of the 
Duke of Buckingham J. Newington Hughes 
Casimir Perier Sir Thomas Baring Montcalm 
Gallery at Montpellier W. Coningham W. Wells 
of Redleaf W. W. Hope Lord Ashburnham 
Charles Lucien Bonaparte Louis Philippe J. D. 
Gardner E. J. de Bammeville 139 

CHAP. VI. 1855-1870 : Ralph Bernal Samuel Rogers, 
the Poet Lord Orford The Alton Towers collec- 
tion of the Earl of Shrewsbury Rev. F. Leicester 
Hon. Percy Ashburnham Charles Scarisbrick L. 
V. Flatou China Sales Sir John Swinburne T. 
E. Flint's Pre-Raphaelite Pictures Elkanan Bick- 
nell John Leech's Drawings and Pictures Edwin 
Bullock David Maclise Charles Dickens . . . 167 

CHAP. VII. 1872-1876: Joseph Gillott Prince Jerome 
Napoleon Alexander Barker Sir E. Landseer 
The Marlborough Gems Sam Mendel of Manley 
Hall William Quilter Charles Bredel Rev. John 
Lucy Thomas Woolner Jesse Watts Russell of 
Ham Hall W. E. Gladstone Wynn Ellis Gains- 
borough's Duchess of Devonshire Albert Levy 
R. Foster of Clewer Manor Dunn Gardner . . . 213 

CHAP. VIII. 1877-1882 : W. Stone Ellis Robert Na- 
pier, of Shandon Robert Vernon Baron Albert 
Grant's Kensington House Gallery John Knowles 
of Manchester Sir Henry Raeburn The Due de 
Forli's Dresden Porcelain Dr. Sibson's Wedgwood 
H. A. J. Munro, of Novar Thomas Greenwood 
Porcelain Sales H. G. Bohn J. S. Virtue 
Lord Lonsdale Joseph Arden Jonathan Nield 
W. and J. Fenton J. Wardells W. Benoni White 
J. H. Anderdon Charles Dickens F.W. Hooper 
Charles Kurtz Colonel Holdsworth Charles 
Sackville Bale E. J. Coleman W. Sharp E. 
Hermon, M.P., of Wyfold Court 258 


VOL. I. 


" THE SPECIOUS ORATOR," /.<?., James Christie I. Re- 
produced in colours from a print by R. Dighton 


JAMES CHRISTIE I. From an engraving after the original 

portrait by T. Gainsborough face 10 

JAMES CHRISTIE II. From a bust by Harry Behnes, in 

the possession of Messrs. Christie 12 

WILLIAM MANSON. From an engraved portrait in the 

possession of Messrs. Christie 14 

CHRISTIE'S AUCTION ROOMS. From the original drawing 
by Rowlandson, in the possession of Mr. T. H. 
Woods 22 


of London," plate 8 80 


print by Gillray 88 

original picture by J. Gebaud, in the possession of 
Messrs. Christie 120 















CANDELABRA ,, . . 171 







iT is not only a curious but a very re- 
markable fact, that the founders of 
two eminent London firms should 
have been "drawn," at about the 
same time, from a source which 
seemed little likely to augur success. Both John 
Murray I. and James Christie primus left the 
Navy for the respective callings of publishing and 
auctioneering in London, practically within a few 
months of one another. They were both Scots- 
men, and each seems to have possessed, in a con- 
spicuous degree, not only a more than native share 
of pluck and energy, but the infinite capacity for 
mastering details which alone makes successful 
men of business. Although neither the firm of 
Christie nor that of Murray is the doyen of the 
trade in its respective line ; yet they are rightly 
regarded as the heads of the two great phases of 
commercial enterprise. 


Of James Christie's parentage and family con- 
nections very little appears to be known ; and of 
his career up to the time when he started as an 
auctioneer in London, even less information has 
been published. He was, as we have already 
stated, a Scotsman, having been born at Perth in 
1730; his mother was a Macdonald, his father 
an Englishman of good family, whilst Flora 
Macdonald was a near relation and intimate friend. 
He entered the Navy, 1 and held a commission 
under which he served some years as midshipman. 
He is said to have resigned his commission before 
he was twenty, owing to a romantic attachment 
to a lady of great beauty whom he eventually 
married, and on coming up to London, he be- 
came assistant to an auctioneer named Annesley, 
in Covent Garden. With Annesley he remained 
in partnership for some years, but towards the end of 
the year 1 766 2 he started on hfs own account at the 
rooms in Pall Mall, formerly occupied by Richard 
Dalton, printseller ; the business was at first 

1 It may be nothing more than a coincidence, but the fact is 
worth mentioning, that the Add. MSS. at the British Museum, 
5439, f. 137, contains "Proposals for better Victualling a 
Hospital Ship," by James Christie, dated 1704. It would be 
interesting to know if James Christie's father was a sailor. 

It is not perhaps wise to be too dogmatic on this point, as 
since the above statement has been in type the writer learns 
that the Public Advertiser of July 2ist, 1763, contains an 
advertisement of Mr. Christie's as an auctioneer. This was the 
sale of the effects of a large house about to be demolished in 
St. James's Square. The file of catalogues now preserved- at 
King Street does not extend back earlier than the year 1766. 


almost entirely devoted to the sale of estates and 
London houses, and the sales of pictures and 
other chattels formed but a small percentage 
of the transactions. All contemporary accounts 
of James Christie are laudatory in the highest 
degree, and coming, as these do, from so many 
men of widely differing and indeed antagonistic 
tastes and creeds, there can be no question 
as to the high estimation in which he was 
held. " He was," says one, "of tall and dignified 
appearance, remarkable for eloquence and profes- 
sional enthusiasm, and was intimate with Garrick, 
Reynolds, Gainsborough and other men of note." 
The stories told about him are very numerous, 
although the majority of them are perhaps not too 
authentic. In one of these traditions he plays the 
part of patriot. At the time when Admiral Sir 
Hugh Palliser's house in Pall Mall was attacked 
because its owner did not bring home fresh laurels 
to the British Navy, Mr. Christie called all his 
porters together, and sallied out at their head, 
armed with good stout sticks; they completely 
routed the mob, driving them away in confusion. 
John Taylor, the author of " Monsieur Tonson," 
describes in his interesting " Records of My 
Life," 1832 (vol. ii. 206-211), James Christie in 
highly flattering terms. He says : " There was 
something interesting and persuasive, as well as 
thoroughly agreeable in his manner. He was 
very animated, and it may be justly said, eloquent, 
in his recommendation of any article to be an- 
nounced from his ' Rostrum/ as well as in occasional 


effusions of genuine humour. He was courteous, 
friendly and hospitable in private life, and was 
held in great esteem by his numerous friends, 
among whom there were many of high rank. It 
was reported, and I believe truly, that he lost con- 
siderable property by his confidence in Mr. Chace 
Price, a gentleman well known in the upper 
circles of his time, and more admired for his wit 
and humour than for the strictness of his moral 
principles. It was understood that Mr. Christie's 
loss by this gentleman amounted to five thousand 
pounds ; and this event afforded an additional 
proof of the generous feelings of Mr. Garrick, who, 
hearing of the loss and of the high character of 
Mr. Christie, though but little acquainted with 
him, with great delicacy offered to accommodate 
him with the full amount of his loss, if his conse- 
quent situation rendered such_assistance necessary 
or expedient. Whether Mr. Christie had occasion 
to avail himself of this liberal offer, I know not, 
but that it was tendered is certainly true, and it 
corresponds with the testimony in favour of Mr. 
Garrick's benevolent disposition, as given by Dr. 
Johnson, by Mr. Smith the actor, in several of his 
letters to me, and by my late friend, Mr. Arthur 
Murphy. . . . 

" As a proof of the estimation in which Mr. 
Christie's character was held, particularly by the 
great Earl of Chesterfield, a nobleman distin- 
guished for his intellectual powers and knowledge 
of mankind, as well as for the polish of his 
manners, I relate the following fact, which was 


told to me by my late esteemed friend, Sir Francis 
Bourgeois. Mr. Christie had a particularly 
valuable collection of pictures to dispose of, most 
of which were of very high reputation abroad. 
Anxious that this collection should be distin- 
guished from those of less celebrity, he waited 
upon the Earl of Chesterfield, to whom he had the 
honour of being known. It happened that the 
Earl had seen many of the pictures in question 
during his travels. Mr. Christie told his lord- 
ship how anxious he was that these pictures should 
excite the attention which they deserved, and he 
requested that his lordship would condescend to 
look at them. His lordship promised to attend 
the public view, and gave Mr. Christie leave 
to announce his intention among his friends, or 
wherever he thought proper, and in order to 
give tclat to the occasion, he promised to come 
in state. On the day appointed, therefore, the 
room was crowded in the expectation of seeing 
this venerable and celebrated nobleman, who 
arrived in a coach and six, with numerous atten- 
dants. The company gave way and afforded a 
convenient space for his lordship. He was at- 
tended by Mr. Christie, who took the liberty of 
directing his lordship's attention to some pictures, 
and requested to be favoured with his opinion of 
the chief productions in the room. . . . The 
auditors pressed as near as respect for his lordship 
would permit them, in order to hear and circulate 
his opinions. . . . 

" I remember calling on Mr. Christie one morn- 


ing, just before he was going into his great room to 
dispose of an estate. Always alive to the interest 
of his employers, he requested that I would act as 
a bidder. I observed that if any of my friends 
happened to be present, they would laugh if they 
saw me come forward on such an occasion, and 
that, as it would be totally new to me, I should 
commit some blunder. He, however, repeated his 
request, and I assented. It happened as I appre- 
hended, for I made a bidding beyond that of a 
bond fide purchaser, who would go no further, and 
the estate was knocked down to me. I apologized 
for my blundering ignorance, which Mr. Christie 
treated with his usual good-nature and affability, 
and insisted on my staying to dine with the family." 
A great feature of the sales at Christie's at the 
latter part of the last century was the private view 
day. This was a fashionable lounge where persons 
of distinction congregated in great numbers. Dur- 
ing the season, when any remarkable collections 
were on view, occasional evening receptions took 
place : the great room was then lighted up, and 
persons of quality attended in such large numbers 
that an official from the Opera was stationed at 
the entrance to prevent the intrusion of those not 
belonging to the fashionable world. The last of 
these evening receptions was held when Watson 
Taylor's pictures were on view. Gillray's " A Peep 
at Christie's," published on September 4th, 1796, 
gives us a very good idea, more or less imaginary, 
of a private view day at the celebrated auction 
room at this period. This caricature has, as its 


second title, " Tally-ho and his Nimeney Pimeney, 
Taking their morning Lounge;" Miss Farren, 


whose inimitable performance of the character 
of Nimeney Pimeney in General Burgoyne's 
" Heiress " obtained her the nickname, had not 
yet become the second wife of the Earl of Derby. 


Lord Derby is admiring a sporting picture, The 
Death of Reynard, in allusion to his tastes and 
circumstances; whilst Miss Farren is scrutinizing 
the merits of a different subject, Zenocrates and 
Phryne ; in the background, engaged in the study 
of Susannah and the Elders, is a group of fashion- 
able loungers dressed in the height of the prevailing 
mode. Gillray hated both Lord Derby and Miss 
Farren, so that, in his caricature, he has libelled 
both the lady and her protector. 

On two occasions, James Christie I. added to 
the responsibility of a rapidly growing business by 
investing in newspaper property. He was one of 
the twenty original proprietors of the Morning 
Chronicle^ which started in June, 1769, the 
other proprietors, it is interesting to mention, in- 
cluded John Murray, Peter Elmsley, and four 
other booksellers. The Morning Chronicle was 
Whig in politics, and its editor was William 

1 Here is an exceedingly interesting advertisement copied 
from the Morning Chronicle, of Saturday, November 24th, 


On the premifes, in the courfe of a fhort time. 

ALL the fuperlatively rich, elegant, and fu- 
perb HOUSEHOLD FURNITURE, pier glaffes 
of great magnitude, beauty, and perfection j a most capi- 
tal and valuable collection of Italian, French, Flemifh, 
and Dutch Pictures of the moft efteemed Mafters, and in 
the higheft (late of perfection. 

Ineftimable China, a fuite of the Gobeline Tapeftry, 
choice wines, and a profufion of valuable articles, the pro- 
perty of 

His Excellence COUNT D'ADHEMAR, 
AmbafTador to his Moft Chriftian Majefty, returned to 


At his Excellency's Houfe in Piccadilly. 
Notice of viewing and fale will be given. 


Woodfall (" memory " Woodfall), who was also 
printer and reporter. How long Christie re- 
mained a proprietor is not known, probably not 
long, and almost certainly not after 1789, when 
Woodfall left the paper, which had previously 
passed into the hands of James Perry. It is pro- 
bable, indeed, that he did not remain connected 
with the paper for more than a year or two, as 
he was one of the earlier proprietors of the 
Chronicles " impudent rival," the Morning Post, 
which started as a Tory paper in November, 
1772. The daily circulation of the Morning Post, 
m t795> had dwindled down to 350, and Tattersall, 
the auctioneer, who was chief proprietor, disposed 
of his interest to David Stuart for ^600, which 
price included the house in Catherine Street, the 
plant and copyright. Stuart himself tells us : 
" Soon after I joined the Morning Post in the 
autumn of 1795, Christie, the auctioneer, left it on 
account of its low sale, and left a blank, a ruinous 
proclamation of decline. But in 1802 he came to 
me again, praying for readmission." 

The value of the press as an advertising 
medium had from the very first been fully recog- 
nized by him. His advertisements constantly 
appeared in the leading newspapers of the day. 
One of the earliest of these advertisements ap- 
peared in Lloyd's Evening Post, December nth- 
I4th, 1767. It announced that on Thursday next, 
the 1 7th inst., Mr. Christie would sell at his Great 
Auction Rooms, in Pall Mall, "a valuable collec- 
tion of Italian, French and Flemish Pictures, the 


property of a Person of Distinction, the Principal 
of which are in high Preservation." In the next 
issue of the same journal, December 1 4th- 1 6th, 
we find an announcement that, immediately after 
Christmas, Mr. Christie would " sell all the genuine 
and neat household furniture and other valuable 
effects of a gentleman of distinction leaving off 
housekeeping, at his house opposite the Middlesex 
Coffee House, in Charles Street, Cavendish 
Square." The same journal, December i8th- 
2ist, announces the sale by auction of "all this 
year's produce of the Artificial Stone Manu- 
factory, consisting of above 100 different subjects, 
including antique bustos, figures, vases, tables, 
friezes, medallions, architect and chimney pieces, 
both antique and modern." It was not until 
very late in the century that Mr. Christie's sales 
were reported by the press, and then only in 
fits and starts, and in a very perfunctory kind of 

James Christie died at his house in Pall Mall 
on November 8th, 1803, aged 73, and was interred 
at St. James's Burial Ground in the Hampstead 
Road. He was twice married, the eldest of his 
children, James, succeeding him ; the second, 
Charles, Captain in the 5th Regiment of Bengal 
Native Infantry, was killed in 1812 in Persia, 
during a Russian attack ; the third, Albany, died 
in 1821 ; the fourth, Edward, a midshipman, died 
at Port Royal, in Jamaica, 1821 ; and the fifth, 
Samuel Hunter Christie (1784-1865), became 
afterwards the distinguished mathematician. 

From an engraving after the original portrait by T. GAINSBOROUGH. 

as, Mr 

.nt sul . 


".. ': 



n November 8th 
t St. Jar 
oad. He was twice r 

:dren, James, succe 
.-s, Captain in th< 
e Infa 

ri nioi i 

t O f his 


In an obituary notice, the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine said : " In Pall Mall, aged 73, after a long 
and lingering illness, Mr. James Christie, many 
years well-known and justly celebrated as an 
auctioneer, and the successful disposer of property 
of every kind, whether by public sale or private 
contract. With an easy and gentleman-like flow 
of eloquence, he possessed in a great degree the 
power of persuasion, and even tempered his public 
addresses by a gentle refinement of manners. His 
remains were interred on the I4th inst." 

In 1/78, Gainsborough painted his friend's 
portrait and presented it to him ; it is a half- 
length, standing leaning on a picture. This 
portrait continued to be hung in the King Street 
Rooms until 1846. Gainsborough is said to have 
made a request that the picture should be hung 
in the great sale-room, avowedly for the purpose 
of drawing the public attention to his name as a 
portrait painter. This portrait, of which we give 
a reproduction, has been engraved ; the original is 
now in Mr. Christie's possession at Framingham. 
On two occasions the first James Christie 
admitted partners. From January i6th, 1777, 
until October I2th-i3th, 1784, the firm was known 
as Christie and Ansell ; and from February i6th, 
1797, up to and including May 2Oth of the same 
year, it stood as Christie, Sharp, and Harper, the 
catalogue of the sale held on May 22nd, was 
printed with the two latter names, which are, how- 
ever, blotted out in the auctioneer's copy. 

James Christie the Second, was born in Pall 


Mall in 1773. He was educated at Eton, and 
was intended for the Church, but entered the 
auctioneer's business, which after his father's 
death he carried on with increased success. The 
younger James Christie's success as an auctioneer 
was only one degree less than his abilities as an 
author, his publications being as follows : 

" An Enquiry into the Antient Greek Game, 
supposed to have been invented by Palamedes, 
antecedent to the Siege of Troy ; with reasons for 
believing the same to have been known from 
remote antiquity in China, and progressively im- 
proved into the Chinese, Indian, Persian, and 
European Chess ; also two dissertations on the 
Athenian Shiophoria, and on the mystical meaning 
of the bough and umbrella in the Skiran rites." 
4to, London, 1801. 

" A Disquisition upon Etruscan Vases, display- 
ing their probable Connections with the Shows at 
Eleusis, and the Chinese Feast of Lanterns." 4to, 
London, 1806. Of this work, which contains 16 
plates, only 100 copies were printed for private 
distribution. To some copies is added an engrav- 
ing of a vase which belonged to J. Edwards. 

" An Essay upon the Earliest Species of 
Idolatry, the Worship of the Elements." 4to, 
Norwich, 1814. In addition to a frontispiece, this 
volume has also a coloured folding Chinese plate ; 
it further contains a description of a colossal vase 
found in the ruins of Hadrian's villa, near Rome, 
formerly belonging to the noble family of Lanti, 
afterwards acquired by Francis, Duke of Bedford. 


From a bust by HARRY BEHNES, now in possession of 
Messrs. Christie. 

ly im- 
i, and 

.11 StiaiJIHp 83MAI 

; .... 



only i 

r of a \ ^t! %\ 
: 'An I 


" Disquisitions upon the painted Greek Vases, 
and their probable connection with the Shows of 
the Eleusinian and other mysteries " in " Outline 
Engravings and Descriptions of the Woburn 
Abbey Marbles." 4to, London, 1825. 

"An Enquiry into the Early History of Greek 
Sculpture." 4to, London, 1833. 

His intimacy with Charles Townley is said to 
have led James Christie into the study of the 
painted Greek vases, the result of which was the 
privately printed edition of a limited number of 
copies of the first work in the foregoing list. It 
was enlarged and issued again in 1825, its published 
price being two guineas. The last work on the 
list had been written to form the introduction to 
the second volume of " Specimens of Ancient 
Sculpture," published by the Dilettanti Society, 
but a less speculative paper by R. P. Knight was 
chosen instead. Fifty copies of Christie's essay 
were, however, privately printed by the author's 
son, James Stirling Christie. This publication is 
additionally valuable from the fact that it contains 
a portrait of the author from a bust by Harry 
Behnes, drawn by Henry Corbould, and engraved 
by Robert Graves. 

The second James Christie was not only a 
scholar, but he was also a great student of biblical 
and poetical studies ; " his position as a fine-art 
critic was recognized by his election to the 
Athenaeum Club, 1826, and to the Dilettanti 
Society, 1824." He was for several years one of 
the registrars of the Literary Fund. He died at 


his house in King Street, February 2nd, 1831, 
aged 58, and left two sons, James Stirling Christie, 
who died in 1834, and George Henry Christie, J. P., 
of Framingham House, near Norwich, who re- 
tired from the firm in 1863, and who died in 1887, 
aged seventy-six. He was succeeded as the head 
of the business by his son, Mr. James H. B. 
Christie, who retired from the firm in 1889. 

On February 23rd, 1831, the firm became known 

as Christie and Manson. William Manson, who 

died in 1852, and Edward his brother, who 

subsequently became a partner and who died in 

1884, were sons of the well-known bookseller, 

J. P. Manson, who carried on business first in 

Westminster and subsequently in Gerard Street, 

Soho, where he died in 1812. The present head 

of the firm, Mr. Thomas H. Woods, who had been 

for many years an assistant, became a partner in 

1859, his name appearing for the first time on the 

sale catalogue of the library of John Allan Powell, 

November ist. After the secession of Mr. James 

H. B. Christie, the firm was reconstituted, the new 

partners being Mr. Taylor, who had been an 

assistant since 1858; Mr. Arthur Nattali, who 

entered the house a year later, and seceded in July, 

1896 ; Mr. W. Agnew, son of the well-known dealer, 

Sir William Agnew ; and Mr. L. Hannen. 

James Christie's first l sale took place, at Dalton's 
Print Rooms, in Pall Mall, on December 5th, 1 766. 
The exact locality of the house is disputed, for Pall 
Matt was constantly changing its appearance from 

1 See note, p. 2. 


From an engraved portrait in possession of Messrs. Christie. 

M lJj 




d in 

: ? er, 

rst in 


tit head 



the latter part of the last, up to about the middle of 
the present century. The Academy Rooms were 
opposite Market Lane, which is supposed to have 
been a narrow thoroughfare about a hundred 
yards to the west of the Haymarket, and on the 
site of the present Senior United Service Club. 
In 1768 the Royal Academy took possession of a 
part of the house in which Mr. Christie had been 
established for six years. In 1770, Christie re- 
moved westward to No. 125, adjoining Schom- 
berg House, where Gainsborough, on his arrival 
in London from Bath in 1774, set up his studio. 
Schomberg House, on the south side of Pall Mall, 
is close to the present War Office, or rather the 
half of it which was not pulled down in 1852. 
Christie's " Great Rooms " were to be found next 
to Schomberg House until the autumn of 1823, 
when the next move was to 8, King Street, St. 
James's Square, the present position, which covers 
what was formerly Wilson's European Emporium, 
or Museum, prior to which the place had an unenvi- 
able notoriety as a gambling hell. The first sale 
after the firm established itself in King Street was 
that of a Library of Books, December i8th. The 
late Mr. George Redford suggests that the pre- 
mises in King Street were probably acquired some 
years before Christie finally took possession. This 
suggestion has something in its favour, but it is 
more probable that the European Museum was let 
out for various purposes, such as picture exhibitions. 
On May nth and i2th, 1791, Mr. Christie held a 
sale of prints and drawings here ; and again on 


January 3ist, and February ist and 2nd, 1793, he 
sold John Bertel's immense collection of pictures 
and prints at 8, King Street. These catalogues 
contain an intimation that copies were to be had 
at the Great Rooms in Pall Mall. Apparently the 
first James Christie lived in Castle Street, Oxford 
Road (or Market), at the time he commenced 
business, as catalogues were to be had there, as 
well as at his Great Rooms. The dingy exterior 
and entrance of 8, King Street, gave way in 1893 
to the present handsome portico and spacious 
entrance hall ; the interior has frequently undergone 
alteration, whilst the octagon room is a copy of 
one built in the Adelphi by Adam for Whitefoord. 
James Christie primus started in business at a 
most opportune time. The dispersal of the cele- 
brated collection of pictures belonging to Charles I. 
had apparentlyput a stop to the taste for the acquisi- 
tion of works of art, and for over a century after- 
wards picture collecting in England was almost 
unknown. About the middle of the eighteenth 
century this dormant faculty began to give frequent 
signs of life, and in the course of a very few years 
it had developed into a prevailing passion. Various 
circumstances which, however fateful and ruinous 
to foreign countries, gave it an impetus to which 
modern history presents no parallel. " La chute 
du trone de Constantin porta dans 1' Italic les 
debris de 1'ancienne Grece ; la France s'enrichit 
a son tour de ces precieuses depouilles ; " and 
England in her turn enriched herself with the 
spoils of France and Italy. The greater propor- 


tion of the pictures which were sold at auction 
before the middle of the last century were doubt- 
less good old copies, or possibly in many cases 
replicas, either by the artists themselves, or by 
their pupils. Few of the picture sales up to this 
period contain items for which a higher figure 
than ^20 was paid, and, as a matter of fact, they 
nearly all realized very considerably less than that 
sum. This applies even to the sale of the Earl 
of Oxford's collection by Cock, on March 8th 
and five following days, 1741-2, when, however, 
"an exceedingly fine head by Holbein" realized 
50 guineas ; and a fine portrait by Vandyck of Sir 
Kenelm Digby, his wife and two sons, produced 
1 70 guineas. The sale of Dr. Mead's collection 
by A. Langford, on March 2oth, 2ist, 22nd, 1754, 
shows a much higher average, the pictures realizing 
the then high total of ^3,417 i is. ; a Holy Family 
by Maratti selling for 175 guineas; Holbein's 
Erasmus, a Kit-cat, \ 10 ; Rubens' Sir Theodore 
Mayerne, 1 10 guineas, and so forth. 

England's isolated position, and the known im- 
possibility of its successful invasion by any foreign 
power, doubtless had much to do with the trans- 
ference here of many celebrated collections the 
Orleans and the Calonne for example during the 
early days of the French Revolution. But the 
importance of London as a market for great 
pictures had been fully recognized nearly a quarter 
of a century before this event. London had 
become a wealthy city, and rich men from all parts 
of Europe had come here to live. Picture buyers 

i. c 


were numerous, and their purses were well filled. 
Desenfans, Le Brun, Ansell, Sir Robert Strange, 
and other buyers, collectors or agents, found 
London an exceedingly safe and agreeable place. 
Desenfans came here in 1770; it was not until 
1790, immediately after the French Revolution, 
that Stanislaus sent him a commission to purchase 
a collection of pictures for Poland ; but there can 
be no doubt that Desenfans had from the very 
first been an assiduous picture hunter. About 
1786 or 1787 he created a sensation by paying 
2,500 guineas for The Seaport with St. Ursula, 
by Claude, which had been imported in i 760 by 
Mr. Lock, from the Palace Barbarini at Rome. 
Over a century had passed since such a large price 
had been paid for a single picture. A few years 
after this another sensation was caused by the fact 
that ,7,000 were paid for a.pair of Claudes. The 
result of these sensational prices was that the 
French, Italian and Dutch dealers brought their 
best wares to London. For many years rich 
Englishmen had either collected pictures when on 
their travels on the Continent, or had sent their 
agents for this purpose; but this costly and unsatis- 
factory proceeding was dispensed with at the close 
of the last century, the market in London being, 
in fact, for a time glutted with pictures by the 
best masters. 

Before the first quarter of the present century, 
the most important collections, wholly or in part, of 
Paris, Rome, Florence, Bologna and Genoa had 
found their way into this country. The Orleans 


collection was dispersed in London by private 
contract, and at auction by Coxe, producing a total 
of nearly 80,000 guineas. Buchanan, in his inter- 
esting " Memoirs of Painting," tells us that until 
the arrival of the Orleans collection in England, 
" the prevailing taste and fashion had been for the 
acquisition of pictures of the Flemish and Dutch 
schools ; this likewise had for a long period been 
the rage in France. These were much more 
easily acquired, and came more frequently before 
the eye of the public than works of the Italian 
masters ; it might, therefore, be deemed some- 
what singular to see with what avidity the 
present collection was seized on by amateurs of 
painting in general ; and it will not be deemed 
surprising that, for a time, a new turn was given 
to the taste for collecting in this country. Sub- 
sequent importation of the works of the Italian 
masters, gave an opportunity of improving the 
taste, and brought the English collections gener- 
ally to a standard of consequence which they 
could not boast of before that period." 

The few foregoing facts will indicate the posi- 
tion of the picture market previous to and during 
Mr. Christie's first quarter of a century in business. 
In addition to Cock and Langford, who between 
them sold most of the picture collections which 
came under the hammer before Christie started, 
the other art auctioneers included Coxe, who dis- 
persed some important collections ; Skinner and 
Dyke, who sold the Calonne collection ; and other 
firms of considerably less importance. 







HE early sales, of which we possess 
catalogues, of James Christie differed 
very little, if anything, from those of 
other auctioneers, who sold whatever 
they could get to sell ; but the earlier of 
the Christie auctions possess a kind of independent 
interest, having regard to the high position which 
the firm was destined to occupy at a comparatively 
early period of its existence. The first sales in- 
cluded a great and queer variety of objects, from 
coffins to barrel organs, from the property of a 
builder to that of a farmer, including, of course, 
pigs and poultry ; from the stock-in-trade of the 
late Mr. Stephen Paris, weaver, of Spitalfields 
" well known for his excellent taste and good 
execution in that branch of business ; " dripping 
pans, razors, and a lady's sedan chair (which fetched 
IQS.) ; to " this year's produce of the Artificial 


Stone Manufactory" (of Golden Square, White- 
chapel) ; and a strange assortment of other articles 
which, however useful, are not usually associated 
with the Christie's of to-day. For instance, in 
1777 (June 2nd), Mr. Christie was called upon to 
sell seven bright bay, nagtail coach geldings of 
Thomas Rumbold, Esq., at the Mary-le-Bonne 
Mews, which realized from eight-and-a-half to 
38 guineas ; and in 1795 (January 22nd), "about 
72 loads of excellent meadow hay," etc., at Holland 
House, Kensington, the Duke of Queensberry 
purchasing the whole of it for ^247 i6s. 

Mr. Christie's first general sale of which there 
is any record in the shape of a catalogue, com- 
prised the genuine household furniture, jewels, 
plate, fire-arms, china, wine and so forth, " late the 
property of a Noble Personage (deceas'd)." It 
was a five days' sale, beginning each day at twelve 
o'clock. The then prevalent system of number- 
ing independently the lots in each day's sale was 
observed ; the only lot in this sale that calls 
for particular reference was "a most beautiful 
needle- work carpet ; " 5 yards by 4^ yards, 
which realized 50 guineas. The second sale 
appears to have had its pathetic as well as 
commercial side. It comprised the household 
furniture of " a gentleman going abroad," " to 
which is added the rich wearing apparel, fine laces, 
jewels, etc., of his Intended Lady, deceased, pre- 
parative for his nuptials" (February i6th, 1767, 
and five following days). The third sale took place 
on March i8th, and following day, and was held 

22 EARLY SALES, 1767. 

at No. 4, on the west side of Northumberland 
Street, in the Strand, the property " of a gentle- 
man retired into the country." This sale included 
"A Signum of the Order of the Holy Ghost, 
composed of diamonds, rubies, sapphires, emeralds, 
onyx, pearl, etc., worn by Mary Queen of Scots, 
the morning she was beheaded, which she gave to 
a Lady then in Waiting, in whose family it has 
been 'till this short time, as can be well authenti- 
cated." This curious relic sold for 1 2 guineas ; 
and, according to Mr. Christie's MS. entry in his 
catalogue, it had been " worn by the King of 

On Friday and Saturday, March 2Oth and 2ist, 
1767, Mr. Christie's first auction of pictures took 
place. It comprised "a genuine and valuable col- 
lection of Italian, French and Flemish pictures, 
consigned from abroad, some of which are by the 
following masters : 

M. Angelo, N. Poussin, 

Andrea del Sarto, Jouvenet, 

Parmegiano, Rembrandt, 

Titian, Ostade, 

Tintoret, Gerard Dow, 

Salvator Rosa, Teniers, 

Carlo Maratti, Cuyp, 

Borgognone, Molenaer." 

This sale, taking its tangible results as a guide, 
was not a successful one, many of the pictures 
being bought in. A portrait by Holbein sold for 
iSs. ; a Titian for 2 guineas; a Guido for i 


1)\ T. ROWLANDSON. From the original drawing now in possession 
of Mr. T. H. Woods. 



.ble col- 


<ig ntr 




l-W0# .1' 




guinea ; a " very fine " Holy Family by Schedoni 
for 26 guineas ; " A Vestal " by Casali, 10 guineas; 
and "a man smoaking," by Teniers for 145. The 
total of the two days' sale only amounted to 
^244 i8j. 

China sales date from May 25th and 26th, 
1767, when the stock-in-trade of Mr. Stewart 
("who is going into another Way of Business"), 
at his " Glass and Staffordshire Warehouse, oppo- 
site Argyle Buildings, Oxford Road," was offered 
by Mr. Christie, who also sold the stock of the late 
Mr. Thomas Turner, " China-man, who had been 
in business over 30 years," in July, 1767. At 
this period china was collected with as great a 
fervour as it is in the present year of grace. The 
prices have, it is true, greatly altered. When 
Mr. Christie started in business the works of 
Sevres, Dresden, Chelsea and Derby were in the 
height of their fame. It will be interesting to 
quote here a few of the prices realized at some of 
the early china sales of James Christie. Two 
white Chelsea groups of the four quarters of the 
globe, i is.-, twenty-six crimson and gold plates 
of the same ware, enamelled with birds, 2 6s. , 
and other Chelsea ware included ; a white group 
of Hercules and Omphale, half-a-guinea, and a 
figure of Apollo, 145-., and four statuettes, $s. ; a 
complete service of this porcelain, ^"25 14^. 6d. ; 
a dessert service, ^"25 14^.; and four "compo- 
teers," 125-. A Worcester tea set, 2 i2s. ; a 
Nankin blue and white table service, ^25 45-. 
Sevres urns and vases varied in price, from 10 


guineas to less than 20 ; among the property of 
the celebrated sporting character, Captain O'Kelly, 
was a tea and coffee equipage of Dresden China, 
which sold for 1 7 guineas ; and also a complete 
dessert service of Japanese porcelain, which 
brought 19 guineas, and so on. These totals 
would not go very far at Christie's to-day, when 
three articles of Sevres alone realized 10,000 
guineas, and when everything else that is not 
modern antique attracts not only a big crowd, but 
prices which only the very wealthy can afford to pay. 
The early porcelain sales, despite their great 
interest and importance, are too numerous to 
be dealt with in this place. Moreover, Mr. 
J. E. Nightingale, F.S.A., has edited a series of 
reprints from the Christie catalogues, of the sales 
of Chelsea, Derby, Worcester and Bristol manu- 
factories, from 1769 to 1785. Unfortunately, Mr. 
Nightingale's valuable " Contributions towards a 
History of Early English Porcelain" (1881) was 
printed for private circulation only- the present 
writer is indebted to Mr. James H. B. Christie for a 
copy and is not nearly so well known as its great 
merits deserve. It was at one time the fashion 
for persons of quality to frequent sales and make 
purchases for themselves ; this practice culminated 
about 1780. Mr. Nightingale tells us that at 
Duesbury's sale of Derby and Chelsea porcelain 
in 1782, the following distinguished persons were 
present and became purchasers : Dr. Johnson, 
The Duchess of Portland, Lady Bute, Sir Abra- 
ham Hume, Lord FitzWilliam, Lady Weymouth, 


Lady Essex, Lady Cornwall, the Duchess of An- 
caster, Sir Joseph Banks, and many others. 

From the end of the year 1767, picture sales 
became more numerous, and more important as 
time passed on. The second of James Christie's 
picture sales, held on Thursday, December i7th, 
1767, was a far more successful performance than 
the first, inasmuch as it included several of con- 
siderable importance, e.g., a Guercino, Susannah 
and the two Elders, 200 ; and two of L. 
Jordanus, Mars and Venus with Vulcan, and 
its companion, The Judgment of Paris, each of 
which realized ^200 a very good figure indeed 
to pay for a picture at that period. Early in the 
following year, January 3Oth, another picture sale 
included a Boar Hunt by Snyders, "the very best 
of the master," 7 feet x 1 2 feet, 90 guineas. The 
earliest collection of pictures sold by Mr. Christie, 
to which the name of the collector was attached, is 
that of "the late Mr. Delbourg, first musician to 
H.M.," sold on Friday and Saturday, March nth 
and 1 2th, 1768. The collection itself contained 
nothing of note, except, perhaps, an example of 
Sir Peter Lely, described by Mr. Christie as "a 
capital picture of King Charles II., in the character 
of Cymon, looking at the Dutchesses of Cleveland 
and Portsmouth and Nell Gwyne asleep, with the 
most graceful parts of their bodies exposed, par- 
ticularly mentioned in the Anecdotes of the Hon. 
Horace Walpole " but its various attractions only 
resulted in the low figure of ^8 7$. 6d. In February, 
1769 (Saturday 4th and nth), Mr. Christie held 


two picture sales ; the later of the two collections 
" was collected abroad last season at a vast ex- 
pense, and consigned to Mr. Robert Ansell, of 
Margaret Street, Cavendish Square." This may 
be regarded as Christie's first great sale, and it was 
attended by quite a number of eminent personages, 
some of whom were buyers Lord Palmerston, 
Lord Barrymore, the Duke of Argyle and others. 
Eighty-five lots realized ,1,327 los. 6d., the 
highest single amount being 100 guineas paid for 
a portrait of Raphael, by himself " an un- 
doubted original." On February 9th and loth, 
1770, Mr. Christie sold yet another consignment 
of pictures to Robert Ansell ; and in March (23rd 
and 24th), the pictures of Count Bruhl, Prime 
Minister to the late King of Poland ; and during 
the same month, " for the benefit of an infant," 
the pictures of the late Charles Gambarini, 
Librarian and Antiquarian to the Landgrave of 
Hesse-Cassel. On December i4th and i5th of 
the same year, Mr. Christie held another interest- 
ing sale the collection of pictures, coins, medals, 
bronzes " a matchless and superb vase and two 
urns of the ancient Roman ware," of Pope Paul IV., 
left to Prince Carafa of Naples. 

The important collection of pictures, " collected 
during a journey of several years in Italy and 
France" by the celebrated engraver, (Sir) R. 
Strange, came under the hammer at Christie's on 
February 7th, 8th and 9th, 1771, the 153 lots 
realizing ,6,367 17^. 6d. The more notable of 
these were Murillo, Our Saviour in the char- 


acter of a Shepherd, 24^- x 30, 300 guineas 
(Dr. Hunter); Vandyck, Portrait of Charles I., 
45! x 27,215 guineas (Dundas); Albani, The Three 
Marys at the Sepulchre, 210 guineas (the same); 
and Luca Giordano, Adoration of the Shepherds, 
58|- x 49, 270 guineas. Sir Robert Strange (who 
died in 1792) published in 1769 " A Descriptive 
Catalogue of a Collection of Pictures," which he 
collected when abroad. Strange was a member of 
the Royal Academy of Painting of Paris ; of the 
Academies of Florence, Rome and Bologna ; 
Professor of the Royal Academy of Parma ; and 
a Director of the Royal Society of Artists of Great 
Britain. In addition to the 1771 sale, there were 
two others, first, on March 5th and 6th, 1773, when 
1 15 pictures realized a total of ,3,093 19^. 6d., and 
included N. Poussin, a Prospect of the Ancient City 
of Terracina, in Naples, 1 ^650 (Sir W. Wynn) ; 
Leonardo, Christ and the Virgin with St. Joseph, 
^283 (Lord Clive) ; and Claude, The Departure 
of Joseph, painted for the Abbe Chevalier, at 
Rome in 1677, 400 guineas, the drawing of which 
is in the Liber Veritatis. On May 5th and 6th, 
1775, when a total of ,1,877 was realized, the 
only noticeable picture was a Vandyck, Christ 
and the Virgin, with angels, 290 guineas. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Christie, Strange made at least two 
picture-collecting expeditions abroad. 

1 " The subject (a man bitten by a snake) is the catastrophe 
of 1641. The picture is mentioned by Fenelon in his dialogue 
at the end of his life of Mignard. It was painted for Pointelieu, 
1648." REDFORD. 


On February 1 5th and i6th of 1771, Mr. Christie 
disposed of yet another consignment of pictures, 
sent to Mr. Ansell, seventy-seven lots realizing 
,3,502 195-. 6d. In drawing up the catalogue of 
this sale, Mr. Christie apparently thought that of 
his well-known judgment something more was 
expected by the public than a mere bald list of 
names and subjects. Consequently he branches out 
in the following manner the subject is a Madonna 
and Child of Carlo Dolci : " If we consider this 
matchless and inestimable picture, we shall find 
in it an union of the whole art of painting. The 
charming and becoming grace of the Virgin, with 
the innocent sweetness and sublimity of the Child, 
renders this picture excellent beyond descrip- 
tion." The picture, which measured 48 x 42, was 
purchased at 520 guineas by Mr. Hewitt. 

Indeed, Ansell, prior to the partnership which 
commenced in 1777, was one of Mr. Christie's 
most important clients, and was the means of 
bringing a large amount of trade to the great rooms 
in Pall Mall, in addition to his own importations. 
In 1772 (February 6th, 7th, and 8th), he sold at 
Christie's an assortment from " the celebrated and 
well-known collections of the late Mr. Bramcamp, 
of Amsterdam, the Sieur Freneau, of Munick," 
and others, in all 1 70 lots, of which the most im- 
portant was a sea piece by W. Van de Velde, 300 
guineas. Many of the anonymous picture sales 
were evidently made up in part from Ansell's ap- 
parently inexhaustible stock, as the catalogues 
of about this period contain many memorandums 


of payments to him. On April 6th and 7th, 1773, 
another Ansell appears on the scene, and the 
" superb collection of pictures " sold on this occa- 
sion, the property of the Right Hon. James 
Ansell, included a set of four cartoons by Rubens, 
210 guineas, and set of five by Jordans, "179 9^., 
the total amounting to ,1,582 iSs. 3^. 

Two or three fairly good picture sales took place 
in January, 1772, including that of "a nobleman, 
brought from his lordship's seat in the country;" 
on February 27th and 28th, pictures " consigned 
from abroad," which included a Guercino, Angelica 
and Meodora, "very capital," 500 guineas, pur- 
chased by Mr. Dillon, for Lord Carlisle ; and on 
March 2Oth, and four following days, "all that 
grand and noble collection of pictures of Italian, 
French, Flemish, and Dutch pictures of a noble- 
man, brought from his lordship's seat in Notting- 
hamshire." There were very few high prices in this 
sale, and only one of three figures, a Guido, Christ 
in the House of Simon the Pharisee, 150 guineas. 
On January 27th, and three following days "that 
much-esteemed Museum of the Marquis Lenori 
of Pesaro," came under the hammer, and com- 
prised curious intaglios and cameos, a variety 
of " most beautiful " and scarce gems, of Greek 
and other workmanship, vases, cups, and up- 
wards of a thousand specimens of valuable stones 
(,1,036 4^.). But quite the most celebrated 
character whose household furniture and other 
effects were sold in 1772 was Captain O'Kelly, 
The sale took place at the Captain's house at the 


corner of Great Marlborough Street and Poland 
Street, on February i7th and i8th, the gross total 
being ,286 qs. only. O'Kelly was the man who 
" placed "the horses in a race at Newmarket, by 
naming his own Eclipse first and the rest " no- 
where," and won the bet and many thousands of 
pounds by instructing his jockey to " come away " 
and " distance" the field. One of O'Kelly's eccen- 
tricities consisted in his carrying about in his 
pockets a "map of his estates" in the shape of a 
roll of bank notes of a thousand pounds each. 
This roll must have considerably decreased by 
1772. Two years previously Mr. Christie sold 
him up when in Dover Street, Piccadilly, at which 
place one of his effects was a two-gallon punch- 
bowl. Another sale of this year (July i7th and 
1 8th) is too interesting to be omitted. It com- 
prised the household furniture, plate, trinkets, 
china, laces, linen, some wearing apparel, etc., of 
Mrs. Winter, deceased, " body-laundress " to her 
late Royal Highness the Princess Dowager of 
Wales, at her house in Duke Street, St. James's 
(^339). The emoluments of a " body-laundress " 
must have been considerable a century and a 
quarter since, for at that period Duke Street was a 
very superior locality. 

A certain Mr. Greenwood was another important 
client of Mr. Christie's, and several collections of 
pictures formed by him were sold at the Great 
Rooms. One of these sales (February 22nd, 
1 773), comprised a " valuable collection of pictures 
purchased abroad " by Mr. Greenwood, the best of 


which was a Backhuysen, the famous sea engage- 
ment off La Hogue, between Admirals Russel and 
Torville, which, according to the cataloguer, " the 
great number of the ships and figures, the effects 
of light and shade, the harmony and perfect preser- 
vation of the whole, pronounce it the finest picture 
of the subject in the world." In spite of all this 
praise it only sold for 150 guineas. Another of 
Greenwood's collections was sold on February 
1 8th, 1774, and included a group of A Country 
Surgeon with his Patients by Teniers, 70 guineas ; 
An Interior of a Country Tavern, by Jan Steen, 
135 guineas ; and a pair by Cortona, The Mar- 
riage of the Virgin and St. Joseph, and " Noli 
me tangere," which were secured by Lord Carys- 
footfor 140 guineas. These two pictures were pur- 
chased out of Marshall Tallard's collection, "and 
have since that time graced the cabinet of Monsieur 
L'Empereur, where they have always met with the 
approbation they justly deserve." The sales of 
1773 included " the large elegant mahogany book- 
cases forming a complete set " of the Hon. Topham 
Beauclerk, Dr. Johnson's great friend ; and the 
two parts of the previous year's produce of the 
Derby and Chelsea porcelain manufactories. 

Samuel Dickinson's pictures (March nth and 
1 2th), which Mr. Christie sold in 1774, included 
two Claudes from the cabinet of M. Jullien, of Paris, 
A landscape, 185 guineas ; and an Italian seaport, 
70 guineas ; also " the most capital picture extant " 
of Ph. Champaigne, 230 guineas. In the follow- 
ing week (March i8th and iQth), "the superb 


and valuable collection " of Italian, French, Flem- 
ish and Dutch pictures, " collected with great taste 
and expense out of some of the principle cabinets " 
by M. Le Brun, of Paris, included among the 1 34 
lots (,2,142) a few fairly good pictures. The 
most important picture sale of 1774 (April 22nd 
and 23rd) comprised ninety-four pictures from the 
collection of Sir George Colebrooke, who was the 
head of an old and wealthy firm of bankers, M. P. for 
Arundell, and a constant defender of the privileges 
of the East India Company, of which he became 
Chairman in 1769. These pictures included 
a Giordano, Adoration of Shepherds, 150 guineas, 
which was purchased by the Chelsea Porcelain 
Manufactory ; Carlo Dolci, Virgin, Child and St. 
John, a circle, 130 guineas; Claude, A Landscape in 
Italy, from Lady Betty Germaine's collection, ^131 ; 
Titian, A Holy Family, 130 guineas; Vandyck, Por- 
trait of Cardinal Trieste, 230 guineas ; Bassano, 
The Vintage, from Boucher's collection, 165 
guineas ; Cuyp, a view of Nimeguen, 290 guineas ; 
and Guido, Venus attired by the Graces, 145 
guineas. Total, ^43 8 5 1 7 S - 

Mr. Christie's picture sales sometimes ran in fits 
and starts. Several would occur within a few weeks 
of one another, and then cease for months. After 
the Colebrooke dispersal, for example, no more note- 
worthy picture sales occurred until December I4th. 
From the catalogues it would appear that there 
was no such institution as a vacation invented, for 
auctions were held throughout August, September 
and October whenever, in fact, they were wanted 


or could be made up. Mr. Christie's holidays ap- 
pear to have resolved themselves into business 
excursions into the country, which were fairly 
frequent throughout the year. He was engaged 
for eight days in July, 1772, at Dawley, Hillington, 
Middlesex; and on August i7th and i8th, in 
selling the household and other property of John 
Zoffany, at his house " near the six-mile stone on 
the road leading to Brentford." In May, 1773, we 
find he took six days in selling Major Granard's 
property at Langley, Bucks, three miles from 
Windsor; and in January, 1774, he was engaged 
for three days at the Right Hon. Lord Viscount 
Vane's place, at Easton, near Winchester. These 
country excursions were continued for many years, 
and were often as profitable as they must have 
been enjoyable. 

Two interesting picture sales only occurred in 
1775, the earlier of which (March loth and nth), 
comprised the collection of Thomas Bladen, Esq., 
" to which is added some superb pictures, late the 
property of a nobleman," etc. ; this sale included 
a Guido, Santa Christina, or the Force of Religion 
represented by her Martyrdom, 430 guineas. On 
April 1 2th and i3th, the collection of pictures, 
late the property of Count Schulenburg, of Zell, 
the principal of which were purchased out of the 
Duke of Mantua's collection, by Field Marshal 
Schulenburg, of Venice, were brought over from 
the Count's palace at Heblen on the Weser. 
The 128 lots included some good pictures, notably 
a Rubens, The Graces, life-size, which realized 

I. D 


200 guineas. In the course of the following year, 
two or three rather interesting sales occurred. 
Lord Montfort's collection from Horse Heath 
(February i6th and i7th, 1776), included A Seaport 
by Salvator Rosa, 190 guineas; the pictures of 
His Excellency J. Got de Grote, Baron of the 
Roman Empire, were sent over from his Palace at 
Hanover (March 29th, 3Oth), and included a 
Landscape by Berghem, with peasants and cattle 
reposing in the shade of a stupendous rock, 250 
guineas ; and a Rembrandt, The Adoration of the 
Kings, 390 guineas. The concluding picture sale 
of this year comprised " the large well-known col- 
lection of the Roman, Florentine, Parma, Bolog- 
nese, Venetian, Flemish and French schools of 
Robert Foulis," which had formed the Public 
Academy at Glasgow (December 6th and 7th), the 
192 lots realizing a total of only ^381 8s. 6d. 
The taste of the brothers Foulis for the fine arts 
is one of the few instances on record which proved 
financial and physical ruin. The collection of 
pictures was formed, chiefly abroad and at a great 
cost ; after the death of Andrew, the younger 
brother, Robert decided to sell the " Academy," 
of which a catalogue in three volumes was issued. 
He came up to London in April 1776, and " con- 
trary to the advice of Mr. Christie, and at a period 
when the market was glutted with importations 
of pictures from Paris, his collection was sold off 
greatly under its supposed value." After all ex- 
penses were defrayed, the balance in Foulis's 
favour is said to have amounted to fifteen shillings. 


At about this period a number of interesting 
and important libraries were sold at Christie's. 
These sales usually took place in the evenings at six 
o'clock. The well-known and valuable collection 
of books of John Ratcliffe, Esq., of Bermondsey, 
was sold on March 27th, and the eight following 
days (1776), on which occasion ten books printed 
by Caxton realized the total of ^46 i$s. 6d. 
On April 3Oth, and seven following days of the 
same year, the library of the late Francis Hare 
Naylor was sold. On February 2oth, 1777, and 
ten following days, Sir George Colebrooke's library 
was brought from his house in Soho Square to 
Christie's Great Rooms and sold. The bankrupt 
stock of Henry Payne (of Pall Mall), bookseller, 
was sold on March 2Oth, 1782, and nineteen 
following days. 

The picture sales of 1771 commenced on 
February 2ist and 22nd, with the " superb " 
collection of Signor Biondi, who is " going 
abroad," and it included a Pordenone, a Holy 
Family with a view of Porcie, near Perdonone, 
"a capital picture," 130 guineas. Picture sales to 
the unusual number of three were held in March, 
the first (6th, 7th and 8th), comprising the collection 
of the late Gerard Vandergucht, in which was a 
Bacchanalian scene by Poussin, 200 guineas ; the 
second on the i4th and 1 5th, included four pictures 
"by that ingenious artist, Mr. West," Jupiter 
and Semele, 60 guineas ; Pylades and Orestes, 
loo guineas; its companion, Continence of 
Scipio, 100 guineas ; and Agrippina landing 


the Ashes of Germanicus, 105 guineas; and the 
third and last sale of the month, 2ist and 22nd, 
comprised the collection of Gilbert Fane Fleming, 
which included Giordano's Adoration of the 
Shepherds, 210 guineas, and a view of the City 
of Verona, by Canaletto, for which Lord Cadogan 
gave 205 guineas. 

By far the most interesting of the sales of 1 778 
were those of the late Samuel Foote, the irrepres- 
sible actor, who died on October 2ist, 1777. The 
first of these, on January the 2nd and 3rd, com- 
prised the household furniture, large wardrobe of 
table and bed linen, pictures, prints, china, 
carriages, farming and gardening utensils, a rick 
of hay, live and dead stock, etc., at his villa, 
" North End, between Brompton and Hammer- 
smith." The second sale was held at Foote's 
town house, on the 26th, 27th and 28th, of the 
same month, in Suffolk Street, Charing Cross, 
and comprised books, jewels, watches, fire-arms, 
air pump, and books which were chiefly in French. 
The third sale was held September i8th, and 
offered among other items, carriages, and a 
fine rick of new hay, which latter brought 
65 guineas. The picture sales of this year were 
neither numerous nor important, but they included 
(March 6th and 7th) the properties of Charles 
Ogilvie, and others, in which was N. Poussin, 
Jupiter nourished by the Fawns and Satyrs, 
460 guineas; and on June ist and 2nd, the pic- 
tures of the late Duchess of Bridgwater, among 
which was a chef-d'oeuvre of Murillo, The Good 


Shepherd, 1 590 guineas, apparently bought in. In 
the sale of February i8th and iQth, 1/80, there 
were "two matchless" pictures of Murillo, The 
Virgin embracing the Infant Christ, 300 guineas, 
and St. Joseph contemplating the Sleeping 
Saviour, its companion, 280 guineas. The Earl 
of Harrington's pictures were sold March 3<Dth 
and 3ist, 1781. 

The picture sales of 1782 were both numerous 
and interesting. On February i6th, "the reserved 
collection of the celebrated Monsieur Law, well- 
known for being the founder of the Mississippi 
scheme, and Prime Minister to the Regent, Duke 
of Orleans " ; this collection included a Correggio, 
Jupiter and lo, which " the son of the Duke of 
Orleans ordered to be cut to pieces," 39 guineas ; 
a work of W. Van de Velde, the picture of the 
engagement fought on June 3rd, 1665, between 
the English and Dutch fleets, respectively under 
the commands of the Duke of York, and Admiral 
Opdam. This picture was painted for Pepys, 
it was afterwards purchased by Admiral Russel, 
and, later, by the Earl of Oxford, 2 73 guineas. 
Among the Earl of Halifax's collection (April 

1 This work, catalogued as the Pastor Bonus, was bought of 
Major, the engraver (who engraved it in 1772), in 1773, by the 
Duchess for ^400, and was at the time considered to be an 
original, but afterwards ascertained to be a copy by Grimoux. The 
original is now in possession of Baron Rothschild, at Gunnersbury. 

1 The only picture in the Earl of Oxford's sale, March 
1741-42, which may possibly be identified with this work, 
was lot twenty-four in the fifth day's sale, purchased by Lord 
J. Cavendish for 5^ guineas. 

38 EARLY SALES, 1782-1785. 

1 9th and 2Oth, 1782), we get the earliest of 
Reynolds' pictures in an auction room Juvenile 
Amusement, which was " passed"; and the 
celebrated work, Garrick between Tragedy and 
Comedy, which realized 250 guineas; The 
Marriage Feast at Cana in Galilee, catalogued 
as by Paul Veronese, and accompanied by a 
most minute and elaborate description, only 
fetched 47 guineas. During this year Christie 
and Ansell sold the household goods and chattels 
of the Earl of Chesterfield, at his lordship's 
house at Blackheath, adjoining to Blackheath 
Park (April 29th, and five following days) ; of 
his Excellency Count Belgioiox, Envoy Extra- 
ordinary and Plenipotentiary of His Imperial 
Majesty to the Court of Great Britain, at Portman 
Square (November 27th and 2Qth), and of the 
Earl of Roseberry, at Holland House, Kensington 
(December iQth and 2ist). 

No more notable picture sales occurred until 
the spring of 1785. On March i8th and igth, 
and on April 2nd, the collection of M. Le Brun, 
of Paris, was sold ; a made-up sale on April 2Qth 
and 3Oth, included a Greuze, La Pere de Famille, 
painted for M. De La Dive, the patron of this 
artist, 350 guineas ; the famous Berghem en- 
graved by Aliamet under the title of L'Ancien 
port de Genes, from the cabinet of Le Comte 
Merle (dispersed in Paris during the previous year), 
610 guineas. It was at this period that a very 
interesting personage comes on the scene. On 
May nth, i2th, i3th and I4th, 1785, the first 


part of the "truly superb collection of Italian, 
Roman, Spanish, Venetian, English, French, 
Flemish and Dutch pictures," of M. Desenfans, 
was offered by Mr. Christie. For some reason 
or other, which does not seem very clear, this 
sale was a failure, and a large number were bought 
in. In July of the following year, another four 
days' sale was an equal failure, the whole of the 
fourth day, in fact, being withdrawn; of the 2,622 
1 js. 6d. realized from the three days' sale, lots to 
the value of ,1,043 1 3 S * 6df. were bought in. 
Desenfans, who is virtually the founder of the 
Dulwich Gallery, deserves here more than a 
passing notice, and the following brief epitome 
of his career will doubtless be acceptable : 

Noel Joseph Desenfans was born at Douai, in 
1745 ; and it is said was brought up in a foundling 
institution. He was educated partly at Douai, 
and partly at Paris. He commenced life as a 
writer, but before he was thirty years of age came 
to London as a teacher of languages. He had 
considerable taste, and much love of the fine arts, 
and often attended picture sales ; at one of these 
he bought a small picture, by Claude, so advan- 
tageously, that when he sold it to George III. for 
;i,ooo, the profit he made induced him to turn 
his whole attention to picture-dealing. His friend- 
ship with the Prince Primate of Poland, brother 
to Stanislaus, was the means of his obtaining 
a commission from that monarch, to purchase fine 
pictures. He was made Consul-General for 
Poland, in England. In 1802 as he found there 


was no probability of his being repaid for the 
pictures he had bought, he issued a Catalogue, in 
two volumes, of the pictures, which he then tried 
to dispose of by private contract. Of the 187 pic- 
tures in his Catalogue, only thirty-nine are in the 
Dulwich Gallery ; but he added to his collection 
considerably between 1802 and 1807. He married 
Margaret Morris, sister of Sir John Morris, of 
Claremont, Glamorganshire. In 1799 he pub- 
lished a plan for the advancement of the fine arts 
in England, by the establishment of a National 
Gallery. If the scheme was carried out, he offered 
to contribute liberally to it in pictures and in 
money. He died on July 8th, 1807, and by his 
will, dated October 8th, 1803, he left the whole of 
his collection to Sir Peter Francis Bourgeois, R.A. 
(1756-181 1) chief landscape-painter to George III., 
to whom Desenfans bequeathed his collection of 
pictures and by whom they were, with his own 
additions, bequeathed to the Master, Warden and 
Fellows of Dulwich College. This collection now 
comprises 380 pictures. Redford states that 
Christie held seven sales of Desenfans pictures, 
but this must be incorrect, as there is no record 
of more than two having taken place there. Any 
attempt to identify the pictures which occurred 
at the two Christie sales, either with those 
enumerated in Desenfans' Catalogue of 1802, or 
with those now at Dulwich, must be attended with 
great difficulty. About one, however, there can 
be no question the famous Claude, St. Ursula 
and her Maidens, which, moreover, was among the 


pictures withdrawn on the fourth day, and formed 
subsequently part of the Angerstein Gallery, now 
in the National Gallery. 

The February (gth and loth) sales of 1787, 
included Mortimer's picture of Edward the Con- 

Painted by Northcote. Engraved by Freeman. 

fessor putting away his Queen, which obtained 
the premium from the Society for the Encourage- 
ment of Arts and Sciences, 200 guineas ; on 
April 26th and 27th, the late Sir John Taylor's 
pictures, " collected by him during his residence 
in Italy," included a Parmigiano, The Madonna 


and St. Catherine, the Infant Saviour and St. John, 
405 guineas. Several pictures of considerable 
importance occurred in the property of a gentle- 
man, sold at his house, "the third on the South 
side of Upper Seymour Street, Portman Square," 
for example, a Titian, Holy Family with St. John 
and Elizabeth, 470 guineas ; and a Vandyck, 
Samson and Delilah, 700 guineas ; both ot 
which were purchased by Ottley. The Holy 
Family was painted when Titian was at Rome, 
and he kept it in his studio the remainder of his 
life ; his son sold it with fourteen others to a 
Flemish nobleman, whose heirs sold it to Charles I. 
The most interesting picture in the sale of 
January 25th and 26th, 1788, was Murillo's 
Beggar Boys, which was originally purchased in 
Spain for 400 guineas, and was now apparently 
bought in for 62 guineas. The collection of the 
late Edmund Antrobus, Esq. (March I2th), in- 
cluded a few choice things, a Paolo Veronese, 
The Adulteress brought before Christ, 180 
guineas. The sale of the year (March i4th and 
1 5th,) comprised "the superb collection, collected 
at an immense expense " by Mr. Vandergucht, 
which included a view of the Escurial, said to 
have been painted in 1 625 by Rubens, 200 guineas ; 
An Italian Seaport, by Claude, from Lord North- 
ington's collection, 290 guineas ; and a Berghem, 
Le Retour des Champs (the engraved picture), 
320 guineas. On May 23rd and 24th, the greater 
number of the pictures exhibited at the " Great 
Imperial Exhibition," were sold, the only notable 


example being a Guercino, Our Saviour taken 
in the Garden which was engraved, soon after 
its execution, by Baptista Pasqualini 350 guineas. 
The collection of the Right Hon. Richard Rigby 
(January 9th, 1 789), included a View of Nimeguen, 
by Cuyp, 250 guineas ; of William Beckford 
(January 23rd), Titian, portrait of two dogs, 
20 guineas ; of the late Richard Price Jones, of 
the Custom House (February 26th, 1791), the 
head of an old woman, by Denner, 1 50 guineas ; 
and a collection sold May i4th, 1791, "the 
undoubted property of a nobleman, selected about 
fifty years ago, with great taste and at a most 
liberal expense," included several of interest, 
notably a Rubens, The Nativity, 450 guineas 
(Tasssert). The sale of the pictures of Richard 
Cosway, R.A. (March 2nd, 1792), does not call 
for any lengthy reference here. In 1793 (June 
6th), the pictures and drawings of " that esteemed 
artist George Morland," were sold by Mr. Christie 
at prices which varied from 20 to 69 guineas. 

It is impossible not to refer here to one of 
Mr. Christie's great friends, the Chevalier D'Eon, 
whose furniture, swords, trinkets, jewels, etc., 
he sold on May 5th and 6th, 1791 ; and whose 
library was dispersed by the second James Christie, 
February i4th, 1813. Mr. James Christie, who 
retired from the firm a few years ago, still 
possesses the corset and other relics which this 
eccentric individual wore during his enforced 
adoption of the feminine habit. D'Eon's connec- 
tion with the Christies will be found dealt with in 


the " Lives " by Telfer and Vizetelly, and by the 
present writer in fa&Gentlemaii s Magazine, March, 
1 896. The jewels of another highly distinguished 
French individual came under the hammer at 
Christie's on February iQth, 1795, those in fact 
of " La Comtesse Dubarry, deceased." This sale 
naturally excited very great interest, and the 
articles were described by Mr. Christie as not 
only a selection from the Royal Cabinet, but 
from every Cabinet, both public and private, in 
France. The sale was without reserve, and the 
total realized by 65 lots amounted to ,8,791 4^. 9^. 

The great sale of 1794, that of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds's collection of pictures, was also one of 
the most important which had, as yet, come into 
Mr. Christie's hands. The catalogues announced 
the sale for Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, and 
Saturday, March nth-i4th, but the date was 
altered to 1 3th- 1 7th of the same month. Sir 
Joshua's death had taken place on February 23rd, 
1792, and in due course the whole of his collection 
of 411 pictures was ordered to be sold by the 
three executors, Edmund Burke, Edmond Malone, 
and Philip Metcalf. These pictures comprised 
" the undoubted works of the greatest masters 
of the Roman, Florentine, Bolognese, Venetian, 
French, Flemish, and Dutch schools, in the most 
perfect state of preservation." To Mr. Christie's 
catalogue the executors prefixed a very interesting 
address which is well worth quoting in full : 

" The public has here a collection, of great 
extent and variety, of the Pictures of the most 


eminent Artists of former Ages, made by the most 
eminent Artist of the present Time. He chose 
these Pictures as Objects at once of Study and of 
Rivalship. No Person could do more than the 
great Man we have lately lost from the Funds of his 
own Genius ; no Person ever endeavoured more 
to take Advantage of the Labours of others. He 
considered great Collections of the Works of Art 
in the Light of great Libraries ; with this difference 
in the favour of the former, that whilst they instruct 
they decorate. Indeed, all his Passions, all his 
Tastes, all his Ideas of Employment, or of Re- 
laxation from Employment, almost all his Accu- 
mulation, and all his Expenditure, had a Relation 
to his Art. In this Collection was vested a large, 
if not the largest Part of his Fortune ; and he was 
not likely from Ignorance, Inattention, or want of 
practical or speculative Judgment, to make great 
Expenses for Things of small or of uncertain 

"The whole of the within collection were the 
Property of the late SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS, as 
Witness our Hands, 


EDMOND MALONE, \Executors." 


Burke states that Sir Joshua's immense collec- 
tion of pictures, drawings, and prints, " stood him 
in more than twenty thousand pounds." The total 
amount realized by the pictures was ,10,319, to 
which may be added the sketches, etc., which sold 


in the following year for ,4,536. Very many of 
Sir Joshua's " old masters " were unquestionably 
either replicas or copies, but they were probably 
excellent ones. Mr. Redford summarizes the 
collection thus: Correggio, 54; A. Caracci, 28; 
L. Caracci, 1 8 ; Vandyck, 70 ; Fra Bartolommeo, 
9 ; Tintoretto, 32 ; Giulio Romano, 43 ; Leonardo 
da Vinci, 12 ; Michaelangelo, 44 (!) ; Rubens, 22 ; 
Raphael, 24 (!); Rembrandt, 19; and Titian, 13. 
The following were the chief pictures, judged by 
the amounts respectively paid for them : Rubens, 
Child Blowing Bubbles, 175 guineas; Vandyke, 
half-length portrait of Rubens, with two other 
artists, 140 guineas, the purchaser being Mr. 
Angerstein the picture is now hung in the 
National Gallery. The Christie Catalogue states 
that " it is well authenticated that Vandyke painted 
this picture at the age of eighteen years, which 
proves him to have been a prodigy of genius and 
capacity." Teniers, A Sorceress entering the 
Regions of Pandemonium laden with her Spoil, 
formerly in Dr. Chauncey's collection, fetched 330 
guineas; Wouverman, Halt of the Banditti, 103 
guineas ; Claude Lorraine, a " view near the 
Castle Gondolfo, one of his most capital and 
finished pictures " (Angerstein, 145 guineas, now 
in National Gallery) ; Michaelangelo, [?] Jupiter 
and Leda, (Lord Berwick, 71 guineas,) a very 
interesting picture (probably painted in tempera), 
said to have been executed for Alfonso, Duke of 
Ferrara, and to have belonged to Francis I ; "it was 
purchased in 1746 by the Hon. John Spencer, and 


came into the possession of Sir Joshua by the 
favour of the present Earl Spencer ; " Rubens, a 
Wild Boar Hunt, 165 guineas ; and Hercules and 
Omphale, from the collection of the late Count 
Bruhl of Dresden, (Angerstein) 160 guineas; 
N. Poussin, The Nativity, 205 guineas; and The 
Wise Men's Offering, formerly in the possession 
of Sir Edward Walpole, 525 guineas. 

The sale of pictures, the property of Count 
Redeen, " lately ambassador for the Court of 
Prussia," and collections from other sources, may 
be mentioned as having been sold on June i/j-th, 
1 794 ; the collection of prints and pictures which 
belonged to John Hunter, the famous anatomist, 
who lived next door to Hogarth in Leicester 
Fields, was also sold in this year (January 29th), 
but neither sale was an important one, although 
Hunter's pictures included a Madonna and Child 
ascribed to Carlo Dolci (engraved by Sharp), 
which brought m\ and a portrait of Nelly 
O'Brien, by Reynolds, that realized 20 guineas. 

A few interesting pictures were sold in 1795, 
notably the collection of Baron Nagel, March 2ist, 
comprising fifty works, among which was a hawk- 
ing or hunting scene by Wouverman, 240 guineas ; 
on May ist and 2nd, the pictures of the late 
Admiral Sir Edward Vernon, of John Walsh and 
others, included a capital and noble picture of the 
Assumption of the Virgin by Murillo, " which was 
purchased in Spain by a nobleman at 1,000 guineas 
about 60 years ago," but which now fetched only 
46 guineas. On June loth, the valuable jewels, 


watches, trinkets, etc., of the late Duchess of 
Bedford, came under the hammer, seventy-six lots 
realizing ,2,068. One of the several sales of the 
late George Coleman's effects was held in this year 
by Mr. Christie. 

A number of interesting and important collec- 
tions were dispersed at Mr. Christie's in 1796. 
The season led off with that of Benjamin Vander 
Gucht, deceased, March nth and i2th, among 
which were many good pictures, including Van der 
Werff's Judgment of Paris, which was purchased 
for 255 guineas by Sir F. Bourgeois and is now in 
the Dulwich Gallery. Descamps states (" La vie 
des Peintres,") that this work was painted in 1718 
for the Regent Duke of Orleans ; and is said that 
it was much admired by Reynolds ; a Correggio, 
Venus, Cupid and Satyr, for which Vander Gucht 
paid ,1,500 to Sir William Hamilton, who brought 
the picture to England, 600 guineas ( Lord Radnor) ; 
Claude, a noble landscape with the Worship of 
the Golden Calf, 500 guineas ; and a landscape 
by Cuyp, 420 guineas. One hundred lots realized 
a total of ,3,145. The Earl of Bute's pictures, 
brought after his death from High-Cliffe, Hamp- 
shire, his county seat, were sold on March iQth, 
but the prices ruled extremely low throughout, 
the two highest, indeed, being a view on the 
Schelt, embarkation of the Prince of Orange, 
by Cuyp, 50 guineas ; and a harbour scene ascribed 
to Vandevelde, 50 guineas. The miscellaneous 
sales of this year included (May 5th, 1796,) 
fourteen cases containing 4,182 dozen of ladies' 


fans ; and Sir Thomas Henry RumbolcTs curious 
museum (April 2Qth to May 2nd), which included 
watches, jewels, coins, bronzes, a sedan chair, and 
so forth. Rumbold's personality is hidden in the 
catalogue under the title of " A Man of Fashion." 

On February loth, 1797, the celebrated series 
of pictures by Hogarth, Marriage a la Mode, 
appeared at Christie's, the name of the owner, 
Colonel Cawthorne, not appearing in connection 
with them. These pictures were completed in 
1744, and were sold by Hogarth, at auction, on 
June 6th, 1750, the purchaser, who was also the 
only bidder, being Mr. Lane of Hillingdon, near 
Oxbridge, who obtained them for 120 guineas 
the frames alone had cost Hogarth 24 guineas 
Mr. Lane bequeathed them to Colonel Cawthorne. 
At Christie's they were knocked down for 1,000 
guineas to Mr. Angerstein, and are now in the 
National Gallery. Another important sale of this 
year was that of Gainsborough Dupont's collection 
(April loth and nth). It included several pic- 
tures by Dupont's uncle, the great Gainsborough, 
many of which, however, were unfinished. The 
sale was a complete fiasco, the highest price being 
paid for a Landscape, with cattle watering, a sunset 
effect, described as " one of the very finest pro- 
ductions of this great artist," realizing only 97 
guineas. Another fiasco occurred in the following 
month (May i3th and I4th), when the "pictures 
of a gentleman," apparently produced a total of 
,1,900 17^. of which amount, however, ,1,656 4^. 
represented property bought in, leaving the vendor 

I. E 


a total of 244 13^. from which the auctioneer's 
fees still had to be deducted. On June 2nd and 
3rd, a collection of modern masters, chiefly the 
property of the Right Hon. Lady Rivers, and 
comprising pictures by Morland, Wheatley, and 
others, sold very badly, only two or three lots 
realizing over 10. The " genuine and entire 
stock of prints, etc., and a few pleasing cabinet 
pictures, the property of Mr. G. Bartolozzi, retiring 
from business," came under the hammer ; and in 
the same year (March 3Oth), "a choice collection 
of new pearls," etc., etc., received by the ships 
" Henry Dundas" and "Earl of Wycombe," 
lately arrived from India, was also sold by 
Christie, Sharpe, and Harper. 

The most important sale of this year, 1797, 
however, was that of the collection of John 
Trumbull, February i7th and i8th. This collec- 
tion was purchased by Trumbull, who was attached 
to the American legation at Paris in the spring of 
1 795> by which time the most illustrious families 
of France had arrived at the most acute stage of 
their distress. The opportunity was an exception- 
ally favourable one to Mr. Trumbull's design, and 
he appears to have brought to his task great 
knowledge and excellent good taste. The two 
days' sale resulted in a total of ,7,996 $s. although 
many of the lots were bought in. The pictures were 
for the most part of the Flemish and Dutch schools, 
but there were a few notable Italian examples. 
The more important were : Vandermeulen, a 
Battle Scene, 59 guineas ; Teniers, Portrait 


of a Lady with a Negro Servant, 50 guineas; 
Jordaens, a Holy Family, 50 guineas ; Sebastian 
Bourdon, The Daughters of Jethro, " a very fine 
composition, worthy of N. Poussin," 125 guineas; 
Rembrandt, a half-length Portrait of a Lady, "one 
of his finest and most extraordinary works/' 100 
guineas; Vanderwerff, Children with a Bird's Nest, 
" an exquisite little picture of this admired master," 
84 guineas ; Gerard Dow, The Onion Cutter, 67 
guineas; Van der Heyden, a Landscape, with water 
and boats by W. Van de Velde, and figures by A. 
Van de Velde, 83 guineas ; Wouverman, a Return 
from the Chase, 98 guineas ; Teniers, Gamblers 
at Trictrac, no guineas (Lord Suffolk); and a 
Chemist in his Laboratory, 175 guineas (Bryan) ; 
Bassano, The Magdalen at the Feast of the 
Pharisee, 230 guineas (Agar) ; two by Vernet, a 
storm and a shipwreck, 140 guineas (Lord Temple), 
and a view of the Castle and Bridge of St. Angelo, 
in Rome, with a fete on the Tiber with Vernet 
himself, his wife, and her father, among the 
spectators 125 guineas ; Bronzino, the Madonna, 
Child, and St. Catherine, 170 guineas ; N. Poussin, 
a Holy Family, 170 guineas, and Christ on the 
Mount of Olives, 260 guineas ; Murillo, St. John 
with the Lamb, 200 guineas ; Pordenone, Dejanira 
and the Centaur pursued by Hercules, 560 guineas ; 
Guercino, Angelica and Medora, a life-size work, 
440 guineas ; Berghem, Landscape, with figures 
and cattle, 900 guineas ; Le Brun, The Triumph 
of Constantine, 150 guineas; and Raphael, the 
Virgin, Christ and St. John, known as the 


" Madonna du Corset Rouge," ^890. This picture 
was brought from Rome by Cardinal Mazarin, 
and, notwithstanding very high prices were offered 
for it, particularly by the Prince of Conde, was 
religiously preserved in his family until the dis- 
tress of the Revolution, in which M. Primodan, the 
late possessor, had his full share, when he deter- 
mined to part with it for a very 7 extravagant price ; 
it was originally painted on wood, but, beginning to 
decay, was transferred upon cloth in 1767 by 
Hacquin. It was the altarpiece of the private 
chapel of Mazarin, and at his death he bequeathed 
it to the ancestor of M. Primodan. Trumbull 
gave 40,000 livres for it. How far the picture itself 
is genuine cannot be dealt with here ; there is (or 
was) a duplicate of it in the Louvre. This very 
fine collection of pictures included examples 
from the cabinets of such connoisseurs as MM. 
Joubart, Des Touches, Grandpre, Le Rouge, the 
Due de Praslin, the Baron D'Espagnac, Due de 
Tallard, Donjoux, Prince Carignan, Le Brun, De 
la Regniere, and others. 

No more first-class picture sales took place at 
Christie's during the eighteenth century, but a few 
of those which did occur are not without a certain 
amount of interest. For instance, on February 1 5th, 
1 799, an assemblage of Chinese drawings, paint- 
ings, natural and artificial curiosities, the property 
of A. E. Van Braam, Esq., chief of the direction 
of the Dutch East India Company at Canton, and 
second in the Dutch Embassy to the Court of 
Pekin in the years 1 794-5, attracted much interest. 


Van Braam's "Authentic Account of the Embassy" 
was published in 1798. The only item of import- 
ance in the sale to which we need refer is a collec- 
tion of 352 views of the most celebrated and 
interesting places, gardens and courts in China, by 
a native, which brought 165 guineas. In May 
there were two picture sales. First, on the loth 
and nth, the remaining pictures, sketch-books, 
etc., of the late Thomas Gainsborough were sold ; 
on the 3ist, the pictures of the late R. Bayley and 
others, included G. Dow, The Tooth Drawer, "one 
of his finest," 100 guineas; and Gainsborough, 
The Milk Girl, 145 guineas. On June 7th and 8th 
was sold the collection of pictures of the late 
Thomas Hankey, " collected during the course of 
a number of years by John Bernard, Esq., univers- 
ally esteemed for his correct knowledge of the fine 
arts and superior taste." There were a few good 
pictures, including a landscape by Cuyp, no 
guineas ; and P. Veronese, Baptism of Christ by 
St. John, (Bryan) 170 guineas. The sale realized 
a total of ,2,295 4 s ' 6d. 

(Bernal Sale, p. 175.) 


1800 1810. 



HE first picture sale of importance 
with which Mr. Christie commenced 
the new century was held on March 
28th, 2 Qth, 1800. -Among the items 
were three formerly in the cabinet 
of the great Duke of Chandos an Interior of a 
Chamber, with an old woman sewing, by Van Toll, 
100 guineas (Dormer); F. Mieris, Ammon putting 
away Tamar, 200 guineas (the same) ; and an 
Interior by Gerard Dow, in which the artist's own 
portrait appears, 340 guineas (Bryan). On April 
25th the sale included twenty-two pictures from the 
Colonna Palace, seventeen from the Florentine 
Gallery and that of Capo di Monte, belonging to the 
King of Naples. They were described as "of 
the highest class," and as having " graced some of 
the first palaces in Florence, Rome, and Naples." 


Further, "the many judges who have visited Italy 
will recognize these pictures, which are in the same 
pure and perfect state as when they were trans- 
ferred from the easels of the immortal artists who 
painted them to the apartments in the several 
distinguished palaces they adorned." Although 
there is nothing on the title-page of the catalogue 
to indicate the owner of this collection, it was 
doubtless an open secret at the time. Buchanan, 
in his " Memoirs of Painting," describes it as 
having been formed by John Udny, Esq. (whom 
Buchanan calls Udney). The sale was without 
the least reserve, and it included two Raphaels, A 
Virgin and Child, 480 guineas ; and a Holy Family, 
which had been in the possession of the Colonna 
family for over two centuries, 650 guineas, both 
bought by Mr. Davidson, who also purchased 
Guide's celebrated picture of St. Cecilia, painted for 
Prince Colonna from whose family it was purchased 
by the present owner, 340 guineas ; and a pair of 
Landscapes by Claude, morning and evening 
effects, painted for the Colonna family, " in which 
they have continued, and are as fresh and as 
pure as when first painted," 670 guineas ; 
Ludovico Caracci, a Riposo, on thick wood, painted 
for the Parma family, and with their seal on it, 
1,100 guineas (Colonel Murray); Schidone, Girl 
learning the Lord's Prayer, from the Parma collec- 
tion, in thick panel, with the seal of the family, 200 
guineas (Earl of Ashburnham) ; two Landscapes of 
Annibal Caracci, companion pictures, both painted 
for the Parma gallery, 185 guineas and 175 


guineas ; and a life-size Venus and Cupid by the 
same, painted in 1585 as a companion to the Mag- 
dalen by Titian in the Tribune at Florence, one of 
this artist's most highly finished works, 105 guineas ; 
all three were purchased by Colonel Murray. The 
only other picture sale of importance this year, 
May 9th and loth, included a Gerard Dow, Por- 
trait of the Painter, who is depicted touching a 
violin at a window, with men grinding his colours 
in the background, 365 guineas, from the Orleans 
collection, in which it realized 300 guineas. It was 
again sold in 1801 for 290 guineas, and two years 
later for 115 guineas. 

Three interesting picture sales occurred in 1801. 
Lord Bessborough was a distinguished connoisseur 
and collector of various works of art, and the sale 
of his property occupied Mr. Christie three days, 
February 5-7. The majority of the pictures were 
probably good old copies, as very few realized three 
figures ; but there were a few notable ones, for 
example : Cuyp, Landscape and Cattle, 390 guineas 
(Duke of St. Albans) ; Le Nain, Group of Beggars, 
engraved in Boydell's collection, 100 guineas ; 
Raphael, Madonna with Bambino, from Lord Wal- 
degrave's collection, 220 guineas; Titian, Chess- 
players, "a very singular and rare picture," 220 
guineas ; Claude, A Seaport, " a brilliant and fas- 
cinating effect of the sun gilding and reflecting on 
the undulating motion of the water," 280 guineas ; 
Salvator Rosa, Jason poisoning the Dragon, 
bought at the sale of James, Duke of Chandos, in 
1 747 by Lord Bessborough, and engraved in Boy- 


dell's collection, 310 guineas; and N. Poussin, 
Venus and Adonis, 250 guineas. The total of the 
three days' sale amounted to ,9460 1 7 s - 

Sir William Hamilton's forms the second in- 
teresting sale of 1 80 1. This distinguished per- 
sonage, best known perhaps as the husband of the 
famous Lady Hamilton, resided for thirty-seven 
years as Minister Plenipotentiary at the Court of 
Naples, and fully availed himself of his unique 
opportunities for collecting works of art. His 
extensive collection of antique fictile vases, for- 
merly the property of the Porcinari family, glass, 
bronze, sculpture, gems, medals, and so forth, was 
purchased in 1772 by the Government of the day, 
and is now in the British Museum. He still 
went on collecting, and despatched a large consign- 
ment to England for sale, most of which, however, 
was lost in a storm. Mr. Christie's sale on 
March 27th and 28th, 1801, was made up of the 
articles not included in the Museum purchase and 
those which were saved from the storm. The 
only important picture in the ninety-seven sold 
was the Leonardo da Vinci, The Laughing Boy, 
or Boy with a Horn-book, of which two studies 
of the same boy are extant in the drawing-book 
of Leonardo in the Ambrosian Library, Milan. 
This exceedingly interesting picture was in the 
Arundel collection inherited by Lady Betty Ger- 
maine, who left it in her will to Sir William 
Hamilton. It was now purchased for 1,300 
guineas by William Beckford, and remained at 
Fon thill Abbey until 1823, when it was sold with 


the other things at Fonthill by order of Mr. Far- 
quhar, the purchaser of the estate, and again Mr. 
Beckford was the buyer. It was afterwards trans- 
ferred to the Hamilton Palace Collection, in which 
it remained until 1882. 

The third great sale of 1801 comprised forty- 
nine lots, " the superb, capital, and truly valuable 
collection of celebrated Italian pictures lately pur- 
chased from the Colonna, Borghese, and Corsini 
palaces," by William Young Ottley, and " forming 
an unrivalled assemblage of the genuine and 
finest works of the Italian schools." The extra- 
ordinary preservation of these pictures is attributed 
to their " having remained under the pure climate 
of Italy, unexposed to injudicious experiments of 
varnishes and other methods of repair, and care- 
fully protected from the rude touch of daubers and 
copyists." The appearance of the pictures in the 
market is explained thus by Mr. Christie : " It is 
to the aera of fatal revolution in Italy ; it is to the 
oppressive spirit of its invaders ; it is to the fallen 
grandeur of the nobles and princes of Rome ; it is 
to their extreme need and distress, that is to be 
attributed finally their parting with what they so 
long possessed and so highly valued." This sale 
took place on May i6th, but Messrs. Christie's 
copy of the catalogue has been stolen from their 
set. The British Museum, however, possesses a 
partly-priced copy of it, and Buchanan (" Memoirs 
of Painting," ii. 20-30) reprints it in full, with the 
prices. The collection was formed by Ottley in 
Rome about the end of 1 798 or in the beginning 


of 1799, when the principal families were in 
the acutest stage of their misery. It was brought 
to this country in 1 800, and sold on May 1 6th of the 
following year. Its importance maybe judged by 
the fact that the sum realized by its sale was close 
on 22,000 guineas. One of the most important 
pictures in the collection was the celebrated Land- 
scape of Salvator Rosa, in which are introduced 
the figures of Mercury and the woodman, 6 feet 
7 inches x 4 feet. It was purchased by Sir M. M. 
Sykesfor 1,5 50 guineas, and became subsequently, 
first the property of Lord Durham, then of Mr. 
Byng. It is now in the National Gallery. 
Another Landscape by the same artist, a rocky 
scene with a distant view of a volcano, with figures 
in the foreground representing the finding of Moses 
by Pharaoh's daughter, 79 x 49, 1,500 guineas, 
both from the Colonna Palace ; Parmigiano, The 
Marriage of St. Catherine, described as ranking 
" the highest of the few cabinet pictures of this 
celebrated painter,"and selected by Gavin Hamilton 
for his "Schola Italica Picturse," 22 x 29, 1,550 
guineas (W. Morland) ; the same artist's Portrait 
of Himself, "always so-called when in the cele- 
brated collection of the King of Naples at Capo di 
Monte," 26 x 35, 650 guineas ; N. Poussin, Noah's 
Sacrifice after he quitted the Ark, one of the 
finest of this artist's Italian pictures, 54 x 27, 1,000 
guineas (Sykes) ; and three other minor land- 
scapes of the same artist. Of Gaspar Poussin 
there were three landscapes, the most important 
being a view of Nemi, near Rome, from the 


Colonna Palace, 60 x 36, 700 guineas ; Benvenuto 
Garofalo, a Holy Family with Saints, 16 x 13, 
240 guineas ; and the Vision of St. Augustine, 
with the Madonna and Choir of Angels in 
the Clouds, " the very finest production of this 
master," from the Corsini Palace, 32 inches x 25 
inches, 1,000 guineas (Lord Radstock) ; Domeni- 
chino, Repose in Egypt, in a landscape 
"this artist painted so few landscapes that this 
may be considered almost unique " 21 inches 
x 16 inches, 320 guineas; Mazzolino di Ferrara, 
Ecce Homo, a chef tfceuvre of the master, from 
the Villa Aldobrandini, 17 inches x 21 inches, 429 
guineas ; Raffaelle, Sleeping Warrior and two alle- 
gorical female figures, 6 inches square, from the Bor- 
ghese Palace, 470 guineas ; Guido Reni, St. Peter, 
head and hands, 33 inches x 25 inches, from the 
Aldobrandini apartments of the Borghese Palace, 
580 guineas (Sykes) ; and " Madonna Dolorata," 
on copper, 15 inches x 19 inches, formerly the 
property of Pope Paul V., 380 guineas (Morland) ; 
Annibal Caracci, Susannah and the Elders, 43 
inches x 63 inches, 560 guineas (Humble) ; and 
the Infant Jesus sleeping, attended by Angels, 
20 inches x 26 inches, 700 guineas (Hibbert) ; and 
an important picture of Christ crowned with 
Thorns, catalogued as by Caracci, but which of 
the three or four of that name is not stated, 
i, 100 guineas (Earl Fitzwilliam) ; Sasso Ferrato, 
Virgin and Child, with Cherubs, from the Cor- 
sini Palace, 33 inches x 31 inches, 750 guineas; 
Paul Veronese, Marriage of the Virgin, 560 


guineas (Wells of Redleaf) ; and Titian, Madonna, 
Child, and St. Catherine, 45 inches x 65 inches, 
1,150 guineas; and the Holy Family, with the 
Shepherds' Offering, both from the Borghese 
Palace, 700 guineas. There were two other 
Ottley sales, one in 1811, and the other after his 
death in 1837 (see pp. 88-90). It should be here 
mentioned that Ottley sold his own fine collection 
of drawings by old Italian masters to Sir T. 
Lawrence for ,8,000 ; it formed the principal part 
of the magnificent collection of that artist. 

Two other sales may be mentioned as having 
taken place in 1801 " the genuine pictures of that 
esteemed artist, Mr. Joseph Wright of Derby," on 
May 6th ; and the collection of castes from the 
antique, a very fine skeleton, and other artistic 
properties of George Romney, at his late residence, 
Hollybush Hill, Hampstead, on March i8th. 

Quite a number of important sales took place 
during 1802. The earliest of these is in some re- 
spects the most interesting. No name appeared on 
the title page of the catalogue, but " a gentleman 
highly distinguished for his fine taste in the arts," 
and the further statement that the collection was 
" now brought from his seat at Fonthill, Wiltshire," 
sufficiently reveals the identity of the collector. 
Alderman Beckford, the father of that more 
distinguished celebrity, the author of " Vathek," 
was the proprietor on this occasion ; but this 
sale must not be confounded with the dispersal 
of the far more important collection of William 
Beckfordyf/y. Indeed, the present transaction was 


not an important one, the only first-rate lot which 
it comprised was the set of eight pictures of 
" The Rake's Progress," 1 " ever celebrated/' (said 
Mr. Christie) " as chefs-d'oeuvre of Hogarth, who, 
well acquainted with all the vicissitudes of life, and 
perfectly master of the passions, has immortalized 
himself by correcting the failings of his country- 
men." This set was purchased for 570 guineas, 
by Sir John Soane, and may now be seen in the 
Soane Museum, Lincoln's Inn Fields. A few 
other pictures may be mentioned, notably a Salva- 
tor Rosa, Banditti on the Banks of a River " a 
noble picture purchased from the Colonna Palace," 
190 guineas, and its companion, St. Francis preach- 
ing, 100 guineas, both purchased by Lord G. 
Cavendish ; a work catalogued as Paduanino 
(which name is struck through in Mr. Christie's 
catalogue), Deianira and the Centaur pursued by 
Hercules "equal in colour to Titian and in com- 
position worthy of A. Caracci," 270 guineas ; and 
a pair, The Presentation of the Virgin, by A. 
Dlirer; " this chef-d'oeuvre of the German Raphael 
and its companion [the Circumcision] were for- 
merly brought to Italy by Christina, Queen of 
Sweden, but were not long since purchased from 
out of the Bracciano Palace at Rome," 140 
guineas (Walsh Porter). The eighty-eight lots 
realized ,2,960 3^. 6d. 

1 Alderman Beckford possessed also Hogarth's "Harlot's 
Progress," of which five were unfortunately burnt in the fire at 
Fonthill in 1755, an <l the sixth, which once belonged to Lord 
Oharlemont, now belongs to the Earl of Wemyss. 


The pictures of the late Countess of Holderness, 
derived from such patrons of art as Greffier Fagel l 
and his son, were sold at Christie's on March 6th, 
1 802. I n a brief preface to the catalogue we read : 
" As every accession of virtue becomes fair subject 
for congratulation to the British public, inasmuch 
as it tends to improve the taste, correct the judg- 
ment, and enlarge the ideas, both of artists and 
collectors, in like manner may the present cabinet 
of pictures be commended, and those whose spirit 
and affection for the arts have been warmed by 
the recent importations from Italy and France, 
will, we conceive, have fresh pleasure in being per- 
mitted to participate in the public distribution of so 
exquisite an assemblage as the Holderness collec- 
tion." The more important of the eighty-one pic- 
tures, which realized a total of ,5,954 2s. 6d., were 
Hobbema, a Landscape with figures by A. Van de 
Velde, 280 guineas ; Rubens, Judgment of Paris, 
" a rich and beautiful picture, in perfect preserva- 
tion,'* 305 guineas ; Berghem, landscape with a 
shepherdess and cattle, 280 guineas ; Wouver- 
man, Horses Watering, 1 70 guineas ; Jan Steen, 
The Pancake Girl, 115 guineas; W. Mieris, 
The Raree Showman, a group of eight figures, 
210 guineas ; and A lady with a child in a cradle, 
195 guineas; several by Adrian Van de Velde, 
notably a Landscape with a group of cows and 
sheep, 210 guineas; Teniers, An Interior of a 

1 The Greffier Fagel cabinet was sold by Coxe, Burrell and 
Foster, May 22nd, 1801, and a full-priced list is given by 


Gardener's House, 310 guineas; A. Ostade, In- 
terior of a Dutch Cabaret, 305 guineas ; Jan de 
Mabuse, Portraits of a Gentleman and a Lady at 
Devotion, ^138. 

On March I3th, in the following week the re- 
markable series of copies by Guy Head came up 
for sale. Head was a great friend of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, who took him under his special protec- 
tion and sent him to the Continent, where he 
resided for sixteen years, all the time making copies 
of the great masters in Holland, Flanders, Ger- 
many and Italy. Some of these copies realized 
high amounts at this sale, for instance, a set of three 
after Rubens, The Taking Down from the Cross, 
St. Simeon in the Temple, and The Visitation, 
brought 400 guineas ; and another, The Raising 
of the Christ, 200 guineas. The no lots realized 
a total of ^"2,195 us. At the sale, April 3rd, of 
the original pictures collected by Guy Head, a 
Titian, The Stratagem of Pharaoh's Daughter, 
formerly in the gallery of the Soranza family, sold 
for 735 guineas. On May 6th, William Gilpin's 
collections of Prints, Drawings, Sketches, the 
greater part accompanied with valuable remarks 
in MS., and several unpublished works were sold; 
and two days afterwards a picture sale included five 
Claudes, a fine Landscape the subject in No. 5, 
"Liber Veritatis," 210 guineas; another with a 
view of the Colosseum, No. i, " Liber Veritatis," 
200 guineas ; and A Landscape with a Repose in 
the foreground, from Lord Londonderry's collec- 
tion, 260 guineas; and Ruysdael, Landscape 


with a view of the Castle of Bentheim, 300 guineas. 
On May i4th and i5th the united cabinets of Sir 
Simon Clarke and George Hibbert, Esq., selected 
by them out of the collections of the Duke of 
Orleans, Mr. Gildemester of Amsterdam, M. 
Colonne, Mr. Woodhouse, etc., came under the 
hammer, 141 pictures totalling up to ,18,454 i6s. 
The principal pictures were Raphael, Virgin and 
Child from the Orleans collection, 280 guineas; 
Rubens, Assumption of the Virgin, from the Purl- 
ing collection, 400 guineas ; and Diana returning 
from the chase, from the Walkenier collection 
(engraved by Sharp), 1,050 guineas ; Salvator 
Rosa, Pythagoras discovered by his fellow citizens, 
460 guineas ; Wouverman, Coach and Six Gray 
Horses from the Gildemester collection, and de- 
scribed by Descamp in his "Life" of the artist, 
340 guineas ; and a Landscape with figures, from the 
same source, 240 guineas ; Titian, A Holy Family, 
from the Aldobrandini collection, 400 guineas; 
Guido, a Sibyl, from the Orleans collection, 330 
guineas ; P. Da Cortona, Flight of Jacob, from the 
same, 320 guineas; and Cuyp, a Landscape with 
Peasants going to market, from the Brun collec- 
tion, 295 guineas. 

Lord Mendip's collection of Antique Marbles, 
Statues, and Busts was dispersed by Mr. Christie, 
on May i ;th ; and on the two following days the 
household furniture, etc., at York House, Piccadilly, 
late the property of H.R.H. the Duke of York, 
was sold, the 313 lots realizing ,2,544 ; and finally, 
in June, "the superb and costly oriental museum, 

I. F 


the property of Mr. Findley, who paid ,10,000 
for it," including statuary, the most perfect speci- 
mens of pellucid gems, coloured diamonds, rubies, 
emeralds, sapphires, topazes, and a diamond of 
uncommon lustre and size. This sale occupied 
four days from June Hth. 

The first important picture sale of 1803, March 
4th and 5th, included eight pictures, the property 
of the late Richard Walker, Esq., of Liverpool, 
and of these we may mention Gerard Dow, His 
own Portrait, touching the violin, " the very cele- 
brated and highly finished picture" (see page 55), 
from the Orleans collection, 1 1 5 guineas ; Teniers, a 
Flemish Farm-yard with the white horse, 290 
guineas ; N. Poussin, a Bacchanalian scene, painted 
for the artist's patron, the Prime Minister of Louis 
XIII., was knocked down at 800 guineas, but as 
no name of purchaser is given^, the picture may not 
have been sold. 

Unquestionably the great picture sale of 1803 
was that of Mr. Walsh Porter, which took place 
on March 22nd and 23rd, 103 pictures showing a 
total of ,8,553 8s. Porter, says Mr. Redford, 
was " one of the most intelligent and enterprising 
of those who went to the Continent to collect 
during these troublous times, and who were also 
on the look out for good pictures coming to 
England through various hands to be sold, and 
often placed in the possession of bankers as 
security for loans, or as a place of safety." Porter, 
at the time of this sale, was advertised as " going 
abroad." The principal pictures were Gains- 


borough, Female Domestic bestowing Alms, from 
Lord Robert Spencer's collection, 73 guineas; G. 
Poussin, Landscape with Pyramus and Thisbe, 
120 guineas; Murillo, The Seven Acts of Mercy, 
from the collection of the Chanoine Clynps at 
Antwerp, 370 guineas ; William Van de Velde, the 
Naval Battle in which Van Tromp was killed, 
410 guineas; A. Ostade, an Interior with Boors, 
1 70 guineas ; Dusart, Dutch Family at a Repast in 
an Arbour, with hurdy-gurdy player, 1 20 guineas ; 
R. Wilson, Landscape with phaeton, formerly in 
the possession of the late Duke of Bridgwater, 
engraved by Woollett, 185 guineas ; A. del Sarto, 
Madonna, Christ and infant Saints, 190 guineas ; 
Cuyp, Three cows in a sunny landscape, 300 
guineas ; Claude, An Italian Landscape, with the 
Civita Castellana in the distance, and figures, from 
the collection of the Due de Choiseul, 700 guineas ; 
and the companion Landscape with the story of 
Mercury and Bacchus, from the same collection, 
650 guineas ; David Teniers, Le Tambour bat- 
tant, the celebrated picture from the collection of 
the Due de Praslin, 280 guineas ; G. Schalken, 
Le Roi Depouille, " worthy of the collection it 
once graced of the late unfortunate monarch of 
France," 390 guineas ; Correggio, the Madonna 
with the rabbit, 200 guineas ; Le Nain (catalogued 
as Caravaggio), Infant Card Players, " an exquisite 
jewel " from the Aldobrandini Palace, 370 guineas ; 
and the most important lot of all, Leonardo da 
Vinci, Virgin and Child, " an inestimable perform- 
ance," 800 guineas. The second and consider- 

68 SALES IN 1803. 

ably more important picture sale of Mr. Walsh 
Porter took place in 1810 (see pp. 83-86). 

On May nth, 1803, Mr. Christie held a picture 
sale which comprised a single work, namely "a 
grand historical picture representing the reception 
of the hostage sons of Tippoo Saib by the Marquis 
of Cornwallis," painted in India by A. W. Devis, 
Esq., and containing nearly 70 portraits painted 
from life : the picture realized ^400. A few 
interesting canvases occurred among the pictures 
purchased by the late Francis, Earl of Godolphin, 
" distinguished for his knowledge and taste for the 
fine arts," sold on June 6th and 7th, notably 
Murillo, Spanish beggar boys, 250 guineas, and its 
companion, 270 guineas; 1 P. Veronese, a Female 
Saint in a vision, and angels descending with the 
holy cross, 1 30 guineas ; and Vandyck, Portrait of 
Rubens, when the latter was. in advanced years, 
150 guineas. In September (i7th) Mr. Christie 
was selling the greenhouse plants, orange, lemon, 
and citron trees of unparalleled growth, of Robert 
Udny (to whom we shall refer again presently), 
at his Villa, Teddington, Middlesex; and a month 
later (October I5th), fifty orange, lemon and citron 
trees, many of them of the unusual height of ten 

1 See Curtis, page 291 ; Evelyn writes under date June 2ist, 
1693 : " I saw a great auction of pictures in the Banqueting 
House, Whitehall. They had been my Lord Melfort's, now 
ambassador from King James at Rome, and engag'd to his 
creditors here. Lord Godolphin bought the picture of the 
Boys by Morillo, the Spaniard, for 80 guineas, deare enough." 
This picture is now the property of Mr. H. M. Leathes, of 
Herringfleet Hall, Lowestoft. 


teet, at Weybridge, Surrey; it is interesting to 
note that these trees sold at prices varying from 
5 to 1 2 guineas, according to size. 

The 1804 season opened on March 2nd, with a 
" superb collection " of Italian pictures recently con- 
signed from Rome, composed of the chefs-d'oeuvre 
selected from the treasures of the Borghese, 
Colonna, Doria, Aldobrandini, Gighi, Cavalieri, 
Rospigliosi and Bolognetti Palaces, most of 
them actually painted for these several families, 
" as shall be made appear to the purchasers by 
the original documents and papers." This sale 
was undoubtedly an important one, and it included 
Jordaens, the Infant Saviour, Amatheae and Satyr, 
the celebrated picture formerly in the collection of 
Sir Gregory Page, 105 guineas; Salvator Rosa, 
Christ in the Wilderness, purchased from the Church 
of the Jesuits at Rome, for which church it was 
painted, 500 guineas ; Diirer, portrait of Leo X. 
in the character of St. Jerome in his study, 162 
guineas; Titian, Virgin, Child, St. John, St. 
Catherine and a Bishop, from the Borghese gallery, 
395 guineas ; and a portrait of Cardinal Caraffa, 
nephew of Paul IV. (afterwards strangled in the 
castle of St. Angelo), 100 guineas ; Bramante, The 
Deposition, " a surprising picture of this master, 
the architect of the basilica of St. Peter at Rome, 
whose works are unknown in England," from the 
Borghese gallery, 390 guineas; Guido, Magdalen, 
from the Palazzo Ghigi, 230 guineas ; Andrea del 
Sarto, The Virgin and the young Christ and St. 
Joseph, 440 guineas ; Palma il Goven, (" im- 


properly so called, perhaps Jul. Romano,") Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, a female (probably the patroness 
of the artist) in the corner below offering up 
her evening prayer to the Virgin, 790 guineas ; 
and Michel Angelo, The Crucifixion of the Virgin 
and St. John the Evangelist, "this most inestimable 
jewel " was painted for the Oratory of the Cava- 
lieri Palace, 690 guineas. 

The day after the sale of the foregoing collec- 
tion, Mr. Christie offered a collection " being the 
greater part of the well-known collection of No- 
vellara, a ducal villa in the neighbourhood of 
Modena." The principal pictures were Correggio, 
The Passion of our Saviour, with a letter explaining 
the manner in which it was purchased from the Duke 
of Salviati, and the seal of the Academy of Parma, 
710 guineas; Leonardo da Vinci, Christ Washing 
the Apostles' Feet, 280 guineas; Schidone, Vir- 
gin and Infant Christ, St. John and St. Joseph, 
680 guineas ; and Correggio, The Flight into Egypt, 
St. Joseph in the foreground drawing water from 
a pool, and the Virgin and Child accompanied by 
angels, 1,500 guineas. Concerning this sale, it may 
be mentioned that of the total sum ,5,565 19^. no 
less than ^5, 247 6s. represents property bought in. 
On May i2th a Vandyck portrait of Charles I. 
was apparently bought in at 490 guineas. 

The celebrated collection of pictures of Robert 
Udny, " formed during a long series of years with- 
out regard to expense, out of the principal cabinets 
of Italy and elsewhere," came up for sale at Chris- 
tie's on May i8th and igth, 1804, the 2 ^7 lots realiz- 


ing ,6,548 i^s. 6d. There were two Udnys, John, 
British Consul at Leghorn, who was an extensive 
buyer of pictures, and his brother Robert, who 
lived at Teddington, to whom he transferred and 
whose collection of pictures was sold in 1800 
(see p. 55). When Robert Udny died, in or 
before 1802, his executors drew up a catalogue 
of his collection of pictures at Teddington, and 
expressed themselves as " willing to treat with any 
gentleman or company for the purchase of the col- 
lection entire." No offer being forthcoming, the 
pictures were sent to Mr. Christie and sold in 
May, 1804, as above. One of the most important 
was a Correggio, Danae, which measured 60 x 78, 
and realized 200 guineas (see also p. 86). The 
adventures of this picture read like a romance. 
It was painted by order of the Duke of Mantua 
as a present for the emperor Charles V., and was 
in his collection at Prague, on the capture of which 
by Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, it was 
sent (with other pictures) to Stockholm ; the Queen 
Christina bought the whole of the collection, and at 
her death it was purchased by the Pope's nephew, 
Odescalchi ; on his death the collection was bought 
by the Regent of France, the Duke of Orleans, 
and placed in the Palais Royal ; about the year 
1728, during a dangerous illness of the then Duke 
of Orleans, son to the Regent, a bigoted friar, his 
confessor, made it the condition of his absolution 
that he should order all the pictures with naked 
figures in the Gallery to be destroyed ; an order 
which was executed in the presence of Charles 


Coypel, painter to the Court ; but Coypel contrived 
to cut the Danae in two places without injuring 
the figures ; four months after the picture, restored, 
was sold to the Venetian noble, Lobbia ; in 1 776 the 
Danae was stolen from the family ; in 1 780 Consul 
Udny at Leybon purchased it, and sent it to Eng- 
land in 1793. Another important picture in this 
sale was a second Correggio, Ecce Homo, the 
Virgin fallen in a swoon, 152 guineas, to which 
there is a long and somewhat conflicting history 
attached, which may possibly be the picture now in 
the National Gallery. Other pictures in this sale 
were Fra Bartolommeo, Virgin and Child, St. 
John, and angels, and portrait of Corsini, life size, 
50 x 38, ^"128, and Madonna della Seggiola, 
a circle, 63 guineas; Domenichino, The Magdalen, 
to the knees, 5 30 guineas ; Garofalo, Christ and the 
Woman of Samaria, 102 guineas,; Primaticcio, Her- 
cules teaching Achilles, from Dr. Mead's collection, 
60 guineas ; and Andrea del Sarto, Virgin, Child, 
St. John, Elizabeth, and two angels, 100 guineas. 
This collection was composed almost entirely of 
works by Italian masters, the few Dutch and other 
pictures selling at very small sums. It may be 
further mentioned that Mr. Christie sold Robert 
Udny's furniture on the premises at Teddington on 
July Qth, loth, and nth. 

The pictures from the Barberini Palace formed 
the first important sale of 1805 (March 3Oth), 
and among these were Guido, Magdalen in the 
Desert, 490 guineas ; Leonardo da Vinci, The 
Daughter of Herodias receiving the Head of John 


the Baptist, "deemed one of the most precious 
jewels of the Barberini Palace," 960 guineas ; Gior- 
gione, A Female at her Toilet, 560 guineas ; 
Luini, Portrait of Calvin in his Study, 135 
guineas ; Baroccio, an unfinished work, Madonna 
and Infant sleeping on her bosom, 240 guineas; 
Vandyck, Portrait of an Abbess, 230 guineas; 
Titian, Holy Family and St. Elizabeth under a 
Tree, 130 guineas; and The Flagellation, 230 
guineas. In April (6th) of this year Mr. Christie 
offered his patrons something in the manner of a 
change a valuable and highly curious collection 
of rare birds, natives of Cayenne, being an actual 
consignment to the French National Museum, in- 
cluding various presents to M. Talleyrand and 
others, taken by a ship of war on their passage to 

The only other important picture sale of this 
year took place May I7th, i8th, and 2Oth, and 
comprised "the productions of the great artists of 
the British school," and known as the collection of 
the Shakespeare Gallery of Alderman Boydell. 
This collection of about 1 70 pictures with engrav- 
ings were disposed of by a lottery of 22,000 tickets, 
and on January 28th, 1805, the lottery was drawn, 
the winner being Tassie, the gem modeller, who 
transferred the collection to Christie's, realizing a 
total of rather over 6, 1 5 7. The principal pictures 
were Northcote, Prince Arthur and Hubert in 
Prison, 101 guineas; Richard II. and Boling- 
broke, 108 guineas ; The Princes smothered in 
the Tower, 100 guineas; and Romeo, Juliet and 


Paris at the Tomb of the Capulets, 200 guineas ; 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Death of Cardinal Beau- 
fort, "the celebrated chef-d'oeuvre'' 505 guineas; 
and Puck, ^215 (Samuel Rogers); and Macbeth 
and the Witches, 360 guineas ; B. West, King Lear 
in the Storm, 205 guineas this picture, with two 
others by West purchased at the same time, are 
now in the Philadelphia Museum ; and " those 
matchless set of pictures " by R. Smirke, Shake- 
speare's Seven Ages of Man, 240 guineas. 

Several important pictures were included in the 
collection of the late Richard Hulse, Esq., of 
Blackheath, sold on March 2ist and 22nd, 1806, 
particularly a pair of Cuyps, Cattle and Pigs on 
the banks of a river, 225 guineas, and a Landscape 
with cattle and a farmer on a grey horse convers- 
ing with a herdsman, 430 guineas ; Salvator Rosa, 
the Lycian Peasants transformed into Frogs, "an 
extraordinary effort," 275 guineas; Rembrandt, 
Abraham and Sarah with Isaac, 150 guineas; 
Claude, landscape and figures, 140 guineas; and 
"a chef-d'oeuvre that does infinite honour to the 
British School," a view of Windermere Lake, with 
a man driving sheep and cattle, the joint produc- 
tion of G. Barrett, R.A., and S. Gilpin, R.A., 80 
guineas. A small but very choice assemblage of 
thirty-two valuable pictures, consigned from abroad, 
came under the hammer at Christie's on April 26th. 
Among these were Berghem, a " broken " Land- 
scape, with peasants and cattle passing a ford, 345 
guineas ; Hobbema, A woody Landscape with cot- 
tages and figures, 210 guineas; Terburg, an In- 


terior, a cavalier taking a lady by the hand, and 
other figures (Marquis of Stafford), 240 guineas; 
Both, A Mountainous Pass on the brink of a river, 
300 guineas ; Ruysdael, A Woody scene, with 
torrent rushing over a rocky bed, 190 guineas; 
G. Metzu, a Woman selling fish and vegetables, 
and a house-door, on the lintel of which is in- 
scribed the name of the artist (Eglinton), 240 
guineas ; Teniers, an Interior, with Boors smoking 
and others regaling in an inner apartment (Lord 
Kinnaird), 380 guineas ; Wouverman, Halt of the 
hawking party, 345 guineas; A.Ostade,An Interior, 
with many figures, dancing and regaling, an open 
door in the distance admits a view of a beautiful 
landscape, 490 guineas ; Cuyp, A Landscape on a 
road at the foot of a mountainous pass, peasants 
driving cattle, 376 guineas; and a Paul Potter, A 
Farmyard with cattle and figures, " acknowledged 
by the artist to have been his masterpiece," origin- 
ally painted for the family of Slingleant, 1,450 
guineas (Campbell). The thirty- two pictures 
realized ,7,099 13^. The sale which, above all 
others, was to have rendered the year 1806 cele- 
brated in the annals of picture sales, did not take 
place. The collection formed by Mr. Welbore 
Ellis Agar, chiefly through Gavin Hamilton, who 
(see p. 59) brought a large number of pictures to 
this country from Rome and other cities in Italy, 
was announced by Mr. Christie for May 2nd, 1806. 
There were in all sixty-five pictures, the sizes of 
which are given in the catalogue, printed in French ; 
but the entire collection was privately purchased 

7 6 PICTURE SALES, 1 807. 

by Lord Grosvenor for 30,000 guineas. Deprived 
of the privilege of selling the Agar collection, Mr. 
Christie offered to his clients, on May i ;th, a small 
selection of twenty-four pictures, the property of 
H . R. H . the Duke of Gloucester, the most important 
works being R. Wilson, The Death of Niobe, 
" the celebrated chef-d'oeuvre of the immortal 
Wilson, engraved by Woollett," 800 guineas ; and 
Andrea del Sarto, a Holy Family known as the 
" Madonna del Sacco," and purchased at Rome 
by the duke, 600 guineas. 

An anonymous collection, sold on February 
7th, 1807, calls for special examination, inasmuch 
as it contained three good pictures, Schalken, Le 
Concert de Famille, an interior with five persons, 
230 guineas this work has been engraved by 
Wille ; C. du Jardin, A Cavalier watering his 
horse at a brook during a halt from the chace, 
250 guineas; and a highly important work of 
Rubens, The Return of Peace to the City of Ant- 
werp, the latter allegorically represented as a 
beautiful female embraced by Pallas, who has put 
sedition under her feet, in the distance a storm 
dispersing, 950 guineas. During the next week 
(February i4th) the capital and valuable finished 
and unfinished original works of the distinguished 
artist John Russell, Esq., R.A., crayon painter to 
His Majesty, the Prince of Wales and Duke of 
York, came up for sale (and a still further consign- 
ment on March 25th) ; and on the 26th, 27th, and 
28th the pictures of " one of the principal pro- 
prietors of the European Museum, retiring from 


the concern," came under the hammer, but neither 
sale calls for details. 

The remaining works of " that great genius and 
distinguished artist, James Barry, Esq., deceased," 
occupied Mr. Christie on April loth and nth, 
1807, but very few of the 141 lots need detain us. 
We may mention, however, the justly celebrated 
chef-d'ceuvre y Pandora receiving her Presents from 
the Gods, 230 guineas, the finished study of 
his great picture on the walls of the Society of 
Arts in the Adelphi ; an unfinished Portrait of Dr. 
Johnson, 30 guineas ; and A Temptation of Adam, 
100 guineas. Quite an epidemic of sales of "the 
remaining works " of recently deceased artists ap- 
pears to have broken out in this year ; for in addi- 
tion to the two already mentioned, on April 27th, 
" the select and reserved collection of portraits of 
the eminent and very celebrated artist," George 
Romney, was offered for sale, but very few of the 
articles were actually sold ; they were reserved, in 
fact, until May, 1894, when they came up at 
Christie's once more. 

The principal picture sale of 1807 was the earlier 
of the two of M. Lafontaine, a very successful 
dealer of Paris, and through whose hands a large 
number of highly important works passed. For 
convenience we bracket the two sales together. 
The earlier of the two, that of June I3th, 1807, 
included the celebrated Rembrandt, now in the 
National Gallery, the Woman taken in Adultery, 
5,000 guineas ; the equally famous Claude, A Land- 
scape, with figures representing the marriage fes- 


tival of Isaac and Rebecca, known also as "II 
Molino, or Claude's Mill," from the composition in- 
cluding a picturesque water-mill, 800 guineas ; this 
picture is also in the National Gallery. There 
were several other Claudes, notably The Grotto of 
Neptune, 410 guineas ; and Landscape and seaport, 
1,900 guineas; Rembrandt, a Sea piece, with numer- 
ous vessels and a yacht from which the Statholder 
and suite have put off in a barge of State, 470 
guineas ; Rubens, Portrait of Helena Forman and 
child, in a landscape by Breughel, ,290 ; Leonardo 
da Vinci, St. Jerome seated under a Tree, 440 
guineas ; and Correggio, Virgin and Child with St. 
John, from the Modena collection, 3,000 guineas. 
The second of the two sales, June i2th, 1811, 
was, like the first, anonymous, although the ven- 
dor's identity was in each case well known. The 
great picture on this occasion was the celebrated 
Rembrandt, The Master Ship-builder, " known 
throughout Europe as the finest performance in his 
second manner," and purchased for 5,000 guineas 
by Lord Yarmouth for the Prince of Wales (George 
IV.) ; this picture is now in the Royal Collection, 
Buckingham Palace. Lord Yarmouth also purchased 
Adrian Van de Velde, Peasants and cattle reposing 
beneath a woody bank, 1,800 guineas; Wouver- 
man, Hay Harvest, "a perfect chef-d'oeuvre, in 
which all the excellencies of this master are beauti- 
fully combined," i, 700 guineas ; A. Ostade, Flemish 
Family's Repast, one of this artist's very finest 
interiors, i ,000 guineas ; and Teniers, A Flemish 
Village Fete, a composition of nearly 200 figures, 


comprising a religious procession, a brawl, a group 
of dancers, tables spread with viands, and peasants 
regaling, 1,650 guineas. The other pictures in- 
cluded F. Mieris, Lady Stringing Pearls, seated 
at a table covered with a rich Turkey carpet, on 
which is a silver vase and salver, 280 guineas 
this is the celebrated " 1'Enfileuse de perles," 
afterwards in the Talleyrand Collection ; Vandyck, 
Christ Healing the Lame Man, 1 a composition 
chiefly of three figures, engraved by De Jode as 
" Tolle Crabbatum,"^346; Salvator Rosa, A Grand 
Landscape with broken hilly grounds and detached 
rocks, 290 guineas ; G. Poussin, A Grand Land- 
scape, 290 guineas ; Guercino, The Woman 
taken in Adultery, from the palace of Cambiaso, 
Genoa, 240 guineas ; J. Both, A Grand Landscape, 
with figures, the Baptism of the Eunuch, 1,550 
guineas ; and W. Van de Velde, A Calm, with a 
fleet at anchor, and a vessel and yachts in motion, 
950 guineas. Although all these prices are duly 
copied from Mr. Christie's catalogue, it is highly 
probable that several of them are fictitious. The 
Wouverman, as well as the Rembrandt and Van de 
Velde passed into the Prince of Wales's possession, 
and, after adorning the walls of Carlton House, were 
subsequently removed to Buckingham Palace ; but 
the Prince is understood to have acquired them at 
much lower than the published amounts. Several 
pictures, moreover, were admittedly bought in. 
On Saturday, June 2oth, 1807, " a most capital 

1 By some extraordinary blunder Redford quotes this picture 
as having realized ,3,800 at this sale. 

80 SALES IN 1807. 

and valuable collection of pictures, the property of 
an eminent collector, purchased by him chiefly in 
the course of several tours on the Continent," came 
under the hammer, and appears to have included 
a few good things, notably a chef-d'oeuvre of 
Rubens, A Holy Family, formerly the altarpiece 
of the Theatine Convent at Munich (and possibly 
the picture referred to by Van Hassett as "pro- 
venait de la collection de Lord Scarborough"), 
800 guineas ; and another by the same artist, 
Fathers of the Church, 195 guineas. A few 
other sales of this year may be here dealt with 
collectively. On June 2nd, 3rd and 5th, Mr. 
Christie sold the Museum and entire stock of Mr. 
Innocent, " retiring from the business and removed 
from his house at the corner of Little Newport 
Street " ; the stock comprised a great assortment 
of stones, agates, crystals, miniatures, shells, 
minerals, carvings in ivory, eight small stained 
glass gothic windows, and, last but not least, 
" the cap in which King Charles I. was beheaded," 
and which, in spite of the fact that it was 
"well authenticated," only realized 2 i$s. On 
October 2nd "a vast assemblage of curious and 
singularly fine Hyacinths and other bulbous roots 
of the rarest kinds and in every variety," came up 
for sale at Christie's, and this was probably the 
first consignment of the kind sold by auction in 
England ; the experiment was apparently a suc- 
cess, for on November 3rd another importation 
came under Christie's hammer. 

Only one sale in 1808 calls for special notice. 

By T. ROWLANDSON. From l 'The Microcosm of London," plate 8. 

of several to 
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A dozen pictures, "the property of John Lenthall, 
Esq., being a choice part of the collection formed 
by William Lenthall, Speaker of the Long Parlia- 
ment, who died in 1662, since which time the 
paintings have never been out of the family man- 
sion at Burford (Oxfordshire), from which they 
have recently been brought." The only work in 
this small collection which calls for special notice 
was a group of seven life-size pictures by Holbein, 
the arms of the principal figures emblazoned over 
the heads of each ; the picture measured 1 5 feet x 
10 feet, and was bought in at 1,000 guineas. 
Wornum states that this picture is considered to 
be made up from Holbein's drawing at Basel, and 
other figures introduced by a later hand in 1593, 
fifty years after the death of Holbein ; it is now 
in possession of Mrs. Strickland, of Cokethorpe 
Park, Witney. 

The year 1809, like its predecessor, was barren 
in good picture sales. Only one (February 24th) 
may be mentioned, that of the late Sir H. T. Gott, 
of Newland Park, near Chalfont St. Peter's, Bucks, 
but only two or three realized over ioo guineas, 
e -g"> J an d A. Both, An Italian Landscape, with 
cattle and figures, 155 guineas, and a Wouver- 
man, Romantic Landscape, with a halt of sports- 
men, 1 20 guineas. The most attractive sale of 
the year took place on June 3rd, and comprised 
" a very rare and exceedingly curious assemblage 
of valuable articles actually designed as presents 
to Bonaparte when first Consul of France, inter- 
cepted by English cruisers at the Rio de la Plata 

i. G 


and elsewhere on their passage to Europe." These 
articles included a Chinese pleasure yacht chiefly 
composed of ivory, 6 feet long x 6 feet high, ^ of 
the most surprising and elaborate workmanship," 
240 guineas ; and a fan of the very finest Japan 
lacquer on the talipat leaf, " probably the only 
article of the kind ever seen in the western world," 
30 guineas. 

A number of important sales took place during 
1 8 10. The earliest of these, March i6th and 
1 7th, comprised " original pictures from Spain, 
the actual property of a noble family, expedited to 
this country on their late removal from Seville " ; 
but the two days' sale only produced ^871, and 
only one picture need be specified, a Murillo, An 
Old Woman eating porridge, 71 guineas. During 
the last few days of March and the first few days 
in April, Mr. Christie was busy dispersing the 
extensive collections of pictures, furniture, wines, 
books, snuff boxes, jewellery, prints, and so forth, 
of the late Hon. C. F. Greville, F.R.S., F.A.S., 
etc. The collection of 99 pictures was sold on 
March 3ist, producing a total of ,4,144 us. 
The majority were probably good old copies after 
the great Italian masters ; but a few first-class 
works occurred in this sale, notably R. Wilson, 
Apollo and Diana slaying the children of Niobe, 
apparently one of the two duplicates of the picture 
in the National Gallery, 205 guineas; Rubens, 
Loves of the Centaurs, in a landscape, 6 10 guineas, 
purchased by the Marquis of Douglas, and again 
sold with the Hamilton Palace Collection in 1882. 


But the great sale of the year was the second 
Walsh Porter collection, on Saturday, April I4th, 
when 52 lots realized the total of ,30,074 195., the 
record amount of a day's sale at Christie's, up to 
and for long after the year 1810. We have already 
seen that Mr. Walsh Porter had sold one collection 
seven years previously, and that collection was, at 
the time, regarded as an excellent one. This 
second collection, which comprised specimens of 
nearly all the great masters of every foreign 
school, is described by the auctioneer as "a 
superb assemblage, well known to the more dis- 
tinguished cognoscenti, but which has never been 
generally exhibited," and further as " scarcely to 
be equalled by even the finest that has been con- 
signed to this country within the last ten years." 
The sale was without the least reserve, and 
the catalogues, without which no person was 
admitted on the day of the sale, were sold at 
half-a-crown each. The more important of the 
pictures were the following : Jan Steen, Exterior 
of a Cabaret, with skittle-ground, near a fortified 
town, several groups, from the Neuilly collection, 
194 guineas ; Van der Heyden, A view of the Stadt- 
house, Amsterdam, 220 guineas; Ruysdael, The 
Mill, now at Buckingham Palace, 290 guineas ; 
Carlo Dolci, Virgin and child, with flowers, 300 
guineas ; Guido, St. Apollonia and the Executioner, 
with cherub, from the Orleans collection, 330 
guineas ; Metzu, Lady with a harpsichord, and 
cavalier, from the Choiseul collection, 250 guineas ; 
A. Ostade, Boors smoking, 260 guineas ; Wynants 


and Wouverman, Forest scene, with figures hawk- 
ing, 320 guineas, purchased by Lord Yarmouth 
for the Prince of Wales ; Wouverman, Camp 
scene with a beggar, 300 guineas ; Leonardo da 
Vinci, Virgin and child with cherries, sculptured 
pedestal and landscape, 810 guineas; Giorgione, 
Venus and Cupid stung by a bee, in landscape, 
from the Orleans collection, 320 guineas ; Vandyck, 
St. Sebastian and soldiers, 850 guineas, and Virgin, 
with Infant standing on her knee, with Magdalen, 
David, and the good Thief, 750 guineas ; Teniers, 
Group of fishermen on beach, 610 guineas, and 
Village Surgeon, from the Chevalier De Venee's 
collection, engraved, 240 guineas; Gerard Dow, Old 
Woman with a candle, 200 guineas ; Rembrandt, 
Head of a Rabbi, 194 guineas ; P. Veronese, Mar- 
riage of the Virgin, with many figures, from the 
Corsini Palace, 350 guineas ;- N. Poussin, Holy 
Family, 610 guineas ; G. Poussin, Woody valley, 
with goatherd and figures, from the Corsini 
Palace, 600 guineas ; A. Carracci, Silenus and 
Apollo, designed for a harpsichord, from the 
Lanzelotti Palace, engraved, 300 guineas, pur- 
chased by Mr. Angerstein and now in the National 
Gallery; Murillo, a pair from the Capuchin Con- 
vent, Genoa, Magdalen in prayer, choir of angels, 
420 guineas; and a Riposo with angels, 1,000 
guineas ; Titian, Adoration of the Kings, with 
one of the kings alighted from a white horse, 
presented to Charles V. by the Spanish Court, 
520 guineas; Titian, Ariadne in Naxos, known 
as "the Bacchanalian Scene," one of the four 


pictures painted for Duke Alfonso of Ferrara, 
1,500 guineas, the catalogue contains a long 
description of this work, " which agrees with the 
picture No. 450 in the Museo del Prado, Madrid, 
of which this was either a fine copy or a replica, as 
it brought this high price " (Redford) the present 
whereabouts of this picture is not known ; Guido, 
St. Jerome and Angel, from the Balbi Palace, 610 
guineas ; Bassano, Conversion of a Princess, with 
a bishop, and cherubs, from Corsini Palace, 310 
guineas ; Andrea del Sarto, Virgin with the young 
Christ and St. John, 1,150 guineas (Buchanan); 
Domenichino, St. Cecilia, holding palm in right 
hand, and scroll of music in the left, group of 
angels near, and before her the organ, a wreath of 
roses round her head, formerly in the Pallavicini 
collection, 1,750 guineas (the same) ; three highly 
important Claudes, The Enchanted Castle, a bay, 
with castle on the shore in middle ground, and 
fine trees, female figure in a pensive attitude 
seated in foreground, figures in a boat in the bay, 
some deer near, 900 guineas (the same) sketched 
by Claude, No. 162, " Liber Veritatis," and 
the picture painted for the Conestabile collection 
in 1664, subsequently passing into the possession 
of Mr. Davenant, Mr. Chauncy, M. de Calonne, 
Mr. Froward, Mr. Walsh Porter, Mr. Wells, of 
Redleaf, and finally into the Overstone collection, 
where it now is ; Sinon before Priam and his 
suite, with guards to the right, Troy on the left on 
a hill, and the Trojan camp, from the Ghigi 
Palace, No. 145, " Liber Veritatis " 2,750 guineas ; 

86 MINOR SALES, l8lO. 

and ^Eneas shooting deer on the coast of Lybia, 
Achates and followers, woody landscape, with 
several temples and ancient buildings, from the 
Colonna Palace, 600 guineas ; two by Rubens, 
Pan and Syrinx, from the collection of the Due 
de Montesquieu, cabinet size, engraved, 1,000 
guineas, and The Painter as St. George, preceded 
by his three wives, one as Mary Magdalen, 
standing in front before the Virgin seated with 
the Infant, St. Jerome kneeling, with winged boy 
holding book, group of angels in sky, formerly in 
the Balbi Palace at Genoa, 2,050 guineas ; P. 
Veronese, Venus and Cupid, from the Colonna 
Palace, 770 guineas ; Correggio, Danae receiving 
the shower of gold, rather smaller than life this 
picture is referred to at length in Mengs' " Life " 
of the Artist (see also p. 71), 2,050 guineas. 

Subsequent sales held during the year 1810 
suffer much by comparison with the Walsh Porter 
sensation. The collection of Sir Philip Stephens 
was sold on May i7th, on the premises, 2, Great 
Cumberland Crescent, Oxford Street, by order of 
Viscount Ranelagh, but of the hundred pictures 
we need only refer to Teniers, The Gazette, four 
men and the newsman, from the Orleans collection, 
^450 ; A. Cuyp, A Grand Landscape, morning 
scene, a river, a horseman in the middle of the 
foreground, and other figures, with cows, 48 x 63!-, 
i, 600 guineas, and an Evening Scene, bank of river 
with cows and herdsman, fisherman's basket in 
front and a heron hiding in the rushes, 1,000 
guineas. Caleb Whitefoord's collection was sold by 


Mr. Christie on May 4th and 5th, but it contained 
no pictures of importance Whitefoord is painted 
by Wilkie as the hero in the well-known picture 
of The Letter of Introduction. On May 25th and 
26th, Mr. Christie sold the pictures and works 
of art in marble and bronze of the late Marquis of 
Lansdowne, removed from Lansdowne House, and 
including a pair by Salvator Rosa, Diogenes casting 
away his Golden Cup, 980 guineas ; and Heraclitus 
contemplating, surrounded with decaying pyramids, 
obelisks, spoils of war, skeletons, etc., 950 guineas, 
both from Sir George Yonge's collection, and both 
bought in ; also 38 pictures by order of the 
assignees of Michael Bryan, author of the " Dic- 
tionary of Painters " ; and also of a number of 
pictures the property of " a collector distinguished 
for his refined taste," which included Murillo, 
Madonna and child, 650 guineas ; and the Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, "a beautiful little gem," 140 
guineas ; and several examples of Teniers, Wouver- 
man, A. del Sarto, N. Poussin, and Sir Antonio 
More's Portrait of Queen Mary, 1 80 guineas. 


1811 1847. 







HE first important sale of 181 1 (May 
25th) comprised the " capital and 
highly valuable assemblage, chiefly 
of distinguished Italian, and a few 
Spanish, French, Flemish and Dutch 
pictures of the finest class, the genuine and entire 
collection " of William Young Ottley, the distin- 
guished collector and connoisseur, whose first col- 
lection, as we have seen, was sold at Christie's in 
1 80 1. The present portion comprised ninety- two 
lots, and of these, the most important were Barto- 
lommeo di San Marco, Mary Magdalen carried to 
Heaven by Angels, an unfinished work on panel, 


From a print by JAMES GILLRAY, published May 9, 1808. 

This print exhibits the portico of Christie's old rooms in Pall Mall ; 
attached to the door-post is the usual catalogue, advertising in this 
instance, " 800 Capital Pictures to be Sold by Mr. Christie, February 
ist, 1808." The snow is lying on the railings. A brisk, stooping 
tigure, clapping hi^ hand.- lr \\uniiih, and wearing a spencer and 
gaiter>, and 1.1 LI k--, luprr-ent- Maecenas, the Marquis of 

Staffoi first Duke- of Sutherland,), as he actually appeared 

(1 in fanning the celebrated Stafford Collection. 


^i^'AiH^ ^O THJeifliJ'H tfl 


. . ' " . 

IUS ni 20100. . 

i "&aiiitivti>.& , . , ,- taoq- 1 ; 

. - . ' 

-(IT : '.8oo. 

. .'fmru; 1 // ii .id ^''^l*' 

lc/ .^W^*^- 



v highly. Valuable assembl iefly 

of distinguished Italian, and a 
Spanish, French, Flemish and Dutch 
t:s ol tht finest cla^s, the genuine and entire 
iction" of William Young the distin- 

^islied coll^ctp^and co:-n- first col- 

s we have seen, wa tie's in 

1801. The present portir 
lot*, and of these, the n e Barto- 

n panel, 


supposed to have been painted for Leo X., when 
Cardinal, whose portrait is introduced in the lower 
part of the picture, 1 20 guineas ; Bassano, Jacob's 
Journey, 220 guineas ; Guercino, A Man in 
Armour, supposed to be intended to represent 
the famous Scanderberg, " one of the finest of this 
artist," from the Albani Palace at Rome, 240 
guineas ; Raphael, Vision of a Christian Knight, 
from the Borghese Palace, 380 guineas, purchased 
probably, according to Redfprd, for Sir Thomas 
Lawrence, from whose possession it passed into 
Lady Sykes's collection, whence it passed into the 
Rev. Thomas Egerton's hands, and was purchased 
for the National Gallery, in 1847, f r 100 guineas; 
G. Poussin, Landscape and figures, from the 
Colonna Palace, 650 guineas ; Murillo, Virgin 
and Child, apparently cut from its straining-frame 
with a sabre and rolled up, was brought to this 
country by a gentleman in the British Service, 
soon after the English had possession of Cadiz, and 
" was probably a part of the pillage which the 
French troops found inconvenient to carry with 
them ; " and has " evidently been the altarpiece 
of a chapel," 380 guineas ; Andrea del Sarto, 
Charity, brought from France to Dublin, many 
years ago, by the Attorney-General Tyndale 
there is a fresco of the same subject in a Cloister 
at Florence 480 guineas ; and Titian, Europa, 
a study, 270 guineas. In several instances, the 
pictures in this sale did not reach the reserve put 
upon them, as they came up for sale again (after 
Ottley's death,) on March 4th, 1837, when the 


Titian sketch (of which the catalogue contained 
an engraving) fell to 148 guineas ; Rembrandt's 
Bathsheba declined from /i8o to 105 guineas; 
Bassano's Jacob's Journey, from 220 guineas to 41 
guineas ; and the companion picture of Dives and 
Lazarus, from ^79 to 30 guineas. 

The principal sale of the year, however, was an 
anonymous one, which took place on June 22nd, 
and comprised pictures from the collection of the 
Duca di San Pietro. The examples of the work 
of Rubens, Rembrandt, Leonardo, Spagnoletto, 
and Alessandro Veronese, were of a highly impor- 
tant character, judging by the prices at which they 
were knocked down. One of the two Rembrandts, 
The Calling of St. Matthew, is described as " a very 
capital and beautiful easel picture, painted with 
great spirit of outline, and a most brilliant and 
harmonious display of colour ;- " it was apparently 
bought in at 1,450 guineas; the Leonardo was 
a Portrait of a female in white bodice, and low 
embroidered turban cap, "a brunette with the 
most pleasing regularity of feature," "the figure 
simply relieved by a curtain of emerald green," 
3,000 guineas. The Spagnoletto, St. Sebastien, a 
female drawing an arrow from a wound and 
another bearing the ointment, 3,000 guineas ; and 
Alessandro Veronese, Murder of the Innocents, 
2,900 guineas ; these three, like the Rembrandt, 
were almost certainly bought in, and to a number 
of the other pictures no prices are attached. It is 
interesting to note in connection with this sale 
that, after the death of the Duke, some of the 

SALES FROM I 8 IO- I 8 19. 9 1 

pictures which had been offered in this sale, came 
again under the hammer on July loth, 1813, not, 
however, at Christie's, but at Squibb's, when ex- 
ceedingly small prices were realized the best 
were Murillo, A Boy Sleeping, 36 x 27, 500 
guineas ; and Rembrandt, Semiramis at her Toilet 
hearing of the revolt of Babylon, which introduces 
in the foreground portraits of the wife of the 
artist in profile, his mother and himself, 66 x 48, 
800 guineas. Mr. Redford quotes a number of 
the eighty-three pictures which realized less than 

Although Christie's annual volumes of catalogues 
show a progressive growth in size, and the sales a 
constant increase in number, the picture sales from 
1810 to 1819 included very few of importance. 
We may mention, however, the sale of William Nor- 
ton Pitt's pictures, June ist, 1811, which realized 
;i,934 5^.; and also that some of the effects of 
the Duke of Queensberry ("old Q " ) were sold 
on August 3Oth, 1812. During 1812 the sales in- 
cluded the pictures collected by Bishop Hoadley 
and Dr. Hoadley, January 2ist (total 934 i6s.) ; 
some Italian pictures, the property of Edmund 
Burke, on June 5th (total ,2,018 12s. bd.) ; the 
late Duke of Roxburghe's " fashionable plate," 
June nth, realized the very high amount of 
.33,646 Ss. The late Bishop of Ely's extensive 
collection of engraved British and foreign por- 
traits occupied 12 days in selling, from March ist, 
1813, with the apparently poor result of ^"1,759 2s. 
The most important sale during the nine years was 


that of Henry Hope's collection, which occupied 
three days from June 27th, 1816, and included 286 
pictures, which showed a total of ,14,466. Four 
of the most interesting works were purchased by 
Lord Yarmouth for the Prince Regent, and are 
now in the Royal Collections, namely, two por- 
traits by Vandyck, the artist himself as Paris, 360 
guineas; and Gaston, Due d'Orleans, 390 guineas ; 
Rubens, Assumption of the Virgin, 240 guineas, 
at Windsor ; and a Rembrandt, portrait of Burgo- 
master Pancras and wife, ,300, now at Bucking- 
ham Palace ; Vandyck's portraits of De Vos and 
his Wife, 80 guineas and 100 guineas respectively ; 
Rubens, Woman taken in Adultery, 2,000 guineas 
the highest price in the sale ; and the Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, 250 guineas ; Murillo, Holy 
Family, from the Calonne collection, ^320 ; 
Guido, Magdalen, 210 guineas, and Salvator 
Mundi, ^215, and two other pictures attributed 
to this master, and a pair by Albano, the Bath of 
Diana, and Apollo recalled to Heaven, {purchased 
by Lord Yarmouth) for 147 guineas. [_The Due 
d'Alberg's pictures were sold at Christie's on June 
1 3th of the following year, the sixty-seven lots 
realizing a nominal total of ,2,162, but most of 
them were bought in ; the chief prices were, Do- 
menichino, Landscape, 1,000 guineas; Correggio, 
Christ's Agony in the Garden, ^367 ; Albano, St. 
Teresa in Prayer, 200 guineas ; G. Poussin, Mount 
Parnassus, with figures by P. da Cortona, 200 
guineas ; and the companion picture, 240 guineas, 
both these latter were painted for the Palavicini 


Palace, Rome ; Metzu, Woman cleaning Fish, 160 
guineas this picture passed into the Beckford 
collection, and from thence into that of Mr. 
Higginson, and was again sold at Christie's in 
1846 ; and Jan Steen, The Artist and his family at 
dinner, 462! 

On Friday, May 9th, 1817, and three following 
week days, the pictures and so forth, of William 
Beckford of Fonthill, realized ,4,339 gs. 6d. Mr. 
J. F. Tuffen's collection of ninety-four pictures 
was sold on April nth, 1818, and produced, with 
the bronzes, Etruscan vases, sculpture, etc., sold on 
the same day, the total of ,4,253 5^. ; it included, 
Jan Steen, a Cabaret scene, the hostess presenting 
wine to a man seated on a barrel under a trellis, 
I2 i x 9i> from the collection of the Due de 
Valentinois, 245 guineas ; Wouverman, A Fair, 
from the same collection, 13 x 14, 120 guineas; 
A. Van de Velde, Cattle feeding, with boy and 
girl, n^ x 1 6, from the Heathcote collection, 
1 80 guineas; A. Ostade, Interior, with Boors 
playing Trie Trac, from the Orleans Gallery, 340 
guineas; Isaac Ostade, Door of a Cabaret, with 
Boors drinking, and a white horse, 14 x 13, from 
the collection of the Comte de Vaudreuil, 20 x 14, 
200 guineas; W. Mieris, Interior, with a Show- 
man and a Dutch family, from the collection of 
Lady Holderness, 23 x 19^-, 330 guineas ; 
and Teniers, an Open-air Concert before the artist's 
house, Teniers playing a violoncello, with his 
wife and family, 16 x 13, ^173. 

In 1819, March 26th, and two following days, 


the collection of 350 pictures, by the old masters, 
of Ph. Panne, of Great George Street, Hanover 
Square, came under the hammer at Christie's. 
There were many good things in this collection of 
350 pictures, although there were no sensational 
prices. Special mention may be made of the 
following : P. de Hooghe, The Cradle, mother 
suckling infant, with spaniel and servant, 32 x 36, 
,174 ; Leonardo, Virgin, Child in her lap, stretch- 
ing oat his arms, foliage background, 41 x 32, 
280 guineas ; Giorgione, Concert of four figures, 
said to be portraits of two Italian poets and their 
mistresses, from the Udny collection, 32 x 40 
(Lord Yarmouth), 277 guineas. This collection is 
especially noticeable on account of the several first- 
class examples of Correggio which it contained, 
viz., Danae, 60 x 76, from the Udny collection, 309 
guineas (see p. 86) ; Virgin, with child in her lap, 
34 x 27, 250 guineas ; The Virgin with the Infant 
Christ on her knee, with workbasket, and St. 
Joseph at his carpenter's bench, " La Vierge au 
Panier," 14^x1 1^,240 guineas, " apparently the 
beautiful picture in the National Gallery, No. 23, 
which was purchased of Mr. C. J. Nieuwenhuys 
for ,3,800 in 1825" (Redford). No total of this 
sale is given, but the second day realized ,3,397, 
and the third day, "6,125. A notable sale of 
1819 comprised the painted Greek vases of the late 
Sir John Coghill, Bart, June i8th and igth, realiz- 
ing the then high amount of "2,557 45-. 6d. 

The two principal sales of 1820 were those 
of Arthur Champernowne and Benjamin West, 


P.R.A. West, who succeeded Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds in the Presidency of the Royal Academy, 
was, like his distinguished predecessor, not only 
an artist, but an eminent collector of objects of 
art. There were two sales, the earlier and more 
important taking place at the artist's late residence 
in Newman Street, on June 23rd and 24th, 1820, 
and the second on May 28th, 1824. Mr. Christie 
was the auctioneer on both occasions. Mr. Red- 
ford gives a fairly exhaustive list of the articles 
included in the earlier sale, and places the total at 
about ,15,000. The principal pictures were the 
following : Metzu, Lady playing Viol di Gamba, 
gentleman with a flute, and two others in the back- 
ground, i8|- x 15!-, 150 guineas; Rembrandt, 
Abraham and the Angels, dated 1646, 6J x 8J, 
290 guineas ; and a forest scene, with figures, 
1 6 x 14 (S. Rogers), 200 guineas ; A. Carracci, 
Death of St. Francis, and a choir of Angels, 
2 7i x J 9i 1 94 guineas; P. Veronese, The Offering 
of the Wise Men, 39x53, 120 guineas; four 
examples of Titian, the Magdalen in landscape, 
47 x 37> !5O guineas ; the Bath of Diana, 27 x 36, 
study for the picture in the Stafford Gallery, 610 
guineas ; the Last Supper, study for the picture in 
the Escurial, 29^- x 40, 435 guineas apparently 
bought in, as it was again sold in the West Sale of 
1824, this time realizing only 250 guineas (it is 
now in the Overstone Collection of Lord Wantage) 
and the most important work in the sale, The 
Death of Actaeon, 49 x 71, formerly in the collec- 
tion of Charles I., to whom it was presented by the 


King of Spain, 1,700 guineas ; Pynacker, A glow- 
ing Landscape with arched gateway, 38! x 50^, 
^"299 ; N. Poussin, Landscape, with Cephalus and 
Procris, 25^x32, 205 guineas, and a Moonlight 
Landscape with Pyramus and Thisbe, 25^x37, 
1 80 guineas; Giorgione, Knight in armour, the 
head bare, a whole length portrait, said to be of 
Gaston de Foix, was purchased for 140 guineas 
by Samuel Rogers, and bequeathed by him to the 
National Gallery in 1855 ; Parmigiano, Virgin and 
Child, St. John and Magdalen, 26 x 21, from Sir G. 
Page's collection, 360 guineas ; Wouverman, The 
Watering place, with the red cap, from the Choiseul 
collection, 18 x 25, 500 guineas ; Hobbema, River 
Scene, with fisherman, 18 x 25!-, 290 guineas; 
Rubens, Minerva repelling War from the Throne of 
James I., 155 guineas; Guido, Ecce Homo, oval 
on panel, 22 x 16 (S. Rogers), 700 guineas; and 
Berghem, peasants at door of a stable, and girl 
milking, 44x39, 450 guineas. The 1824 sale 
comprised " the remaining pictures of the late 
Benjamin West," and produced the insignificant 
total of ^829 IQS. 6d. There was yet a third West 
sale, and this consisted of pictures, mostly studies 
for his large works, which Mr. West exhibited in 
the gallery where he received visitors at his house ; 
this sale was conducted by George Robins, on May 
22nd, 23rd, and 25th, 1829. 

The second important sale of 1820 comprised 
the collection of pictures formed with excellent 
judgment by the late Arthur Champernowne, 
" purchased from several distinguished Palaces in 


Italy." The sale took place on June 3Oth, and 
produced a total of ,5,688. The principal lots 
were Rubens, the Horrors of War, 19^x30^, a 
sketch of the large picture painted in 1637, and 
now in the Pitti Palace at Florence, 155 guineas, 
purchased by Samuel Rogers, and now in the 
National Gallery ; a good copy of Andrea Man- 
tegna's Triumph, 335 guineas ; Titian, Noli me 
Tangere, from the cabinet of the Muselli family at 
Verona, and subsequently in the Orleans col- 
lection, 315 guineas, purchased by Samuel Rogers 
and bequeathed by him to the National Gallery in 
1855; Domenichino, landscape with St. George 
and Dragon, from Lucien Buonaparte's collection, 
purchased by the Rev. H. Carr (against S. Rogers), 
for 410 guineas, and bequeathed by him to the 
National Gallery in 1831 ; N. Poussin, landscape, 
and figures (S. Rogers), ,212 ; G. Poussin, land- 
scape, "TheCampagna" / 22o; Murillo, Adoration 
of the Shepherds, from a [? the Capuchin] Convent 
at Genoa, 2*43 ; Andrea del Sarto, Holy Family, 
from the Mari Palace, Genoa, ^410 guineas ; and 
Fra Bartolommeo, Virgin, Christ and St. John, 
from the Aldobrandini Palace, Rome, 290 guineas. 

The only important sale of 1821 was one of the 
greatest interest. It comprised many works of 
the old masters, and a number of Sir Joshua 
Reynolds's own pictures, which Sir Joshua had 
bequeathed, with the bulk of his property, to his 
favourite niece, Mary Palmer, who married the 
Marquis of Thomond. The sale took place on 
May 1 8th and ic,th, the pictures and a few bronzes 

i. H 


producing a total of ,15,040 13*; whilst the 
collection of Sir Joshua's sketches and drawings by 
the old masters, sold on the 26th, fetched ^962 
1 2 s. The sale attracted all the 6lite of the day, and 
among those present were the Dukes of Devon- 
shire and Northumberland; Lords Egremont, 
Grosvenor, Bridgwater, Fitzwilliam, Dudley, and 
Harewood; Sir Charles Long for George IV., 
and Mr. Alexander Baring. The following list 
includes the chief works : 

Portrait of the Artist with a Book . 234 gs. Lord Normanton. 

Hope Nursing Love 215 gs. ... Morris. 

Mrs. Hartley as a Bacchante with a 

Child on her Shoulders . . . 290 gs. Lord Carysfoot. 

Young Girl with Scarlet Muff . . 265 gs. Lord Landsdowne. 

Gipsy Fortune Teller, 44 x 55 \ . 240 gs. . . . Gosling. 

Piping Shepherd Boy with Dog . 410 gs. . Sir G. Philips. 

Young Shepherdess with Lambs . 210 gs. 
[? Mrs. Stanhope as] Contemplation, 

55i x 44 145 gs. ... Pinney- 

Dido on the Funeral Pile, 56 x 94 700 gs. ... Pinney. 

Snake in the Grass 510 gs. Sir John Soane. 

Resignation, elderly man in chair . 125 gs. ... Pinney. 

Lady Hamilton 202 gs. . . Lambton. 

Sir Joshua in Spectacles . . . . 100 gs. 

View from Richmond Hill . . . 155 gs. 

Girl with Kitten 295 gs. Lord Normanton. 

Mrs. Stanhope ^1,105 . . . Pinney. 

Earl of Dunmore, whole length . .114 gs. 

Admiral Rodney 115 gs. 

The sale included also Sir Joshua's large paint- 
ings, designed for the New College, Oxford, and 
which were copied on glass by Jarvis. These 
pictures, all of which measured about 72x33, were : 


Adoration of the Shepherds (por- 
traits of Sir Joshua and Jarvis) 1,500 gs. Lord Normanton. 
Girl, and Children with a Torch . 400 gs. 

Shepherd Boy and Dog .... 650 gs. 

Young St. John and Lamb . . . 600 gs. 

Charity 1,100 gs. 

Faith 700 gs. 

Hope 350 gs. 

Temperance 600 gs. 

Justice 175 gs. 

Fortitude 400 gs. 

Prudence 410 gs. 

Of the foregoing pictures, it may be mentioned 
that the Snake in the Grass 1 has found a permanent 
home in the Soane Museum, Lincoln's Inn Fields ; 
Hope nursing Love is at Stafford House ; the 
fancy portrait of Mrs. Hartley appeared at Lord 
Carysfoot's sale in 1828, at the Bentley sale in 
1863, when it was bought in, and again in 1874, 
when it was purchased by Messrs. Agnew, and is 
now the property of Lord Rothschild ; the Piping 
Shepherd Boy is still in possession of Sir George 
Philips's descendant; the portrait of Mrs. Stanhope 
as Contemplation appeared in the Munro sale of 
1878, and was purchased for the Baroness Alphonse 
de Rothschild ; the Girl with a muff is owned by 

' This is one of the two genuine duplicates. The original 
picture, now in the National Gallery (see p. 121), was painted 
by Sir Joshua for Lord Carysfoot in June, 1 788, the price being 
100 guineas. The second duplicate is in Baron Rothschild's 
collection. This picture has always been a prime favourite 
with copyists, and no season's picture sales is complete without 
several of these copies. 


the Marquis of Lansdowne ; whilst some of the 
New College pictures are in possession of the 
present Lord Normanton, and at least two of these, 
the Adoration of the Shepherds, and the Shepherd 
Boy, belong to the Earl Fitzwilliam. 

In March and April of 1821 Mr. Christie was 
selling the contents of the Gothic Hall, near the 
Opera Colonnade, Pall Mall. This sale is interest- 
ing to us chiefly from the fact that it was one 
of the first in which armour is made a special 
feature. One of the lots was "a most excellent 
suit of the early part of Elizabeth's reign," and of 
about six feet in height ; it was discovered about 
three years previously in an old convent near 
Norwich, and now realized thirty guineas. The 
same sale included what was described as Oliver 
Cromwell's helmet, which went for a couple of 
guineas. The most curious lot of all was No. 221, 
catalogued as the armour of a crusader, and de- 
scribed as follows : " This ancient Suit of Chain 
mail is of the utmost rarity, being the only perfect 
specimen extant : it remained for centuries in Tong 
Castle in Shropshire, from whence it was obtained 
by the late Dr. Green, of Litchfield : it is near 
700 years old, being of the time of King Stephen 
as set up, including the horse and the highly 
curious and elaborate armour which covers it (of 
which we have no memorandum except in ancient 
illuminations, tapestry, etc.], together with a Nor- 
man spear and ditto mace, both of which are per- 
fectly unique." Apparently this valuable relic was 
not sold ; at all events it subsequently found its 

SALES OF l822. 101 

way to the Tower of London, where it now is, 
and where it was revered for many years as 
having been worn by a Crusader. It is, how- 
ever, of comparatively modern manufacture, and is 
certainly not older than the sixteenth century ; the 
horse is Persian work and the man is Indian of 
the same period. The suit of armour of Henri IV. 
of France was offered at the same time, as was 
also a curious carved stock of an Arcubalista, found 
about the year 1773 by some labourers working 
in Bosworth Field (Gentleman's Magazine, Feb- 
ruary, 1785), but apparently neither lot was sold. 
The year, 1822, which promised to be one of the 
most successful for Mr. Christie, turned out to be a 
singularly uninteresting and unprofitable one. On 
May 1 4th and i5th, the small collection of pictures, 
the genuine property of John Lamb, Esq., late of 
the. South Sea House, deceased, well known for 
his love of the fine arts who may possibly have 
been related to Charles Lamb, who was also of the 
South Sea House realized ,1,317 6^. Some 
pictures from the very noble and extensive collec- 
tion " of the Marquis of Bute, were sold June 7th 
and 8th, of the same year, and realized a total of 
,3,628 75. 6d. During the early summer of this 
year, the rumours of the sale of the magnificent 
art collections at Fonthill Abbey disturbed the 
sleeping hours of collectors all over the country, and 
the newspapers of the period to some extent reflect 
the excitement which this rumour was causing. 
During August the following advertisement ap- 
peared in the Musettm and other newspapers : 


" Fonthill Abbey. (Now on view.) Mr. Christie 
has the honour very respectfully to inform the 
Nobility, Connoisseurs, and the Public, that on 
Tuesday, October Qth, he will sell by Auction, the 
very select and valuable collection of Italian, 
French, Flemish, and Dutch pictures, in the above 
highly-celebrated mansion, which has been formed 
under the peculiar advantages of correct judgment 
and acknowledged taste, by purchases abroad and 
in this country. 

11 Among them will be found, of the Italian 
School, the Laughing Boy, by L. da Vinci, which 
was long preserved and admired in the cabinet of 
the famous Earl of Arundel ; the Sibylla Lybica, 
by L. Carracci, of gallery size, formerly in the 
Lansdown Collection ; and Job and his Friends, 
the celebrated Santa Croce, master-piece of S. 
Rosa ; and others of the first class, by L. da Vinci, 
Solario, Perugino, Garofalo, Mazzolino, M. Venusti, 
Bronzino, Bellini, Bonifaccio, P. Veronese, Bassano, 
and Domenichino ; of the early painters, A. Man- 
tegna, V. Eyck, Quintin, Matsys, and A. Durer. 

"Also, the Poulterer's Shop, by G. Dow; 
1'Embarquement des Vivres, by Berghem ; and a 
small Landscape, by ditto, of exquisite beauty ; 
two by Teniers ; one by Mieris ; one by Poelemborg ; 
and a Flower Piece, by Van Huysum, all from the 
Choiseuil and Praslin Cabinets : and various by 
Holbein, Sir A. More, Velasquez, Murillo, A. 
Cano, G. Poussin, Stella, Vernet, Fragonard, Brill, 
Breughel, Neefs, Rembrandt, Peters, Steenwyck, 
Wilson, West, Stothard, Decort. 


"N.B. The View will close on the 2Qth of 
September, previous to the Sale. 

" Catalogues may be had of Mr. Hitchcock, on 
the Single, at Amsterdam ; of Mr. Nieuwenhuys, 
Brussels ; at Mr. Gaglinani's office, Paris ; of Mr. 
Clarke, Bookseller, Bond Street, London ; and of 
Mr. Christie, Pall Mall." 

We make no apology for quoting the advertise- 
ment in its entirety, as although Mr. Christie drew 
up the catalogue, of which 1,500 were sold at a 
guinea each, the entire collection was disposed of 
en bloc, prior to the above date, to a Mr. Farquhar for 
,350,000. The sale of the works of art, furniture, 
etc., actually took place in September and October 
of the following year, not, however, under Mr. 
Christie's hammer, but under that of Mr. Phillips, 
and consequently does not come within the scope 
of the present work. 

One of the earliest sales of the year 1823 
consisted of the choice collection of painted Greek 
vases, formed by the late Sir Henry Englefield, 
which came under the hammer March 6th, 7th and 
8th, and realized ,2,732 15^. Two very important 
sales took place in the following June. The earlier 
one comprised the " town collection " of pictures of 
Mr. G. Watson Taylor. 1 Mr. Christie's announce- 

1 There is a portrait of G. Watson Taylor, M.P. (who died 
in 1841), in one of the set of four pictures of patrons of art 
during the reign of George IV., by Pieter Christoph Wonder, 
in the National Portrait Gallery. He is represented kneeling 
in front of the famous Titian, Bacchus and Ariadne, with his 
pale face looking up to Sir John Murray. 


ment intimated in the advertisements that " on 
Friday, the 13* of June, and following Day, he 
will sell by Auction, at his Great Room, Pall Mall, 
precisely at One o'clock, the very distinguished 
collection of Italian, French, Flemish, Dutch, and 
English pictures, of the first class, of George 
Watson Taylor, Esq., being the collection from his 
town mansion in Cavendish Square. The superb 
assemblage comprises chefs-dceuvre which have 
contributed importance to many foreign cabinets, 
and have been further celebrated by engravings 
made from them." Among them were " that 
grand masterpiece " of Parmigiano, the Vision of 
St. Jerome, originally brought to England by the 
Marquis of Abercorn about 1 780 from the church of 
San Salvatore di Lauro, at Citta di Castello, and 
was purchased at this sale by the Rev. H. Carr for 
the British Institution for 3,050 guineas, and is now 
in the National Gallery ; Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
Mrs. Siddons as the Tragic Muse, 1 the celebrated 

1 The original picture was bought by M. de Calonne for 800 
guineas. At the sale of his pictures in 1795 tne " Tragic Muse" 
passed into the hands of W. Smith, Esq., M.P. for Norwich, for 
^700. From him Mr. Watson Taylor purchased it for ^900, 
and at his sale in 1822 it was bought by the first Marquis of 
Westminster for 1,760 guineas. [The correct amount is 1,750 
guineas.] There is an exquisite replica of the picture at Langley 
Park, Stowe, the seat of Mr. Harvey, M.P., given by Sir Joshua 
to Mr. Harvey's grandfather in exchange for a large boar-hunt 
by Snynders, which Sir Joshua admired, and which used to hang 
in the place now filled by the " Tragic Muse." This is certainly 
the finest example of the picture after the original in the 
Grosvenor Gallery. The Dulwich replica (which is the one 
marked in Sir Joshua's account as sold to M. Desenfans in 


picture, 1,750 guineas (Earl Grosvenor). These 
were the two great pictures of the sale ; but there 
were also the following: J. Steen, An Interior, 
with women stealing a watch from a youth over- 
powered with wine and sleep, 200 guineas ; Ruys- 
dael, a small Landscape, with woody bank, a road, 
and a pool of water, with traveller and dog, 97 
guineas ; and a Heath Scene, with a clump of trees 
on a winding road, the companion, 200 guineas ; 
David Teniers, the Four Seasons, " exemplified in 
four beautiful, small, cabinet pictures," from the 
Talleyrand collection, 180 guineas (Peel, now in 
National Gallery) ; Sir Joshua Reynolds, the 
celebrated original portrait of Dr. Samuel John- 
son, painted for Mrs. Thrale, 470 guineas (Major 
Thwaites), subsequently in the Peel collection, 
and now in the National Gallery ; Portrait of 
Baretti, reading, 100 guineas, and of Arthur 
Murphy, 90 guineas both painted for Mrs. 
Thrale ; Jan Steen, Portraits of the artist and 
his wife taking an afternoon nap, their children 
playing tricks, from the D'Alberg collection, 220 
guineas (Mr. Hume) ; Vandyck, Portrait of Simon 
Vos, the celebrated animal painter, 182 guineas, 
and of the wife of De Vos, 340 guineas the latter 
was bought by Wells of Redleaf (see also p. 92) ; 

June, 1789, for .735,) is inferior, and according to Northcote, 
was painted by Score, then one of Sir Joshua's assistants. There 
is a replica (including only the upper part of the figure) in the 
possession of Mrs. Combe, of Edinburgh ; and another, a full- 
length, in Lord Normanton's gallery, of the history of which I 
am not informed. LESLIE AND TAYLOR'S Life, ii. p. 424. 


Rubens, Lions at Play, 315 guineas; Wouverman, 
Bank of River, figures landing goods from a 
shallop, from the Le Perier collection, 685 guineas 
(Hume) ; A. Carracci, Christ and the Woman of 
Samaria at the Well, the Disciples and other 
figures approaching them, 310 guineas; Guido, 
Magdalen accosted by an Infant Angel, 310 
guineas ; D. Teniers, Exterior of a Farmhouse, 
with many Villagers and four Strolling Players, 
395 guineas; William Van de Velde, A Calm, 
Dutch frigate at anchor, a shallop approaching her, 
with other vessels, 390 guineas (Peel, now in the 
National Gallery) ; Ruysdael, a cool fresh Land- 
scape, stream of water between the ruins of an 
abbey mill, 300 guineas (Thwaites) ; G. Poussin, 
Landscape with rich broken scenery, buildings in 
foreground, 360 guineas (Beckford) ; Murillo, Por- 
trait of Don Justino Neve y Yevennes, a Canon of 
Seville, seated, with favourite Dog at his feet, 1 910 
guineas (Thwaites) ; Guido, Martyrdom of St. 
Apollonia, on copper, 400 guineas ; Hobbema, a 
Grand Landscape, with watermill, cottages and a 
transparent sheet of water, figures in a woody scene, 
950 guineas (Sequire), and the companion picture, 
Forest Scene, with road through a village, peasant 
family reposing near a pool in foreground, 800 
guineas (the same) ; Paul Potter, Landscape, with 
a bull and two cows, signed on a paling beneath 
a willow tree on the right, " Paulus Potter, f. 

1 This portrait was brought from Spain about 1804, by 
M. Delahante, and sold to Taylor for ^"1,020; it is now in 
the possession of the Marquis of Lansdowne. 


1647," 1,210 guineas (Thwaites) ; Wouverman, 
Interior of a Stable, with mounted cavalier and 
two others, lady mounted and an attendant 
leading a horse are arriving, 530 guineas 
(Emmerson) ; and Rubens, the Grand Landscape 
with a Rainbow, from the Balbi Palace at Genoa, 
2,600 guineas (Lord Orford). The total of the sale 
amounted to ,18,567 igs., but of this amount 
,6,385 worth of pictures were bought in. 

Within ten days of the Watson Taylor sensation, 
Mr. Christie was called upon to sell the collection 
of pictures formed by his late friend David Garrick. 
Although the sale produced ,3,504 13^. 6d., "the 
magic of a name " unquestionably gave it an 
unusual impetus and interest. Garrick possessed 
a number of portraits of actors in character by 
Zoffany ; a few landscapes by Loutherbourg ; and 
some views by Lambton. The great attraction of 
the sale was centred in the set of four election 
subjects by Hogarth, Canvass, Poll, Chairing, and 
Feast, which lot "was purchased by Mr. Soane, 
with a spirit worthy of his genius and taste " for 
1,650 guineas, and is now in the Soane Museum, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields ; Hogarth's portrait of David 
Garrick, seated at his writing table, composing his 
" Prologue to Taste," with Mrs. Garrick behind, 
was purchased for 71 guineas by Mr. E. H. 
Locker, of Greenwich Hospital, who subsequently 
sold it to George IV., and the portrait is now 
at Windsor Castle ; and an example of Andrea 
del Sarto, Madonna, Child, and St. John, attended 
by three Infant Angels, presented to Garrick by 


Lord Baltimore at Rome, 255 guineas (Prince 
Leopold). The sale included a number of 
Shakespearian relics more or less probably less 
authentic, and among these we may mention a 
salt cellar of Delf ware, two guineas, and a pair of 
gloves and a dagger, $ 5*. In Mrs. Garrick's 
will she bequeathed a pair of gloves, worn by 
Shakespeare, to Mrs. Siddons, so that Garrick 
was passing rich in Shakespeare gloves. 

Early in July (3rd, 4th and 5th) of this year 
the collection of yet another celebrity Joseph 
Nollekens, the sculptor, to wit came under the 
hammer at Mr. Christie's. A writer, probably T. 
F. Dibdin, the bibliographer, in the Museum of 
July 1 2th, says : " If ever there was a genuine 
1 turn out ' this was one. You would swear, not 
only that the property could belong to only one 
man, but that that man had not been accustomed 
to live in drawing rooms, where "silk-damask hang- 
ings were seen, and where Axminster carpets were 
felt. Such a dingy and sombre farrago, it is true, 
could not have graced a gallery in which ladies 
with long trains were accustomed to promenade ; 
nor could they have exactly been the furniture of 
any room but a studio ; in other words, a sculptor's 
workshop." Very few articles reached three figures, 
the more notable exceptions were : Venus pouring 
Ambrosia on her Hair, described as " a beauti- 
ful statue" by Nollekens, 220 guineas (Russel 
Palmer), an antique statue of Minerva with the 
Helmet, the arms replaced by Nollekens, 155 
guineas (Duke of Newcastle) ; an antique bust of 


Commodus, 320 guineas (the same) ; another of 
Mercury, 140 guineas (the same) ; and a bust of 
Charles James Fox, by Nollekens, 145 guineas 
(" Mr. Christie modestly recommended this bust to 
be placed between Trajan and Marcus Aurelius"). 
The total of the sale on the second and third days 
was ^3, 1 82 i6s. 6d. 

The year 1823 ought not to be allowed to pass 
without a brief reference to the pictures of Madame 
Murat, Ex-Queen of Naples. This unfortunate 
woman, after the murder of her husband, rescued 
fifteen Italian pictures of the very first class, from 
the spoils of Austria. They were subsequently 
transferred to a distinguished nobleman, " recently 
our Ambassador at the Court of Vienna," who con- 
signed thirteen of them to the hammer of Mr. 
Christie, by whom they were sold on Saturday^ 
July i2th, 1823. The remaining two, " one of 
them the far-famed Ecce Homo, by Correggio, 
are reserved, and for the present remain in the 
possession of the Noble Marquis." The principal 
prices in the sale were : Perugino, Holy Family, 
and three Angels kneeling in prayer over the 
Infant, shepherds and figures engaged in the chase 
are seen in the distant landscape, Bethlehem crowns 
a precipice, 280 guineas ; Luca Cambiaso, Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine, " an extraordinary picture 
of the master," 260 guineas ; Albano, Apollo and 
Daphne, in a landscape, Cupid with torch is 
urging Apollo forward, 140 guineas (these three 
were bought by Woodburn) ; A. Del Sarto, St. 
John writing the Revelations on the Island of 

IIO SALES OF 1824-5. 

Patmos, pen in one hand and book in the other, 
450 guineas (Woodburn) ; Raphael, Holy Family, 
from the Monte Casino, near Ponte Corvo, 490 
guineas (Solly) ; Titian, the Enamoured Physi- 
cian, female on couch, attended by a doctor, 700 
guineas (the same) ; and Annibale Carracci, Cupid 
asleep, on a bed of clouds, 900 guineas (Peacock). 
The sale realized close on ^ooo. As regards 
the two Correggios, not included in this sale, 
Mercury instructing Cupid in the Presence of 
Venus, and the celebrated Ecce Homo, these were 
sold privately by "the noble Marquis "(London- 
derry), to the National Gallery in 1834, the price 
paid for the pair being ,11,500. The former 
was at one time in the collection of Charles I., and 
the latter was purchased of the Colonna family, by 
Sir Simon Clarke, who, being unable to remove it 
from Italy, sold it to Murat. 

The sales of 1824, included the Italian pictures 
and bronzes of the late Sir Masterman Sykes, May 
2ist and 22nd, the total being ,5,901 ; the cabinet 
and collection of pictures, chiefly of the Bolognese 
School, of Count Cesare Bianchetti, of Bologna, 
produced a total of ,2,653 1 4 S > 6d*> on May 28th, 
1824; the collection of Sir G. Osborne Page 
Turner, of Battlesden Park, near Woburn, Bedford- 
shire, was sold on June 7th and 8th, showing a 
total of ,3,232 2s. t whilst this baronet's " valuable 
and curious selection of articles of vertu " was sold 
on July 29th, and three following days. 

The 1825 sales included some of considerable 
interest ; and among them we may mention a 


small collection of pictures and of fine old Dresden 
china, the property of the late Henry Fauntleroy 
the banker- forger who was hung in October, 
1824, came up for sale on March 25th, and 
fetched ,2,277 5^ IO ^- The original cup from 
Shakespeare's mulberry tree, which was presented 
to David Garrick by the Mayor and Corporation, 
at the time of the Jubilee at Stratford, realized 
121 guineas on April 3Oth. 

Old French decorative furniture had, by the 
end of the first quarter of the present century, 
become an object of keen competition at sales ; 
on May 28th, 1825, "some sumptuous articles of 
Parisian and other furniture, in the finest style 
of magnificence ; including many that formerly 
adorned the palace at Versailles, some noble 
groups and busts of bronze," and various sculpture 
from the late very distinguished town mansion 
of G. Watson Taylor, Esq., in Cavendish Square, 
realized a total of ,6,866 los. On June i6th, the 
table and dessert service and sideboard plate, 
altogether about 10,700 ounces, the property of 
the Marquis of Waterford, brought 3,651 iSs. 

In June, 1825, Mr. Christie had on view at his 
rooms, but for sale by private contract, one of the 
several Ledas attributed to Leonardo da Vinci. 
As the amount asked for it, ,7,000, was large, a 
good deal of importance was apparently attached 
to it. From The Parthenon of June 18, we gather 
that the subject is Leda and her twins, Castor 
and Helena, Pollux and Clytemnestra. The figure 
of Leda is full-length, about the size of life, and 


almost entirely naked ; in the background some 
horsemen are seen, and one of these is said to be 
intended for Francis I., in whose arms Leonardo 
expired. Vasari does not mention this picture, 
nor indeed any of the works which Leonardo 
executed in France (of which this is said to have 
been one), except a cartoon of St. Anne, and even 
that he describes as having been rather con- 
templated than completed. ''Considered as a 
work of art, the Leda of Leonardo da Vinci is 
rather curious than fine. For the period at which 
it was executed, it must certainly be viewed in 
common with all other productions of that master, 
as a very extraordinary effort, that is, to say the 
least of it, an interesting specimen of the state of 
art at the beginning of the sixteenth century." 
There is no doubt about Leonardo's having exe- 
cuted a picture of Leda during his sojourn in 
France, and it is perhaps equally certain that this 
picture has disappeared. The example at the 
Hague is undoubtedly the finest of a long list of 
replicas and copies, but some prudish possessor con- 
verted it into Charity by clothing the naked figures. 
This example was at one time in the Gallery at 
Hesse-Cassel, subsequently at Malmaison, and 
finally in that of William II. of Holland, at whose 
sale in 1850 it was purchased for 24,500 florins, 
or about ,2,041. It measures 126 x 104 centi- 
metres. As regards the Leda which appeared at 
Christie's in 182 5, we believe that it is identical with 
the picture in Mr. Alexander Barker's collection, 
which measured 94 x 36, and was bought in in 1874, 


for 170 guineas, and subsequently sold in 1879 for 
80 guineas. Waagen saw this picture in Mr. 
Barker's collection in 1857 ("Galleries and Cabinets 
of Great Britain," p. 75), and then pronounced it 
to be the careful work of an excellent master of 
the Cologne School ; he also mentions that Mr. 
Barker believed it to be the original of Leonardo. 
There can, we think, be very little doubt about 
the theory that the Leda at Christie's in 1825 is 
identical with that in the Barker collection ; if so, 
the transaction is one of the most remarkable in 
the history of picture sales. 

The sales of the year 1827 included the mag- 
nificent collection of silver and silver-gilt plate of 
H.R.H. the Duke of York, deceased, and the 
total of the four days' sale from Monday, March 
iQth, amounted to 2 2, 438 los. ; the Duke's collec- 
tion of fire-arms and costly Oriental and European 
weapons, occupied another four days from March 
27th, and produced ,8,838 12s. lod. ; and his 
furniture realized close on ^7,000. As the sale 
of the Duke of York's collection of plate was the 
most important of its kind which had been held 
at Christie's, we may be excused for quoting a 
newspaper report of the first day's proceedings. 
The report runs as follows : 

" Before the sale commenced, a short speech 
was made by Mr. Christie relative to the property 
which he was about to offer, and the terms upon 
which it was to be sold. The executors of his late 
Royal Highness, he said, had not a single reserve, 
and the object of the sale was a highly honourable 

i. i 


one. The illustrious possessor, whose magnificent 
plate was now to be sold, was characterized by a 
most happy singleness of heart, urbanity of man- 
ners, and kind condescension to all who approached 
him. The purchasers of the articles which the 
catalogue set forth, would have a memento which 
would keep alive and cherish the recollection of 
the Duke of York, whose sweetness of temper, and 
goodness of disposition, endeared him to all by 
whom he was personally known ; and he had left 
behind a name that would be handed down to 
posterity and cherished. The eulogium made by 
Mr. Christie on his Royal Highness was warmly 
applauded by the company. In the room were 
several ladies elegantly attired, attending with not 
a little eagerness to the biddings of some of the 
most beautiful articles. The chief purchasers, we 
understand, were chiefly silversmiths, and persons 
commissioned by gentlemen. The general opinion 
was, that the articles did not bring near so much 
as they were worth intrinsically, and certainly not 
so much as they cost, especially the splendid 
massive silver-gilt plate. A magnificent cistern, 
1 8 \ inches in diameter, the neck and lip enwreathed 
with vines in fruit, and with two figures of Tritons 
bending over the rim, and looking in. On the 
outside of the bowl were represented combats 
of Roman galleys, with numerous figures very 
spiritedly designed. The bowl was burnished, 
with the figures and relief executed in gold 
mat. The whole weighed 811 oz. 10 dwt. This 
bowl was said by Mr. Christie to have cost his 


Royal Highness ,1,500. It sold for only i is. an 

" A magnificent Candelabrum (made by Lewis, 
of St. James's Street), for the centre of a table, 
representing Hercules attacking the Hydra, and 
surrounded by its nine heads, which bore as many 
nosles for lights. Hylas, the companion of Hercules, 
is represented in the act of searing a neck of the 
monster below. The Candelabrum was supported 
on a mass of rock-work, about the base of which 
are various reptiles. Weight 1,144 oz - 5 dwt. 
This was knocked down for 6s. an oz. after Mr. 
Christie had dwelt a considerable time at that 
bidding. There was a murmur ran round the room 
of ' How cheap!' when the hammer fell. Mr. 
Christie said that the candelabrum was purchased 
by the late illustrious owner for the new Palace, 
which it pleased Providence that he was never to 
inhabit. ' Notwithstanding I feel sorry for the 
sacrifice which has been made in this article,' said 
Mr. Christie, ' I feel greater grief that the work- 
manship of the artist is valued so low. The 
design,' he added, ' is most beautiful, and there 
exists only another like it in England.' A grand 
praefericulum, with scalloped neck and lip, sup- 
ported by two satyrs seated upon the shoulder, 
the handle formed of a satyr rescuing two infant 
satyrs entwined from the folds of a dragon. The 
oviform body of the vase covered with a spirited 
relief, representing one of the battles of Alexander. 
A griffin supports the bowl of the vase, and upon 
the scalloped foot the arms of France are thrice 


repeated. This noble piece of plate is 23 inches 
high to the top of the handle ; the weight 
220 oz. 13 dwt. This was likewise made by 
Mr. Lewis, and was purchased by a gentleman 
named Thomas, as well as the companion praeferi- 
culum, at i2s. $d. per oz. A large .silver-gilt 
dish, for the side-board, 25 inches long. In the 
centre is a Roman triumph, setting out from a 
ruined city, composed of multitudes of figures, 
some of them wholly detached from the ground of 
the dish ; the border is embellished with pastoral 
figures, after Jordaens, which are very richly and 
beautifully chased ; weight 1 30 oz. 1 5 dwt. Great 
competition was manifested for this and the follow- 
ing lot, a similar dish, the one of which brought 
one guinea an ounce, and the other a guinea and 
sixpence. Some knives, with richly chased handles, 
of Coburg pattern, four-pronged silver forks, etc. 
in lots of one dozen each, fetched about 8s. per 
ounce. Some soup ladles and gravy spoons, Co- 
burg pattern handles, were sold in lots about the 
same price. A fish plate, the piercing of elegant 
design, twenty inches long, weighing 69 oz. 1 5 dwt. 
sold for only $s. Scl. an ounce. Mr. Christie 
alluded to the Candelabrum above described, 
some time after it was sold, remarking that he 
hoped the executors would not lament having 
placed their cause in the hands of the purchasers, 
but in that instance he much feared it. The 
sacrifice on that article, he repeated, was indeed 
great. A pair of plated covers fetched ^14 ios. ; 
another ditto, made 16 $s. ; and a third 10 ios. 


A superb tureen, of rich and massive manufacture, 
the surface chased with vegetables in high relief, 
weighing 209 oz. 10 dwt, brought 6^. 6d. an ounce. 
A very curious and interesting assemblage of 
Egyptian antiquities, from the Levant, was sold 
by Mr. Christie in June, 1827. It consisted of 
a number of sepulchral monuments, presenting a 
great variety of mythological figures, and of in- 
scriptions in hieroglyphic characters ; also various 
figures of deities and animals in terra-cotta, 
wood, basalt, and other materials. There were 
likewise several articles of an interesting nature, 
as affording means of experiments on the nature 
of the process of embalming as practised by the 
ancient Egyptians. A large sepulchral tablet, or 
stele, of white stone, in high preservation, with 
various figures of divinities, and hieroglyphic in- 
scriptions, was sold for ^5 los. There were twenty- 
five other sepulchral monuments, of various sizes, 
ornamented with figures and hieroglyphics, which 
were sold in lots, and produced altogether about 
30 guineas. A mummy of a female was sold for 
9 i is. 6d. The apex of an Egyptian obelisk, 
etc., sculptured with hieroglyphics, 2 IDS. The 
top of an altar, containing a representation of 
different objects of sacrifice, several lines of hiero- 
glyphics, and a receptacle for libations, 145. A 
slab of basalt, sculptured with figures and hiero- 
glyphics, $ IQS. An embalmed cat, i. An 
embalmed hawk, 55. An arm of a mummy, etc., 
one guinea. A draped figure of I sis, in bronze, 
about 1 2 inches high ; and a bronze wing, or feather 


about 10 inches long, 2 3* The sepulchral monu- 
ments had been viewed by some celebrated anti- 
quarians, who consider them to have "derived 
considerable importance from the then recent dis- 
coveries of Dr. Young and M. Champollion, by 
whose successful labours a key has been furnished 
to many of the hieroglyphic inscriptions, which were 
formerly considered merely as objects of curiosity, 
but are now satisfactorily explained ; and it may 
be reasonably expected that by the study of such 
objects, much information relative to the history, 
mythology, laws, and manners, of the ancient 
Egyptians, may be obtained." 

A select assemblage of forty-four chiefly highly- 
finished, Flemish and Dutch cabinet pictures, the 
property of the Duke of Bedford, and removed to 
town from his Grace's mansion, Woburn Abbey, 
were sold by Mr. Christie, on June 3Oth. Mr. 
Christie stated that his Grace's reason for disposing 
of these pictures is to make room in his mansion for 
works by living artists " a noble example every 
way worthy of imitation." Among the Duke's col- 
lection were specimens of Teniers, Schidone, Cuyp, 
Salvator Rosa, Hans Holbein, Both, Rubens, 
Titian, the Poussins, Claude, Rembrandt, and 
Ruysdael. A Landscape, by Cuyp, describing an 
extensive scene, interspersed with villages, which 
was so much admired in the collection of M. 
Rigby Cuyp has represented himself drawing 
this delightful scene brought 570 guineas. A 
Burgomaster and his Family going out Hawking, 
by Paul Potter, sold for 400 guineas, and an 


Evening Landscape, with a Group of Peasants, by 
J. Both, 159 guineas. A portrait of Sir Thomas 
More, invested with the Collar of the Garter, by 
Holbein ; upon a pedestal is inscribed the date, 
MDXXVII., sold for 70 guineas. 

The sale by Mr. Christie of Lord de Tabley's 
pictures on July 7th, 1827, took place at his house, 
24, Hill Street, Berkeley Square, and it may be 
mentioned here that, according to J. T. Smith, in 
his " Life of Nollekens," his lordship's collection of 
pictures by modern English artists produced 
twenty-five per cent, more than they cost, "though 
they were purchased of the artists at what they 
considered most liberal prices." Lord de Tabley, 
then Sir John Fleming Leicester, began to form 
his collection of the works of British artists about 
the period of the Peace of Amiens, and the 
Examiner of April 26th, 1818, contains a very 
interesting description of this gallery. Sir John 
Fleming Leicester is there alluded to in very high 
terms as among the first, if not the first, " to foster 
the early genius of England in the fine arts," and 
his name is said to be one that will "ever rever- 
berate in the hearts of the genuine lovers of art, as 
that of the first individual who has done it in the 
most effectual way, by appropriating a noble 
gallery exclusively to its honour, and opening it 
for a time to the community of taste. This is the 
true spirit of Greek patronage. It has all its cor- 
diality and greatness. . . . It is at once a satire 
on government and its example that government 
which unconsciously creates sinecures of thousands 


a-year for lazy, worthless courtiers and constitution- 
killers, but never expends a guinea in furtherance 
of British genius in painting." In 1819, William 
Carey published " A Descriptive Catalogue " of 
this collection. Lord de Tabley died on June 1 8th, 
1827, aged sixty-five. A few of the best prices 
were Sir A. W. Callcott, The River Arno, 124 
guineas, and The Pier at Little Hampton, 155 
guineas ; W. Collins, Landscape, women washing, 
1 80 guineas, and Sunrise, seashore, 200 guineas ; 
T. Gainsborough, a Cottage, women with chil- 
dren, 500 guineas (Lord Grosvenor) ; W. Hilton, 
the Rape of Europa, 315 guineas (Lord Egre- 
mont); John Hoppner, a Sleeping Nymph, 
450 guineas (the same) ; H. Howard, the 
Pleiades, a replica of the picture at Stafford 
House, 210 guineas; Sir J. Reynolds, Girl 
holding a Kitten, 260 guineas, and three others by 
the same. Of Turner there were six first-class ex- 
amples, notably a View of the Thames at Tedding- 
ton, 205 guineas ; a View of Kilgarran Castle, 1 10 
guineas ; a Lighter and a Lock at Teddington, 
135 guineas (Sir T. Lawrence); and a View of 
Dutch Fishing Boats, Sun rising through the 
Mist, 490 guineas, purchased by Turner himself, 
and bequeathed by him to the National Gallery ; 
James Ward, View of the Lake and Tower, 
Tabley Park, 190 guineas ; Benjamin West, P.R.A., 
a Bacchante with Symbols, 1 1 5 guineas ; and R. 
Wilson, a View on the Arno, 470 guineas. 

Lord Carysfoot's pictures, brought from his 
country seat at Elton, Huntingdonshire, and from 


From the original picture by J. GKBAUD, no\v in possession of 
Messrs. Christie (p. 12 1\ 

'.less f;> if* if*- I 

n pa!- 1 

...I -A I> ' l 

Lord de TabU-y < 
,ve. A fcv 
Callcolt, 1 

:id The Pier at ^t*b H \/55 

< W Collins, Uaj f washu 

us ; 


>c ',>f 315 guineas (Lord Egre- 

, a Sleeping Nymph, 
,); H. Howard the 
-.1 n|sika of the picture at Staffbi 
aivr xi -uBa-i:-' 

__, others 


^y^les ii*''^' : a Vi-'- 1 -' 'i*' 1 

HM^QS guineas ; a View of Kilgar t*C, i 10 

guinea*; a Lighter and a Lock ;ton, 

ilfieas (Sir T. Lawrence) , View of 

IViich I ; ishin^ Bouts, Sun :l gh the 



^'U'-at.Kt -i -v bin :. '. ^ ! lery ; 

?,H- ; Tower, 

Wilson, a Vw ^ ^ -> 

Lord l.irt^V. 


his town house in Grosvenor Street, came up for 
sale on June i4th, 1828, when sixty-five lots pro- 
duced a total of ,3,604. The most important work 
was the original work by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
known as The Snake in the Grass, 1,200 guineas, 
purchased for Sir Robert Peel, and now in the 
National Gallery (see p. 99) ; one of several repeti- 
tionsof a Strawberry Girl, 169 guineas (Lord Lans- 
downe) ; Sir G. Hayter, Tartars and Circassians, 
220 guineas. This sale has an unusual interest 
for us, inasmuch as an excellent painting was made 
of it by J. Gebaud, and was purchased by Messrs. 
Christie at their own rooms in 1875. The lot was 
catalogued as " The sale of Sir Joshua Reynolds' 
picture of ' The Snake in the Grass.' A scene at 
Christie's during the sale of the late Earl of Carys- 
foot's pictures, June i4th, 1828, with portraits of 
the late Sir Robert Peel, the late Marquis of 
Stafford, Prince Pane Esterhazy, Lady Morgan, 
the late John Allnutt, Esq., Mr. Smith of Bond 
Street, Mr. Emmerson, and other well-known per- 
sonages." Concerning this picture Mr. Humphry 
Ward, the eminent connoisseur, writes : " Mr. 
Christie himself is in the box, eagerly looking 
towards the bidder in the left-hand corner, and on 
the easel is Sir Joshua's celebrated ' Snake in the 
Grass,' which now hangs in the National Gallery. 
The nation bought it with the rest of the Peel 
collection, for Sir Robert Peel purchased the 
picture at this sale, and there he is standing to the 
right, his hands behind him, his frock-coat tightly 
buttoned across his small waist. . . . Lady Mor- 


gan, the bright Irishwoman, with many friends 
and 'not a few enemies, is in the centre of the 
picture ; and the bidder with his hand and pencil 
raised is the ' Mr. Smith of Bond Street,' and the 
author of the most famous of all catalogues, the 
' Catalogue Raisonne of Dutch, French, and 
Flemish Pictures/ which is still regarded by dealers 
and amateurs as the principal authority on the 
pictures which it describes." 

This year (1828) also included several important 
jewel sales. On June 29th, a large brilliant, of 
pure water, fetched 5 1 5 guineas, and another, yet 
finer, 1,5 50 guineas at the time the record prices; 
five days previously some valuable jewels, the 
genuine property of an officer in the Honourable 
East India Company's service, lately deceased, 
brought ,3,758. On June 25th, the elegant articles 
of furniture, china, and ormolu of the Right Hon. 
George Canning sold for ^8 1 8 8*.~; and a selection 
of his books, ^462. As an historic interest is 
attached to this sale of George Canning's effects, the 
following list, with the prices at which the prin- 
cipal articles were sold, will be found very interest- 
ing : A very handsome circular soup tureen, the 
bowl convexly ribbed, with lions' masks at the 
handles, shell feet; a lion rampant forms the handle 
of the lid ; 112 oz. 2 dwt, 6s. per oz. A superb 
vase, serving as an ice-pail, the handles with satyrs' 
masks, the surface with the triumph of Bacchus 
and Ariadne in relief, the bowl is embossed with 
foliage and fluted feet, weighing about 168 oz., 
135-. per oz. The silver-gilt plate, which consisted 


of a variety of articles, produced rather high prices. 
The principal articles were a pair of very magni- 
ficent Athenian owls for sugar and pepper, weigh- 
ing about 17^ oz., sold for iSs. 6d. per oz. A 
magnificent centre for a dessert, of ormolu, sup- 
ported upon twelve lions, and surmounted by three 
female figures or sphinxes, and bearing cornucopiae, 
festoons of vines in fruit, and branches for six or 
nine lights, and an extra plinth to be used occa- 
sionally ; also, a cut glass vessel for artificial 
flowers, were sold for 50 guineas. A pair of beau- 
tiful high vases of Florentine alabaster, orna- 
mented with festoons of flowers, and glass shades, 
sold for 2 guineas. A centre for a dessert, of 
Florentine alabaster, with a basket of flowers sup- 
ported by three female figures on a pedestal, orna- 
mented with festoons, in relief, ^4 5^. A dessert 
service with green border, painted with fruit and 
flowers, consisting of thirty-six plates, a pair of 
wine-coolers, eight tazzas for fruit, a pair of sugar 
tureens, and a cream ewer, ^15. Two glazed 
cases containing very beautiful specimens of exotic 
birds from the Indies, obtained by the deceased 
when Ambassador at Portugal, % los. 6d. A set 
of eight kneeling figures of Cupids, of ormolu, on 
pedestals, 16 guineas. A superb plateau, in seven 
divisions, of plate glass, the border chased with 
Bacchanalian figures, and devices and festoons of 
vines, very richly gilt, 3 feet 6 inches long x 22 
inches wide, and two dial cases to contain it. 
This superb article, which cost the late Premier 
nearly ,100, was bought for 39 guineas. An ink- 


stand of ormolu, surmounted by a small kneeling 
bronze figure, bearing a bowl of real opalized glass, 
and a Cupid of ormolu, playing on the harp, with 
a drawer and musical movement concealed within 
the plinth, 7 guineas. A sarcophagus and cover 
of antique ornamental alabaster, very rare, small 
model from the antique, and a small lion of Rosso 
those articles cost the deceased fifty guineas in 
Rome sold for ioj- guineas. A fine bronze bust 
of the Right Hon. W. Pitt, from the marble by 
Nollekens, ^7 15*. A pair of noble bell-shaped 
vases, of Swedish porphyry, 16 5*. 6d. A mag- 
nificent suite of state hangings, of crimson velvet, 
richly embroidered with the arms and crest of the 
United Kingdom, and four cushions, ^25 IQS. A 
circular table of cedar wood, the top composed of 
beautiful specimens of variegated marbles, the 
centre a circular slab of fine lapis lazuli, the whole 
bordered with verd antique, supported by a pillar 
and plinth ornamented with ormolu, iS js. 6ct. 

In 1829 the death of Lord Gwydyr was followed 
by several sales of his objects of art, pictures, 
furniture and so forth, partly from the family seat, 
Grimsthorpe Castle, Lincolnshire, and partly from 
the London mansion in Whitehall. The pictures 
were sold on May 8th and 9th, 1829, and pro- 
duced a total of ; 14,636 js. 6d. The more 
notable were William Van de Velde, Harbour, with 
a Fleet of Ships of War at Anchor, dressed to 
receive the Prince of Orange, who is putting off in 
his yacht, 365 guineas ; G. Romano, Virgin and 
the Infant Christ and St. John, St. Joseph with a 


lantern in a doorway, 320 guineas ; Paul Potter, 
Group of Cows and a Horse, several Sheep behind 
them, with a grove of fine Trees, 1,205 guineas; 
Wouverman, Return from the Chase, group of 
figures dismounting at the steps of a palace, from the 
celebrated Poulain cabinet, 680 guineas; Claude, 
Rape of Europa, 2,000 guineas (bought by George 
IV.) ; Both, a rich and romantic Landscape, with 
group of figures by Polemberg, Paris awarding 
the Prize of Beauty, 460 guineas ; Reynolds, the 
celebrated Riposo of the Holy Family, 77 x 69^, 
painted for Macklin, the printseller, who, in his turn, 
disposed of it to Lord Gwydyr ; it was now pur- 
chased at 1,900 guineas for the directors of the 
British Institution, and by them presented to the 
National Gallery ; and Gainsborough, the Market 
Cart, 72^ x 6oJ, 1,050 guineas, also purchased for 
the British Institution, and afterwards presented 
to the National Gallery. In 1829 Lord Gwydyr's 
ornamental furniture and collection of rare old 
Sevres and oriental porcelain came under the 
hammer on May 2Oth and 2ist, realizing ,3,445 
145. ; and the " very elegant effects " of the same 
nobleman, removed from Grimsthorpe Castle in 
March (1829), and another portion in June. 

It is not necessary for us to enter into an ex- 
haustive history of the highly important collection 
of drawings of the old masters, of the pictures, 
books of prints, and so forth formed by Sir Thomas 
Lawrence, P.R.A., and sold after his death at 
Christie's. Lawrence is said to have spent ,40,000 
upon his " collection of genuine drawings by the 


old masters, which in number and value I know to 
be unequalled in Europe." As we have already 
seen, he purchased Ottley's fine collection for 
,8,000. He directed in his will that his collec- 
tion should be offered at the modest price of 
,20,000 to the King, and, if not accepted, then 
to the British Museum, to Sir Robert Peel, or 
the Earl of Dudley; but in the event of non- 
acceptance of the offer by either of these, the col- 
lection was to be advertised for public sale, and if 
within two years a purchaser was not forthcoming, 
then the whole was to be submitted to sale at 
auction. In the end the collection was purchased 
by Sir Thomas Lawrence's principal creditors, 
Messrs. Woodburn, for ; 16,000. After a number 
of efforts of various kinds, one portion passing 
into the possession of the Prince of Orange, 
afterwards William II. of Holland, another into 
the University galleries, Oxford, of which a valu- 
able catalogue has been drawn up by Sir J. C. 
Robinson ; a few became the property of the 
Rev. Dr. Wellesley, of Oxford ; and finally the 
unsold portion of the collection was sold at Christie's 
by Mr. Woodburn in 1860. It will be understood, 
therefore, that the 1830 sale of Sir Thomas Law- 
rence was a very ordinary one, and an altogether 
inadequate reflection of this distinguished artist's 
fine discrimination and excellent judgment. The 
first sale began on May loth, 1830, and the five 
days' dispersal of prints and books of prints brought 
a total of ,1,761 i$s. ; the pictures were sold on 
May 1 5th, and realized a total of ,5,283 2s. 6ct. 


Among them the more notable were Rembrandt, 
Potiphar's Wife, 44 x 34^-, 570 guineas ; Gior- 
gione, Bacchanalian Scene, 66 x 56, no guineas; 
Marcello Venusti, Christ driving out the Money- 
changers, 23 x 15^, from the Borghese Palace, 
after the design of Michael Angelo, 210 guineas; 
Raphael, Charity, i if x 7^, also from the Borghese 
Palace, 223 guineas ; two works attributed to 
Rubens ; J. M. W. Turner, a Canal Scene, Barges, 
120 guineas ; and W. Etty, Pandora, 44 x 35, 105 
guineas. On May 2Oth and 2ist, some drawings 
by himself and other artists were sold, the total 
being ,589 6s. 6d. On June I7th and following 
two days, " the remaining part of the valuable 
collection of modern drawings, a few paintings, a 
set of cartoons of L. da Vinci, consisting of the 
original designs of that great master for the heads 
in his picture of the Last Supper, as also numerous 
rare and very precious cinque cento models in wax 
and terra-cotta," a few bronzes and antique marble 
busts, and an unpublished engraved copperplate 
of the young Duke of Reichstadt. The eight car- 
toons, in black chalk and crayons, of Leonardo, 
produced a total of 524 guineas; the finished 
drawing made from life by Lawrence of the Duke 
of Reichstadt, and engraved by Bromley, fetched 
2 50 guineas; and the total of the sale amounted 
to ,3,856 12^. The Lawrence collection of casts 
from the antique, some medals in gold, silver, and 
copper, sold on the premises, 65, Russell Square, 
July 6th, and produced ,732 ios.\ the final 
dispersal of his extensive collections took place 


on June i8th, 1831, and comprised his unfinished 
pictures, portraits, and sketches, the total being 
,3,191 55. 6d., and among these were his Portrait 
of himself, ''exquisitely finished," 470 guineas 
(Lord Chesterfield), and the picture of Satan Sum- 
moning his Legions was bought in at 480 guineas. 
The total of the Lawrence sales at Christie's 
amounted to ^u,557 1 9 S > 6 ^. 

The Earl of Mulgrave's collection of seventy- 
five pictures formed the great, and the only, 
sensation of the year 1832. It included no less 
than thirteen pictures and sketches painted by 
David Wilkie, for his lordship ; and of these, the 
most important was the celebrated Rent Day, 
painted in 1807, 750 guineas; the sketch for the 
picture of the Cut Finger, realized 150 guineas. 
The other pictures included two Claudes, a Morn- 
ing Scene, river with bridges and buildings, from 
the Govotti Palace, Savona, 260 guineas ; and an 
Evening Scene, with peasants attacked by Ban- 
ditti, purchased about 1802 from Prince Rus- 
pigliosi (for whose family it was painted), 350 
guineas ; Rubens, Moonlight Landscape, with a 
horse grazing in the foreground, and the stars 
painted, from Sir Joshua Reynolds's collection, 210 
guineas; Rembrandt, the Jewess Bride, 115 
guineas ; Vandyck, St. Sebastian with two Angels, 
140 guineas. The sale produced the total of 
^5^93 5 s - The late Mr. John Ewer's collection 
of a dozen pictures was also sold in 1832, May 1 2th, 
and included A. Van de Velde, Landscape, with 
colt of mouse colour in the centre, a tan cow lying 


down with a white calf, and some sheep 14 x 10, 
from the Holderness collection, 430 guineas ; 
Berghem, a small Landscape with cattle and 
figures, from the Duke of Bedford's collection, 
,215; and Gainsborough, Woody landscape, 
Sunset, 220 guineas purchased by Mr. Vernon, 
and now in the National Gallery. On June 22nd, 
of this year, the greater portion of pictures formed 
by the Chevalier Sebastian Erard, was offered for 
sale, but some of the more important works were 
bought in ; the sales included N. Poussin, Birth 
of Bacchus, 45 x 56, ^305 ; Cuyp, landscape, with 
Shepherdess, 17 x 27, 380 guineas: Teniers, 
Prodigal with two Women, 19 x 28, ^703 ; 
A. Van Der Neer, moonlight, with figures by Cuyp, 
44 x 56, 770 guineas, and A. Van de Velde, 
Maternal Occupation, woody scene, with a shed at 
the side, on the bank is a woman suckling an 
infant, dated 1762, 280 guineas this fine picture 
occurred again in the Dean Paul sale of June 27th, 

Lord Charles Townshend's collection of pictures 
was sold on April i ith, 1835, and realized a total 
of ,4,641 35. 6d. It included some good pictures, 
one of the best being a Greuze, Girl with a chaplet 
of wild flowers, 305 guineas ; Ruysdael, a moun- 
tainous landscape, with a village church, cottages, 
33 x 33i> from the Brentano collection, 690 
guineas ; Berghem, Ancient ruins near Rome, 
750 guineas ; Sir A. W. Callcott, View on the 
Meuse, 8 feet 5 inches by 4 feet 7 inches, 750 
guineas ; Teniers, Village Fete, dated 1646, 675 

I. K 


guineas, and the celebrated picture by Wilkie, 
Duncan Gray, 455 guineas. Immediately after 
the sale of this collection of pictures, was sold, by 
order of the Court of Chancery, the celebrated 
work of Manzuoli di Friano, Visitation : Virgin 
bending towards St. Elizabeth, who is kneeling 
before her, Zacharias behind, with hands raised, 
13 feet x 8J feet, in fine preservation, painted on 
thick panel of white poplar, with arched top, 450 
guineas (Hope). 

The pictures of the Right Hon. Sir Charles 
Bagot, G.C.B., were sold on June i8th, 1836, for 
,5,638 ios., and the 56 lots included : Wouver- 
man, the Horse Fair, 169 guineas; A. Van Der 
Neer, View in Holland, moonlight, from the 
collection of M. Sapor tas, of Amsterdam, in 
guineas (Lord Normanton) ; Hackaert, View in 
the wood at the Hague, evening effect, a return 
from Hawking, figures by A. Van de Velde, from 
the Duval collection, 191 guineas; G. Dow, Old 
woman at an arched window, holding a reel for 
winding thread, 1653, 196 guineas; Van der 
Heyden and A. Van de Velde, view in a town in 
Holland, with the procession of the Host, from 
the Holderness collection, 200 guineas ; Hob- 
bema, Landscape, with a view on river, village and 
windmill, 150 guineas, and the companion, a 
retired Village, rustic bridge in the foreground, 
from the Hossner collection, 200 guineas both 
purchased by Sequier for Lord Normanton ; 
Backhuysen, view on the Zuyder Zee, under the 
aspect of a fresh breeze, 370 guineas this picture 


was again sold in the Dean Paul collection, June 
27th, 1896 ; Berghem, Landscape, with figures and 
cattle, from the celebrated collection of Ranclon 
de Boisset, 535 guineas; and G. Metzu, Interior, 
from the collections of Colonel Way and Lord 
Vernon, 586 guineas. 

Sir Francis F reeling's pictures, sold April I5th, 
1837, included C. Stanfield, a Market Boat on 
the Schelt, 1 70 guineas ; W. Etty, Cleopatra 
embarking on the Cydnus, 210 guineas, and 
W. Collins, the Shrimpers, 122 guineas (the total 
realized ,2,901 us.). There were two or three 
other good picture sales during this year, notably 
the collection of works of the Italian masters, of 
W. G. Coesvelt, removed from the Gallery in 
Carlton Gardens, sold on June 2nd and 3rd, and 
including Titian, Rape of Proserpine, 25 x 37, 
390 guineas ; and Virgin and Child, St. Catherine 
and St. John, in a landscape, 550 guineas ; Raphael, 
Virgin and Child, seated on clouds, 16 x 12, ^546. 
Parmegiano, Flagellation of Christ, 23 x 18, ^215 ; 
Claude, Sunset, 46 x 68, ^640 ; Fra Bartolommeo, 
Virgin and Child, in landscape, 33 in., circle, ,472. 
The total of this sale is not indicated, and, as 
a matter of fact, the very high reserves placed 
on nearly all the pictures rendered the auction a 
complete fiasco. Mr. Coesvelt was a foreign 
dealer who resided in London, and he issued 
an illustrated catalogue of these pictures, the 
majority of which were again offered for sale 
at Christie's, in June, 1840, when nearly all were 
either bought in at " less than half the sum 


in the previous sale," or were sold at a great 


We may mention here that the Right Hon. 
Sir George Warrender's twenty-two pictures were 
sold on June 3rd, and a total of ,3,750 was 
obtained ; among them was a Velasquez, portrait 
of Don Baltasar Carlos, full length, imported from 
Cadiz in 1814, 410 guineas, now in possession of 
the Duke of Abercorn ; there were also Guercino, 
Assalone con Tamar, 1645, painted for Cardinal 
Cornaro, and purchased out of the Cornaro Palace 
at Verona, 300 guineas ; and Teniers, view of his 
Chateau, men presenting a pike to the artist and 
his family, 345 guineas. 

A brief reference may be here made to the 
extensive collection of engraved gems, the property 
of Prince Poniatowski, and also his pictures, 
bronzes and minatures, which were sold at 
Christie's in February, March, and April, 1839. 
The 2,639 lots of gems, which took seventeen days 
to sell, realized ,3,796; the 211 lots of pictures, 
,2,374; and the marbles, bronzes, etc., ,441. 

Only one important picture sale took place 
during 1840, and that comprised the celebrated 
gallery of the late Sir Simon H. Clarke, removed 
from Oakhill, Herts, and sold on May 8th and 
9th, 1 1 1 pictures, realizing a total of ,28,065 i is. 
Among these were A. Ostade, Interior of aCottage, 
four men, and two men in the background playing 
tric-trac, dated 1668, from the Prince de Conti 
andTuffen collections, 510 guineas ; the companion 
picture, two Peasants seated at card table, figures 


around a fire, 1673, 310 guineas; Berghem, Roman 
ruins near a bridge, cascade, peasants and cattle, 
230 guineas, and the companion picture, ruins of 
a Roman aqueduct, 385 guineas ; Rachael Ruysch, 
group of peaches, grapes, and other fruit, 274 
guineas; and the companion picture, Group of 
flowers, 200 guineas ; Rembrandt, " Le Port 
Drapeau," the artist in the character of a Standard 
Bearer, once in the collection of George IV. who 
exchanged it with Lafontaine for other pictures, 
800 guineas; and the Tribute Money, 1645, 600 
guineas ; Rubens, Diana departing for the Chase, 
from the Hibbert collection, 610 guineas; the 
Holy Family, from the same, 900 guineas 
(Buchanan, for Mr. Holford) ; and the portrait 
of Helen Forman, 295 guineas ; Ruysdael, Water- 
fall, evening effect, 530 guineas ; Terburg, Reading 
a Letter, from the Hibbert collection, 415 guineas ; 
Karel du Jardin, Landscape, with a bullock, an ass, 
sheep and goats under a group of trees, 930 
guineas; Teniers, the Industrious Housewife, 270 
guineas ; Cuyp, Castle on a precipitous rock over- 
looking a bay, 340 guineas (Lord Normanton) ; 
and Woman Milking a Cow, 910 guineas ; Claude, 
Seaport at Sunrise, from the Robit collection, 700 
guineas ; Wouverman, " Le Depart des Cavaliers," 
415 guineas; Adrian Van De Velde, peasants 
passing a ford under a tree, with sheep, goats, and 
man leading a cow, 760 guineas ; William Van De 
Velde, Calm, with Dutch fleet at anchor, awaiting 
a royal personage who is embarking from a yacht, 
980 guineas ; Jan Steen, the Tired Traveller, from 

134 PICTURE SALES, 1840-1848. 

the Tuffen collection, 560 guineas ; Carlo Dolci, 
St. Matthew writing his Gospels, attended by an 
angel, 910 guineas; and the companion picture, 
St. John, in a green and red drapery, holding a 
pen and book, 480 guineas, both these pictures 
were from the gallery of Lucien Bonaparte ; and 
Domenichino, Magdalen in Contemplation, 665 
guineas (Buchanan, for Mr. Holford) ; Metzu, 
" Le Corset Rouge," 510 guineas; Murillo, The 
Good Shepherd, 2,900 guineas (Rothschild), and 
the Infant St. John, 2,000 guineas (Lord Ash- 
burton, for the National Gallery), and Teniers, 
The Freemasons, 630 guineas. 

Three important picture sales took place at 
Christie's from 1840 to 1848. The earliest of 
these comprised the " celebrated collection of pic- 
tures of the very highest class," formed by the 
late John Penrice, of Great Yarmouth. The 
seventeen lots realized a total of ,11,488, and 
included Titian, Riposo, Virgin and Child, and 
St. Joseph, from the Giustinian Gallery, 200 
guineas ; and the Woman taken in Adultery, 600 
guineas (bought in) ; Wouverman, Hawking 
Party, from the Orleans Gallery, 620 guineas ; 
D. Teniers, " Le Lendemain des Noces," from 
the Brunois collection, 535 guineas ; and " Pair, 
ou non Pair," interior of cabaret, with peasants, 
from the Orleans Gallery, 840 guineas ; Guido, 
Lot and his Daughters leaving Sodom, 45^ x 58^, 
i, 600 guineas (National Gallery), and Susannah 
and the Elders, 46 x 59^, 900 guineas, bought in, 
but sold privately to the National Gallery in the 


following year for 1,200 guineas, both these pic- 
tures were, until the French Revolution, in the 
Lancellotti Palace, at Rome, and were brought to 
England by Mr. Irvine for Mr. Champernowne ; 
A. Ostade, Interior, with two dancing, and about 
twenty-six other figures, from the Le Brun, 
Wassenaer, Randon de Boisset, Geldermester and 
Crawford collections, 1,310 guineas ; but the great 
picture of the sale was the Rubens, Judgment of 
Paris, 57x75, from the Orleans collection, from 
which it was acquired by Lord Kinnaird for 2,000 
guineas, passing subsequently into the possession 
of Mr. Penrice at 2,500 guineas, at whose sale it 
was acquired for the National Gallery for 4,000 

The Saltmarshe collection, formed by Mr. 
Edmund Higginson, of Saltmarshe, near Brom- 
yard, Herefordshire, formed the great sale of 
1846 ; it occupied three days, June 4th, 5th, and 
6th, and the 231 lots produced a total of ,32,703 ; 
but several lots were bought in, to the extent, 
indeed, of ,13,416, and came up again for sale in 
1860. This collection was formed with exceed- 
ingly good judgment from the sales of the Bour- 
sault, Burtin, Beckford, Gray, Northwick, and 
other first-class Galleries. The highest price 
paid for a single picture in this sale went for 
the Murillo, Adoration of the Shepherds, 2,875 
guineas, the purchaser being Sir Richard Wallace, 
and the picture is still at Manchester House, 
London ; it is considered that this exceptionally 
fine work was brought by Mr. Irvine from the 


Capuchin Convent at Genoa. The next highest 
price was paid for a Rubens, The Holy Family, 
originally in the Imperial Gallery at Vienna, and 
presented by the Emperor Joseph II. to M. de 
Burtin, of Brussels, 2,360 guineas (Marquis of 
Hertford); and the other important pictures in- 
cluded the following: Metzu, Woman cleaning 
Fish, with kitten sitting on a brass kettle turned 
up on its side, lox 12 inches, 480 guineas (Baron 
Rothschild) ; Wouverman, Sacking a Village, 
24! x i6f inches, 460 guineas (bought in); 
William Van De Velde, Calm, with ship of war 
at anchor, 64 x 98^, from the Lichfield collection, 
i, 680 guineas (Marquis of Hertford); K. du 
Jardin, The Farrier, iQfxiS inches, from the 
Pourtales collection, 1,350 guineas (Baron Roth- 
schild) ; Greuze, Psyche, 1,000 guineas (Marquis 
of Hertford) ; Rembrandt, Portrait of Katrina 
Hoogh, 49^- x 39, her name inscribed with date, 
1657, from Lord de Spencer's collection, 760 
guineas (bought in) ; Claude, Landscape, from the 
Hesse Cassel and Talleyrand collections, 1,470 
guineas (Marquis of Hertford) ; and ^Eneas 
visiting Helenus at Delos, painted for M. Passey 
le Gout, 1,200 guineas (bought in) ; P. Potter, 
Three cows in a meadow, from the Erard collec- 
tion, 930 guineas (Marquis of Hertford) ; and 
A. Ostade, The Cabaret, dated 1652, 950 guineas ; 
and J. Ostade, a Village Inn, from the Lucien 
Bonaparte and Boursault collections, 1,010 guineas. 
Some of the unsold pictures were again offered 
for sale in 1860, and of these we may mention the 


Wouverman, which now sold for 500 guineas ; 
the Claude, ^Eneas, realizing 850 guineas; the 
Rembrandt, portrait of Katrina Hoogh, 740 
guineas ; whilst a work of Baldassare Peruzzi, 
Adoration of the Magi, bought in at 500 guineas, 
was presented to the National Gallery in 1849, 
by Mr. Higginson. 

Two noteworthy sales took place in 1847. The 
earlier of these comprised the valuable and in- 
teresting collection formed by Mr. Edward Solly, 
whose knowledge of the Italian School of painting 
was great and his judgment excellent. The forty- 
two lots sold on May 8th, produced a total of 
,5,279. In this collection there were Girolamo 
da Cottignola, Ascension of the Virgin, dated 
1512, 120x72, 240 guineas, and Pope Gregory 
and St. Peter, dated 1528, 26x66, 203 guineas; 
Francia, Christ on the Cross, 96 x 67, 330 guineas ; 
Innocenzo da Imola, Virgin and Child enthroned, 
dated 1527, 8x6, 310 guineas all purchased by 
Mr. Davenport Bromley. Carlo Grivelli, Annun- 
ciation, 82 x 58, painted for the Convent Santis- 
sima Annunziata, at Ascoli, where it was still 
preserved in 1790 (bought for 310 guineas by 
Mr. Labouchere, afterwards Lord Taunton, who 
presented it to the National Gallery, in 1864); 
Mazzolini da Ferrara, Destruction of Pharaoh and 
his Host, dated 1521, 50 x 63, 230 guineas; 
Lorenzo Lotto, Portraits of the artist, his wife, and 
two children, signed, 48 x 54, engraved when in 
Lucien Bonaparte's collection as by Carlo Lotto, 
215 guineas; Bernadino Luini, Madonna and 


child standing on her lap, in a landscape, from 
the Cathedral at Como, 84x60, 372 guineas 
(Tate) ; Girolamo da Treviso, Madonna en- 
throned, from the Church of St. Domenico, at 
Bologna, 98 x 57, 282 guineas, purchased by Lord 
Northwick, at whose sale in 1859 it was sold for 
450 guineas to the National Gallery ; Raphael, 
Ascension of the Virgin, from Pisa Cathedral, 
72 x 72, 330 guineas ; and Giorgione, Madonna 
enthroned, from Soranzoo and Balbi collections, 
560 guineas. On June nth, fifty-five pictures 
brought from M. Claudius Tarral's residence in 
Paris, fetched a total of ,3,383, and among them 
were Giorgipne, Adoration of the Shepherds, 
35x42, 1,470 guineas; Ruysdael, Forest Scene, 
22 x 25, 460 guineas ; and Backhuysen, a Squall, 
240 guineas, all three of which came from the 
collection of Cardinal Fesch. 

(Bernal Sale, p. 176.) 




N historic interest is attached to the 
dispersal of the celebrated Stowe col- 
lection of works of art, the property 
of the Duke of Buckingham and 
Chandos. The sale on the premises 
occupied Messrs. Christie and Manson forty days, 
beginning with August I5th, 1848, and produced 
what at this day would be regarded as the compara- 
tively small total of ,77,562 45. 6d. In every 
respect the sale was the most remarkable which 
had up to that period taken place in this country. 
The Strawberry Hill sale conducted by George 
Robins six years previously, produced, in twenty- 
four days, the total of ,33,450 i is. gd. ; and the 
Beckford sale conducted by Phillips in 1823, 
produced in forty-one days, the then handsome 
total of ,43,869 14^. The following leading 
article appeared in 77/6' Times of August I4th, and 


gives such a picturesque view of the whole event 
at Stowe that we make no apology for giving it 
in extenso : 

" During the past week the British public has 
been admitted to a spectacle of painful interest 
and gravely historical import. One of the most 
splendid abodes of our almost regal aristocracy 
has thrown open its portals to an endless succession 
of visitors, who from morning to night had flowed 
in an uninterrupted stream from room to room, 
and floor to floor not to enjoy the hospitality of 
the lord, or to congratulate him on his countless 
treasures of art, but to see an ancient family ruined, 
their palace marked for destruction, and its con- 
tents scattered to the four winds of Heaven. We 
are only saying what is notorious, and what, there- 
fore, it is neither a novelty nor a cruelty to 
repeat, that the most noble and puissant prince, 
his Grace the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos, 
is at this moment an absolutely ruined and 
destitute man. Our advertising columns have 
introduced to the public the long list of estates, 
properties and interests, which are no longer his, 
and will not revert to his heirs. The last crash of 
this mighty ruin is that which now sounds. Stowe 
is no more. This morning the tumultuous inva- 
sion of sight-seers will once again be endured, and 
to-morrow the auctioneer will begin his work. 

" As every thoughtful spectator has spoken to 
the peculiar and most lamentable character of the 
scene, one may be permitted to dwell for a while 
upon circumstances of such rare occurrence and 


ndelible recollection. Under the lofty arch which 
crowns the long avenue from Buckingham, and 
opens the first view of the magnificent Palladian 
facade, has lately passed a daily cavalcade which, 
except in its utter absence of style, might remind 
one of the road to Epsom on a Derby Day. 

(Stowe and Bernal Sales, p. 173.) 

Barouches, flys, stage-coaches, " busses " pressed 
from the metropolitan service, and every grada- 
tion of "trap," down to the carrier's cart hastily 
emptied of groceries, dragged to Wolverton, and 
filled with the unfortunate holders of return tickets 
to town, constitute a dreary antithesis to the cortege 


which so lately brought royalty to Stowe. An 
elaborately circuitous road conducted the impatient 
visitors to the park front, before which in the vast 
amphitheatre formed by its side colonnades, so 
often the scene of rural festivities, the enemy en- 
camped, one might imagine a great country picnic 
had suddenly gathered at Stowe ; even stalls were 
there. From the branch of a noble beech hung a 
huge pair of scales, on which venison was weighed. 
An advertisement posted on the front door par- 
ticularized the very moderate prices at which a 
back, a half, or a quarter might be obtained. In 
the distance were fallen trees, timber waggons, 
and extempore sawpits. The enormous edifice 
was a human hive, every window showed the 
crowd within passing to and fro. But once ad- 
mittedonce standing under the Pantheon-like 
vault of the central saloon, and glancing right 
and left, endless vistas of gorgeous apartments, 
then one indeed realized the sacrilege that was 
going on. Every scholar must have thought of 
the scene related by ^neas, when the Greeks 
burst open the gates of Priam's palace, and when 
the splendid interior, the spacious halls, and the 
sacred haunts of the ancient dynasty were pre- 
sented to the eyes of the furious assailants. 

"The house was well set out for the distinguished 
visitors. Neither Louis XVIII., nor the Duke 
of Orleans, nor Queen Victoria, nor any of the 
great ones of the earth, whose visits are recorded 
with pillars, and with trees planted with their own 
hands, saw Stowe so nobly arrayed as the British 


public have seen it this week. The bride was 
dressed for the altar, the victim for the sacrifice. 
No thrifty coverings, no brown hollands, no neat 
chintzes were there. King Mob had it all of the 
best, the richest damask furniture of the newest 
state hangings ; only as that personage rode 
literally roughshod through the palace, and brought 
with him cartloads of gravel, there was just an 
attempt to save the carpets from excessive tritura- 
tion. In the state dining room were set out 
60,000 ounces of gold and silver plate ; one was 
involuntary reminded of the weight, for the scales 
were at work there also, and men were weighing 
and noting down lot after lot. 

" On a table 20 yards long, and on a dozen side- 
boards stood forests of vases, candelabras, epergnes, 
groups, goblets, tankards, and every form and 
variety of plate, from the eleborate designs of 
Italian artists to the simple elegance of the old 
English schools, and the pretentious richness of 
the last generation. Among fifty other pieces of 
historic value, the gift of royal personages and 
distinguished men, stood a vase formed from snuff 
boxes, presented by the cities and corporations of 
Ireland in 1779, the mace of the old corporation 
of Buckingham, purchased by the Buckingham 
Conservatives, and presented to the Duke as an 
everlasting possession, and the Chandos testi- 
monial, for which the gentry and yeomanry of the 
county lately subscribed, we believe, ,1,500. 
During the whole week this testimonial was sur- 
rounded by a crowd of agriculturalists, the very 


originals of the figures thereon represented, telling 
of the guineas they had contributed to the ill-fated 
fabric, but avowing with unvaried gratitude worthy 
of a safer, if not a better cause, that they would 
gladly give the money over again. 

" The galleries of family portraits and collections 
of family memorials seem to connect all the great 
men, and all the great achievements of modern 
Europe with the name of Chandos, Temple, Cob- 
ham, and Grenville. But beyond the somewhat 
extensive circle of family affection, the original 
portraits of famous men and women here as- 
sembled, are of the greatest interest and value. 
Here, too, is the victor's portion in the celebrated 
sieges, the memento of historical friendships, and 
the favourite gem of royalty or beauty. In the 
manuscript room is the most extensive and valu- 
able collection of Irish documents anywhere to be 
found. For the pictures, marbfes, bronzes, antique 
articles of vertu, curiosities, china, glass and wines, 
we leave them to the auctioneer and his catalogue 
of 5,000 items. It is not our purpose to speak of 
that which money has collected, and may collect 
again. Such things are only scattered for a fresh 
reunion elsewhere, under new and more favour- 
able auspices. But the heirlooms of many great 
families, the records of many great events, and the 
memorials of many great persons, all spontaneously 
collected into one great whole, constitute a most 
singular and significant fact, the obliteration of 
which we can only compare to the overthrow of a 
nation or a throne. 


" And everything is to be sold. The fatal ticket 
is everywhere to be seen. The portrait of Charles 
Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, the founder of the 
family, by Holbein, is Lot 51 in the twenty-first 
day's sale. That every other ancestor should go 
to the hammer, whether Vandyck or Lely, or 
Knelleror Gainsborough, or Reynolds, follows, of 
course. But there is one item of which no pre- 
paration can remove the shock. The Chandos 
family is descended from F ranees Brandon, eldest 
daughter of the above Charles Brandon, by Mary, 
daughter of Henry VII., and Queen Dowager of 
France. Some time since savages or dilettanti at 
Bury, exhumed that Mary Brandon from her grave 
and took from her head a lock of silken hair, which 
thus constitutes a visible link between the present 
Duke of Buckingham and the throne of these 
realms, to which he has a reversionary claim. That 
lock of silken hair in its glass case is now to be sold 
to the highest bidder." 

Messrs. Christie and Manson charged 15^. for the 
sale catalogue, and this admitted four persons to the 
private view, August 3rd to the I5th ; but imme- 
diately after the conclusion of the sale, Henry Ram- 
sey Forster compiled, and David Bogue published, 
the " Stowe Catalogue, Priced and Annotated," a 
valuable and interesting book in quarto, of 310 
pages, with a number of illustrations, and a frontis- 
piece of the celebrated Rembrandt, The Unmerci- 
ful Servant. It is neither possible, nor perhaps 
desirable, for us to enter exhaustively into the 
innumerable details of this sale, and we must 

i. L 


content ourselves with a severe condensation of 
Forster's Catalogue. The principal articles, taken 
in the order of sale, were as follows: A jewel, de- 
signed for a Benitoire, in the most exquisite taste, 
of the period of Cellini ; the vessel for holy water 
is formed of a single almandine, supported by two 
angels of gold, enamelled, on the lid is a bust of 
the Virgin, and cameos, above is a relief of the 
Virgin, in a glory, supported by angels, with the 
Trinity above; the whole jewel is thickly studded 
in rose diamonds and turquoise this beautiful 
work of art was formerly among the crown jewels 
of Portugal, whence it was brought to this country 
by Dom Miguel 101 guineas; an oviform vase, 
long considered a perfect chef-d'oeuvre of Raffaele 
ware, 50 guineas; an oval salver of Sevres porcelain, 
turquoise ground, with a subject after Watteau, 100 
guineas ; a beautiful antique , statue, the Marine 
Venus arranging her hair, found in excavating the 
baths of Agrippa at Rome, and brought to Eng- 
land by the Marquis of Chandos, 4 feet 6 inches 
high, 156 guineas (Her Majesty the Queen) ; the 
celebrated Laocoon, a magnificent bronze, of the 
size of the original group, by G. di Bologna at 
Florence, by Carbonneaux (? or by Crozatier), 
executed for Watson Taylor at ^2,000 (but never 
in his possession), from the Fonthill collection, 
540 guineas (Duke of Hamilton) ; Roubiliac's 
bust of Prior, 1 30 guineas (Sir Robert Peel) ; a 
pair of superb candelabra, the stem and pedestal of 
Sevres bleu du Roi, mounted with ormolu, 8 feet 
6 inches high, 235 guineas (E. L. Betts) ; the state 


bedstead, magnificently carved and gilt, made for 
the Prince and Princess of Wales upon their visit 
to Stowe in 1737, and subsequently the resting 
place of very many royal personages, including 
the Prince of Wales in 1805, Louis XVIII. in 
1808 or 1809; and of the Queen and Prince 
Albert in 1845, 86 guineas ; a beautiful cabinet of 
marqueterie of the finest old German work, formed 
as a table supporting a cabinet, 235 guineas ; a 
pair of magnificent silver gilt sideboard vases, with 
lip, each with two handles springing from above a 
mask, covers surmounted by a figure of a cavalier, 
311 ounces at 2 per ounce. 

The first portion of the pictures came up for 
sale on Tuesday, September i2th. The Stowe 
collection had been formed out of the accumulation 
of several families ; from Gosfield, the seat of Earl 
Nugent, in Essex ; from Minchenden House, near 
Southgate, the seat of Mr. Nicoll, whose only 
daughter and heiress married James, Marquis of 
Carnarvon, afterwards third Duke of Chandos ; 
and from Avington, another seat of the Chandos 
family, in Hampshire. When the second Duke 
of Buckingham, whose sale we are now describing, 
succeeded to the title, he made a complete clearance, 
and sent nearly one thousand pictures to Christie's 
rooms, where they produced a total of about /"6oo. 
Those sold at Stowe included a number of copies, 
replicas and so forth ; the more important were 
the following : Holbein, Portrait of Charles 
Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, 48 guineas (Duke of 
Sutherland) ; Fuseli, Midsummer Night's Dream, 


painted for Boydell's Shakespeare, 65 guineas, and 
another scene from the same, 60 guineas ; Henry 
Morland (father of George), Lady Coventry, 32 
guineas, and Duchess of Hamilton, 36 guineas. 

The sale on Wednesday, September i3th, in- 
cluded a number of interesting relics, and among 
these were William 1 1 1. 's silver watch, by Bushman, 
of London, 10 guineas ; the white silk sash of the 
Pretender, Charles Edward, taken from his baggage 
at Culloden, in 1745, 40 guineas; the badge and 
ribbon of the Order of the Bath, worn by Sir 
R. Temple at the coronation of Charles II., 6} 
guineas ; a lock of the hair of Queen Mary, 
taken from the corpse at St. Mary's Church, Bury, 
in 1784, purchased at the sale of the museum of 
the Duchess- Dowager of Portland in 1786, for 
6 ios., and now sold for 7 los. ; and the cele- 
brated miniature portrait of Charles II. by Cooper, 
sent by the King in 1651 to Henry, Lord Beau- 
champ, 100 guineas. Pictures were again sold on 
September i4th, and included Richardson's Por- 
trait of Alexander Pope, 70 guineas (Sir Robert 
Peel) ; and his Portrait of J. Locke, 40 guineas 
(Earl of Mansfield) ; several by Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds, Richard Grenville, Earl Temple, half- 
length, 1 60 guineas; Mary, Marchioness of Buck- 
ingham, and her son, in a landscape, whole length, 
1 30 guineas; the Right Hon. G. Grenville, in robes, 
1 60 guineas; and the Marquis of Granby, whole 
length, in engagement in the background, 200 
guineas; T. Gainsborough, Robert, Earl Nugent, 
seated, whole length, 101 guineas ; six by Sir 


P. Lely, Lady H enrietta Berkeley, 70 guineas ; 
Frances Stuart, Duchess of Richmond, in yellow 
satin dress, whole length, 68 guineas; Charles II., 
whole length, 16 guineas; Anne, Countess of 
Southesk, 80 guineas ; Nell Gwynne, whole length, 
in yellow and blue dress, 100 guineas ; and Anne 
Maria, Countess of Shrewsbury, as Minerva, 65 
guineas (Sir R. Peel) ; Vandyck, the Marquis of 
Vieuville, in a white dress and black coat, whole 
length, 210 guineas; R. Wilson, Minchenden 
House, Southgate, with extensive landscape and 
water, figures in the foreground, 195 guineas (Lord 
Leigh), and Caernarvon Castle, with peasants and 
cattle, no guineas. But the great picture of the 
sale was the Chandos portrait of Shakespeare, 
presumed to be the work of Burbage, who first 
acted " Richard III."; it was the property of John 
Taylor, the poet's Hamlet, who left it by will to 
Sir W. Davenant in or about 1653; at Davenant's 
death, or soon after, it was purchased by Betterton 
the actor, and when he died, Robert Keck, of the 
Inner Temple, gave Mrs. Barry, the actress, 40 
guineas for it ; from Keek's possession it passed to 
Mr. Nicoll, of Minchenden House, whose only 
daughter, as we have before stated, married 
James, Marquis of Carnarvon, afterwards Duke of 
Chandos ; it was here purchased by Rodd, the 
bookseller of Little Newport Street, London, for 
the Earl of Ellesmere, for 355 guineas. The last 
picture in the day's sale was the celebrated work of 
Clarkson Stanfield, Wreckers off Calais, from the 
Watson Taylor collection, 410 guineas (Naylor). 


The most important pictures in the collection 
were sold on Friday, September isth, and at the 
head of these came the celebrated Rembrandt, the 
Unmerciful Servant, 7 feet by 5 feet 10 inches, pur- 
chased in Amsterdam from the representatives of 
the family for whom it was painted, and brought 
away the night before the entrance of the French 
troops, 2,200 guineas (Marquis of Hertford). This 
day's sale included two other important works of 
this master, a Portrait of a Burgomaster in a black 
dress, wearing a skull-cap and ruff, 52 x 43, from 
the Orleans Gallery, at the dispersal of which it 
sold for 300 guineas ; at the Morland sale it sold 
for 400 guineas ; and it was now understood to be 
purchased for the Marquis of Breadalbane for 
810 guineas; and a Negro armed with bows and 
arrows, richly attired, 251 guineas (Holford). The 
other pictures included a pair by Albert Dtirer, St. 
Catherine reading a book, 150 guineas; and St. 
Barbara, with a book in her left hand, 160 guineas ; 
D. Ferriers, three old peasants in conversation 
near the door of a farmhouse, 240 guineas ; Do- 
menichino, Sybilla Persica, one of the finest pro- 
ductions of this master, from the Orleans Gallery, 
690 guineas (Marquis of Hertford); Salvator Rosa, 
The Finding of Moses, 79 x 48, brought to England 
by W. Y. Ottley, "as the companion to the cele- 
brated picture in the National Gallery " (which, how- 
ever, it is not, as the companion to the Stowe pic- 
ture is engraved in Le Brun's work), 1,000 guineas 
(Marquis of Breadalbane) ; and the celebrated 
Cuyp, Philip Baptizing the Eunuch, 66 x 45, from 


the collection of the Count de Vismes, i ,470 guineas 
(T. B. Brown). The only two other lots in this 
sale to which we need refer are the following: 
The celebrated collections of mineralogy and geo- 
logy formed by the Abbe Haliy, comprising nearly 
ten thousand specimens, each carefully labelled 
and described by his own hand, together with very 
numerous models of crystals, elaborately cut in 
wood, to explain his particular system of Crystalo- 
graphy ; an extensive hortus siccus, etc., the whole 
forming a valuable and interesting illustration of 
the " Trait de Mineralogie," published by the 
Abbe in 1822, 310 guineas, purchased by the 
Directors of the Jardin des Plantes, Paris. And 
the Buckingham collection of mineralogy and geo- 
logy, containing more than 6,000 specimens, some 
of them of considerable variety and beauty, 65 

It may be mentioned here that the contents of 
the Duke of Buckingham's town house at 91, Pall 
Mall, were sold at Christie's in the spring preced- 
ing the great dispersal at Stowe. On March 27th, 
28th, and 29th the Sevres and other porcelain, 
wines, and a few pictures brought a total of about 
,2,300; on March 3oth the plate realized ,3,267 
1 35. ; on April 3rd, the books, stuffed birds, car- 
riages, etc., realized nearly .300 ; whilst a sale of 
guns, rifles, etc., took place on July i ith. 

Although the Stowe sale overshadowed every 
other event of its kind in 1848, it was by no means 
the only important auction of the year. Neither 
was it the earliest. In the sale of J. Newington 


Hughes (" who was so well known as a collector for 
the last sixty years") of Winchester, on April Hth 
and 1 5th, 1848. A few good pictures occurred: 
A series of sixteen portraits of celebrities of the 
times of Charles I., known as "The Fairfax por- 
traits/' ^"174; J- M. W. Turner, Sheerness and 
the Isle of Sheppey, 565 guineas; and Whalley 
Bridge and Abbey, 295 guineas (now in the col- 
lection of Lord Wantage) ; A. Ostade, an Interior, 
three Boors sitting at a table, one looking into a 
jug, 370 guineas ; Teniers, the Village Mill, obelisk 
in foreground, 225 guineas ; and Cuyp, a Chateau 
on a river, man in red on grey horse conversing with 
a peasant, 710 guineas (Baron L. de Rothschild). 
Early in the following month (May 5th), twenty- 
six pictures of the Dutch School, " the most select 
portion of the collection formed by the former 
minister of France, the late M. Casimir Perier" 
(who died in 1832), was sent "over to Christie's 
from France, and produced a total of ,5,987. 
Several of the more important pictures were pur- 
chased by the Marquis of Hertford, notably P. de 
Hooghe, Interior, lady peeling apples, 21 x 28, 
270 guineas; Metzu, a Dutch kitchen, known as 
" The Tabby Cat," 13 x 16, 240 guineas: Rem- 
brandt, Portrait of himself, with black cap and fur 
collar, 25x19, 280 guineas; Wouverman, " Les 
Sables," the Downs, Holland, 26 x 22, from the 
Choiseul collection, 390 guineas; and Terburg, "La 
Liseuse," Dutch lady reading, 1 8 x 14, 6 10 guineas. 
There were also Hobbema, " Les Deux Mares," 
two ponds, man on horseback, 33 x 24, 560 guineas ; 


P. Potter, " L'Hotellerie," coach in sandy road, 
13 x 20, 425 guineas ; Ruysdael, a Watermill, large 
stones and old timber, 32 x 25, 350 guineas 
(Gardner); Terburg, "La Couseuse," old woman 
at needlework, 18 x 14, 310 guineas (bought in); 
W. Van De Velde, a Calm, with numerous vessels, 
1 8 x 1 6, 550 guineas (Gardner); Wouverman, 
Le Defil6 de Due de Vendome, a landscape, with 
cavalry and leader on white horse, 41 x 31, 610 
guineas (Lord Derby) ; and Velasquez, Philip IV. 
in armour, 26 x 16, 180 guineas (Stone). 

The last noteworthy picture sale prior to the 
Stowe dispersal comprised 136 pictures sold by 
direction of the will of the late Sir Thomas Baring, 
and removed from Stratton Park and Devonshire 
Place, London. The sale took place on Friday 
and Saturday, June 2nd and 3rd, and the total 
realized, ,11,776 us., does not give a very high 
average. The following were the most important 
works : William Collins, Boulogne Fisherman and 
Girls, 230 guineas ; and Boy taking Sea- fowls' 
Eggs, 1833, " the capital chef d'ceuvre," 245 guineas ; 
J. M. W. Turner, Sheerness, sun rising through 
the fog, man-of-war at anchor, 550 guineas (Wells) ; 
D. Wilkie, Alfred in the Neatherd's Cottage, 430 
guineas (Ryan) ; and Sheepwashing, 660 guineas; 
R. Wilson, Meleager, 170 guineas (Rought); 
Rembrandt, Landscape, with village church on 
a hill, partly concealed by trees, 215 guineas 
(Farrer) ; Hobbema, Watermill, with village church 
and cottage, 275 guineas; Rubens, Abraham 
and Melchizedec, 365 guineas ; Backhuysen, a 


Fresh Breeze, with Dutch men-of-war, from the 
Hibbert collection, 270 guineas; Paul Potter, 
a brown Bull standing near a tree, two sheep 
lying down, 210 guineas (Fuller) ; and Wouver- 
man, A Stag Hunt, on the banks of a river, 425 

Early in 1849 another batch of pictures was 
received at Christie's from France, where the revo- 
lution of the previous year rendered everything 
uncertain. These pictures comprised the Mont- 
calm Gallery at Montpellier, originally formed by 
the Marquis de Montcalm, who commanded the 
French forces at the battle of Quebec. Other 
pictures were added to the collection, which con- 
sisted of 145 works, and the sale of May 4th and 
5th showed a total of ,9,546. The chief lots were 
H. Vernet, Une Odalisque, 27 x 23, 102 guineas ; 
Sasso Ferrato, Virgin and Child, circle, 17 inches, 
205 guineas ; P. de Champagne, Adoration of the 
Shepherds, from the Bonnemaison collection, 350 
guineas ; and Albano, Venus Reposing in Clouds, 
12 x 14, 370 guineas (all the foregoing were 
purchased by the Marquis of Hertford) ; Salvator 
Rosa, Rocky Coast of Calabria, 190 guineas; and 
one of the Battles of Alexander, from the Lapey- 
riere collection, 260 guineas ; Le Sueur, the Annun- 
ciation, from the Tourgot and Robit collection, 1 70 
guineas ; Guido, Woman in pink plucking rose 
from a vase, from the Sommariva collection, 252 
guineas all of which were purchased by the Earl 
of Normanton ; Greuze, Le Premier Sentiment, 
a portrait of Madame Geoffrin when young, oval, 


22 x 28, 600 guineas (Norton) ; and La Reveuse, 
head of a very beautiful girl with light hair, 1 5 x 12, 
355 guineas (Bryant). 

The pictures collected by a well-known amateur 
of repute in his day, W. Coningham, were dis- 
persed in three portions, the first on April 25th, 
1844, the second, April 25th, 1849, and the last on 
April 1 2th, 1851. The second of these sales in- 
cluded sixty-seven pictures, the most important of 
his collection, the total realizing ,6,894. Special 
mention may be made of the following : Garofalo, 
Circumcision, from Lord Cawdor's collection, 250 
guineas (Farrer) ; Filippo Lippi, Offering of the 
Wise Men, circle, from the Guicciardini Palace, 
Florence, 270 guineas ; Andrea Mantegna, Christ 
on the Mount of Olives, signed " opus Andrea 
Mantegna," from Cardinal Fesch's collection, 400 
guineas (bought in) ; Titian, Tarquin and Lucretia, 
from Charles the First's collection, 73 x 56|-, 525 
guineas (bought in) ; Carlo Crivelli, Virgin and 
Child, St. Peter and Saints, from the Brera Gallery, 
900 guineas (bought in) ; P. Veronese, Death of 
Procris, 500 guineas (bought in) ; Raphael, Christ 
Praying on the Mount of Olives, from the Gabrielli 
collection, 24 x 27!, 750 guineas (W. Brown) ; Se- 
bastian del Piombo, Holy Family, from the Cam- 
biaso collection i, 800 guineas (Baring); Rembrandt, 
Portrait of Martin Looten, dated 1637, from the 
Fesch collection, "700 (Holford). The third sale, 
in 1851, included six of Mr. Coningham's pictures, 
and of these two were among those bought in at 
the 1849 sale, viz., the Mantegna, which now sold 


for 240 guineas, and the Paul Veronese, which now 
realized ^301. 

One of the most important picture sales of 1849 
took place the week after the dispersal of Mr. Con- 
ingham's second instalment. This was the earlier 
of the two sales of William Wells, of Redleaf, and 
it occupied two days, May i2th and I3th. This 
sale included the following : Guido, a Sybil, in a 
white dress and blue drapery, 25 x 30, 340 guineas ; 
R. Maes, a Distressed Boy asking alms of a lady, 
31 x 24, 585 guineas ; W. Van Mieris, young woman 
with a basket of eggs on her arm, 18 x 15, 260 
guineas; and the companion picture, a Woman with 
a dish of flounders in her hand at a window, 200 
guineas; D. Teniers, Interior of a kitchen, with a 
pile of culinary and other objects, IQ^- x 23^, 270 
guineas ; P. Wouverman, Landscape presenting a 
view of an open, barren country, group of pedes- 
trians, and gentleman on a brown horse, 1 3 \ x 2oJ, 
570 guineas (Theobald) ; I. Ostade, Peasant at the 
half-door of a thatched cottage talking to a traveller, 
from the Robit and other collections, 3 1 5 guineas, 
and View of the back court of a house, with various 
accessories introduced, 4 r 5 guineas ; Claude, Herds- 
man tending goats, 3 1 5 guineas ; Sir David Wilkie, 
Distraining for Rent, 1,050 guineas ; F. Mieris, The 
Tired Traveller seated on a bank, with his hat off, 
and a knapsack by his side, said to be a portrait 
of the artist when he was young, 9x7, 470 guineas 
(now at Dorchester House) ; A. Cuyp, Cows and 
oxen at pleasure, 27 x 26, 390 guineas (Fletcher) ; 
Van DeCapella, Calm off the Dutch Coast, 1 1\ x 13, 


310 guineas (Emmerson) ; J.and A. Both, View in 
Italy, represented under the effect of a fine sum- 
mer's day, i8|-X26, 295 guineas; and Peter de 
Hooghe, View in the back court of a house, having 
an open door at the end of it, 28 x 23, 5 15 guineas. 
The total of the two days' sale amounted to 
,5,566. In 1852 another portion of the Redleaf 
collection, in which there were some excellent 
examples of the English school, came up for sale 
on May 2Oth, and for convenience' sake may be 
included here. The total realized by the 125 lots 
amounted to ,30,736 7$. 6d. The principal pic- 
tures were Sir E. Landseer, Fallow Deer, 700 
guineas, and the companion, Red Deer, 650 
guineas ; J. M. W. Turner, a Harbour Scene, sun- 
set, ships of war at anchor, 640 guineas (Graves) ; 
F. Goodall, the Hurdy-Gurdy Player, 306 guineas ; 
T. Webster, Boys Going to School, 365 guineas ; 
A. Egg, Autolycus, the much-admired work in the 
Royal Academy of 1845, 355 guineas (Graves) ; 
C. R. Leslie, Columbus and the Egg, in the Royal 
Academy 1834, 318 guineas; J. Ostade, a Little 
Country Inn, at which a gentleman has just arrived, 
from the Prince Galitschkin collection, 30 x 24, 
i, ooo guineas ; Vandyck, Portrait of the Wife of De 
Vos, when about thirty, 750 guineas (Lord Hert- 
ford) ; Wouverman, Halt of Cavalry, 14 x 17^-, 
330 guineas, and a similar subject, 12 x 17, 380 
guineas, described in Smith's Catalogue, No. 380 
and 381 respectively; A. Ostade, Country Fair, 
310 guineas; K. du Jardin, a Rocky Glen, 640 
guineas ; Hobbema, a View in Westphalia, 610 


guineas ; G. Metzu, the Fainting Lady, in a scarlet 
jacket (i 5 x 13), from a number of celebrated collec- 
tions, including Hemskirk, Van Alpen, Crewe, and 
Schimmelpeninck, 300 guineas (Duke of Cleve- 
land) ; W. Van De Velde, View on the Coast of 
Scheveningen, dated 1659, 500 guineas (Sir R. 
Peel);.J. Ruysdael, Forest Scene, 45x56, 700 
guineas; J. Van Huysman, Yellow Vase with 
flowers, grapes, bird's nest, etc., 53x36, 400 
guineas; 1 J. B. Greuze, Young Woman with light 
auburn hair and a blue kerchief round her shoulders, 
with a basket of eggs in her lap, 750 guineas (Lord 
Hertford) ; Claude, The Enchanted Castle, 46 x 6oJ, 
from the Walsh Porter collection, 2,000 guineas 
(Lord Overston) ; Velasquez, Portrait of Prince 
Balthazar of Spain, 650 guineas (Lord Hertford); 
Domenichino, St. Cecilia, 580 guineas ; and 
Murillo, St. Thomas Distributing Alms to the 
Poor (59 x 59), 2,850 guineas {Lord Hertford). 
Finally it may be mentioned here that the 
celebrated work of Sir E. Landseer, the Portrait 
of Sir Walter Scott seated in the Rhymer's Glen, 
painted for Mr. Wells, was sold on June 9th, 1877, 
for 3,050 guineas. In 1890 yet another portion of 
the Redleaf collection came up for sale, and it is 
dealt with under that date. 

The last important picture sale at Christie's in 
1849, took place on June i4th, i5th and i6th, and 
comprised " pictures of the very highest class, 

This beautiful picture was purchased on this occasion by 
Alexander Darby, at whose sale, in 1867, it realized 380 guineas, 
and is now in the National Gallery. 


partly from Rushton Hall, Northamptonshire," 
with some rare vases, bronzes and enamels, the 
property of William Williams Hope. The total 
amount realized by the 101 pictures was ,7,526 
14$. Some of the best pictures were bought in, 
notably Jan Steen, the Poultry Market, 500 
guineas; Teniers, the Three Smokers, 520 
guineas ; Wouverman, Cavaliers starting from a 
stake, 350 guineas ; Hobbema, Wood in Guelder- 
land, 360 guineas ; Greuze, Ariadne, 550 guineas ; 
and Claude, Italian landscape, shepherd seated in 
the foreground, figures and mules crossing a 
bridge, 550 guineas. The pictures sold included 
A. Van de Velde, landscape with shepherd and 
shepherdess, 400 guineas (Winthrop) ; Murillo, 
Virgin and Child, 580 guineas (Lord Hertford), 
and a Riposo of the Holy Family, 780 guineas 
(the same) ; W. Van de Velde, a Calm, men 
of war furling sails, 340 guineas (Farrer) ; Isaac 
Ostade, the Bowl Players, 262 guineas (Norton) ; 
Van der Heyden, square in a German Town, 
370 guineas; Rembrandt, portrait of Admiral 
Van Tromp, 460 guineas (Baron Rothschild) ; 
and A. Ostade, Adoration of the Shepherds, 450 

Lord Ashburnham's sale, July 2Oth, formed the 
principal event of 1850, 91 pictures and 5 bronzes 
realizing total of ,13,295, or, deducting the bought 
in property, ,9,773. The principal pictures in 
the sale included Carlo Dolci, Daughter of Hero- 
dias, 700 guineas (Marquis of Westminster) ; Sal- 
vator Rosa, Apollo and the Sibyl, 1,700 guineas 


(Marquis of Hertford) ; and St. John preaching in 
the Wilderness, with Philip baptizing the Eunuch, 
1,000 guineas (bought in); Vandyck, portrait of 
Don Livio Odescalchi, 450 guineas or ^500 it 
is not quite clear from the catalogue which is the 
correct amount (Lord C. Tovvnshend); Rembrandt, 
a Cavalier in black dress, 690 guineas, (Farrer) ; 
and Mathematician and Pupil, the engraved picture 
from the Dundas collection, 1,000 guineas (bought 
in); Guido, Bacchus and Ariadne, 400 guineas 
(bought in) ; and Lucretia stabbing herself, 390 
guineas (Baron N. Rothschild) ; Claude, View in the 
Bay of Naples, 1,070 guineas, and a view of Rome, 
with the Ponte Molle in the distance, 1,800 
guineas, both bought in ; Murillo, Portrait of him- 
self, signed and inscribed, 790 guineas (Lord 
Spencer), and St. Francis kneeling in prayer, from 
the Dundas collection, 1,000 guineas (bought in) ; 
Rubens, Nature unveiled by the Graces, painted 
for Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, 1,000 guineas 
(bought in); G. Poussin, View of Tivoli, with 
figures, from the Waldegrave and Fleming collec- 
tions, 480 guineas (Marquis of Hertford) ; N. 
Poussin, Triumph of Bacchus, 1,1 60 guineas (Lord 
Carlisle) ; Triumph of Pan, 1,180 guineas (Hume) 
these two belong to a set of three pictures said 
to have been painted for the Due de Montmorenci, 
the third is in the National Gallery, No. 42 ; and 
another by the same artist, a Landscape with storm, 
and Pyramusand Thisbe, 400 guineas (bought in) ; 
and Schidone, Girl with Horn Book learning the 
Lord's Prayer, from the Capo di Monte collection, 


750 guineas (bought in). A few interesting Dutch 
pictures were included in the sale, July 31 st, 1851, 
of Viscount Middleton's collection, removed from 
Peper Harrow Park, near Godalming, Surrey. 
The 87 pictures realized ,3,137, and included 
Rembrandt, Portrait of himself in a brown cloak 
and brown cap, hands clasped, bust size, 33 x 27^, 
4ioguineas (Sir Charles Eastlake, for the National 
Gallery) ; and Jan Van Eyck, Portrait of a man in a 
fur cloak, with red chaperon round his head, from 
the Arundel collection, and painted, according to 
an inscription on the lower part of the frame, 
October 21, 1433, 10^x7^, 300 guineas, now in 
the National Gallery ; A. Ostade, Interior, with 
six peasants, dated 1649, 290 guineas; Wouver- 
man, an Army on the March, on rising ground 
near a pool, ^250 ; and Terburg, Lady tickling the 
face of an officer who is asleep, 285 guineas. 

Curiously enough the two picture sale sensations 
of 1853 were of what may be termed French 
extraction. The earlier of these two sales, March 
1 2th, comprised 47 lots, which, with the exception 
of four, were those which were reserved at the 
sale of the gallery of the late Cardinal Fesch by 
his grand nephew, Charles Lucien Buonaparte, 
Prince of Canino. Of the 47 lots the only two 
which were not bought in were Tiberio d'Assisi, 
Virgin and Child enthroned, angels on each side, 
and Saints, " a chef-d oeuvre of this exceedingly 
rare master," dated 1 507, 380 guineas; and Rubens, 
Adoration of the Magi, " formerly the property of 
the Church of Berg-Saint-Vinox, sold about 1 766, 

i. M 


to Randon de Boisset for about ,2,400 " (at whose 
sale in 1777, it realized 10,000 livres), ; 1,200. 

The great sensation of the year, however, was 
provided by the death of Louis Philippe, the 
ex-king of the French, which occurred at Clare- 
mont, on August 26th, 1850; but the sale of his 
pictures did not begin until the Spring of 1853. 
The sales were held on May 6th, 7th, i3th, i4th, 
20th, and 2ist, whilst the collection bequeathed to 
Louis Philippe by Frank Hall Standish, came 
up for dispersal on the 28th and 3Oth. The 528 
pictures in the ex-king's own collection realized 
.27,635 165-. 6d., and were chiefly of the Spanish 
School ; they formed the " Spanish Gallery," as 
exhibited at the Louvre ; 1 the Standish pictures 

1 " King Louis Philippe possessed a collection of paintings 
by the old Spanish masters, which was perhaps the largest ever 
brought together, as well as one of the most important. 
Besides the specimens of other schools", it included 656 Spanish 
paintings, being 140 more of that school than are to be found 
in the famous Museo del Prado at Madrid. . . . The Standish 
Gallery was formed by Frank Hall Standish, of Duxbury Hall, 
Lincolnshire, an enthusiastic lover of Spanish art, who resided 
a long time in Spain, and wrote an agreeable and useful book, 
entitled 'Seville and its Vicinity,' 1840. His collection of 
drawings, which included those formerly owned by the Conde 
del Aguila, was probably the most extensive and valuable ever 
brought together. . . . Mr. Standish, dying in 1841, bequeathed 
to King Louis Philippe, all his books, pictures, etc., 'as a 
testimony of my esteem for a generous and polite nation, which 
is always ready to welcome travellers, and which I have always 
visited with pleasure and quitted with regret.' " (Curtis, 
" Velasquez and Murillo.") It is said that Mr. Standish offered 
to give his books to the British Museum, and his pictures to 
the National Gallery, but the hint at a revival of a baronetcy 


were 249 in number, and realized ,9,859 igs. ; 
whilst the furniture, porcelain, and objects of art 
from the Chateau d'Eu realized ,1,190. The 
Spanish pictures included the following : Alonzo 
Cano, Virgin and Child, ,200, Balaam's Ass, ,240, 
and three others by the same artist ; Morales, 
Ecce Homo, ,110, and Carrying the Cross, 115 
guineas; over thirty attributed to Murillo, and 
among them the Infant Jesus sleeping on the 
knees of St. Joseph, 380 guineas ; Christ, after 
the Flagellation, kneeling on the ground, 205 
guineas; St. Bonaventura, 125 guineas; St. Thomas 
de Villanueva, a composition of fifteen figures, 
described by R. Ford in the Athenceum, May 
28th, 1853, as "one of the finest sketches of 
Murillo in existence," 51 \ x 29, ^"710, now in the 
possession of Lord Northbrook ; St. Felix of 
Cantalicio, ,350, now in Lord Elcho's collection ; 
St. Rodrigues crowned by an Angel, 200 guineas, 
now in the Dresden Gallery, No. 633 ; St. 
Catherine, ,300, now in the collection of the 
Duke of Cleveland, Raby Castle, Durham ; St. 
Joseph and Infant Jesus, 42 x 34, ^"440 (when 
sold it was in bad condition, having been injured 
by sea- water and ill-usage ; it was purchased by 
Mr. Rutley for Mr. Lyne Stephens, of Lynford 
Hall, Norfolk, in whose possession it remained 
until May, 1895, when it was again sold at 
Christie's) ; the Magdalen, in purple drapery, at 
the entrance of a cavern, 59 x 41, 800 guineas 

which had once been in his family, not being taken by Lord 
Melbourne, the collections were willed as described. 


(Wells); St. Augustine at Hippona, the saint in 
bishop's robes, 680 (J. T. Mills); portrait of 
Don Andreas di Andrada, inscribed, 78 x 46, 
,1,020 " this picture was bought by Sir J. M. 
Brackenbury some twenty years ago from the 
heirs of Andradae for ,1,000" (Athenceum, May, 
1853, p. 623), it was purchased by Thomas Baring, 
and is now in the Northbrook collection ; Portrait 
of the artist, oval, inscribed "Vera effigies Bar- 
tholomsei Stephani a Morillo Maximi Pictoris 
Hispani," etc., 400 guineas (Baron Seilliere) ; 
Miraculous Conception, from a Convent at Cor- 
dova, "810; Virgin and Infant Jesus, known as 
" La Vierge a la Ceinture," or " Virgen de la Faja," 
,1,550 (Due de Montpensier) this celebrated 
work was purchased by Louis Philippe for 60,000 
francs ; Christ and St. John by the River Jordan, 
660 (the same) ; and a Portrait of himself, a 
head, resembling the portrait above mentioned, 
but with material differences, 330 guineas. The 
more important of nearly twenty examples of 
Velasquez were the following : Landscape, setting 
sun, with monastery of the Escurial in the distance, 
410 guineas; Angel appearing to Shepherds, 380 
guineas (Davenport Bromley) ; portrait of the 
Infant Don Balthazar Carlos, son of Philip IV., 
when a child of about three years of age, whole 
length, i, 600 guineas (Lord Hertford); portrait of 
Philip IV., whole length, 250 ; portrait of Caspar 
Gusrnan Conde d'Olivares,3 10; portrait of Isabel 
de Bourbon, whole length, wearing a black head- 
dress with a white feather, 300. The last three 


pictures were purchased by Mr. Farrer, who ex- 
hibited them at Manchester in 1857, and sold 
them to Mr. Henry Huth in 1863; Jesus and 
his Disciples at Emmaus, ^235 (Earl of Breadal- 
bane) ; and the most important of all, the celebrated 
Adoration of the Shepherds, known as " The 
Manger," 91 x 66, ^2,060 purchased about 1832 
for ,-4,800 by Baron Taylor, Louis Philippe's 
agent, from the Conde del Aguila, in whose house 
in Seville it had remained since the time it was 
painted ; it is now in the National Gallery. The 
other Spanish pictures included four examples of 
Spagnoletto, notably the Assumption of the Mag- 
dalen, 200 ; a number of examples of Zurbaran, 
among them a Franciscan Monk holding a skull 
in his hands, 61 x 39, ^265 ; and a pair, Adoration 
of the Shepherds, and Adoration of the Magi, 
^1,700 (Colnaghi). There were also four works 
of David Roberts, Interior of the Temple of 
Edfou, 360 guineas ; St. Helena at Bethlehem, 
460 guineas ; Interior of the Mosque at Cordova, 
300 guineas; and the High Altar in the Seville 
Cathedral, 300 guineas ; also a fine example of 
Watteau, Landscape, with the actors of the 
Come'die Italienne, 700 guineas (Lord Hertford). 
Only two sales of note occurred in 1854. The 
earlier of these was the small but interesting 
collection of J. D. Gardner, removed from 
Bottisham Hall, Cambridgeshire, and the total 
realized, on March 25th, by the seventy-five lots 
was ,2,305. These were : Rubens, Landscape, ex- 
hibiting a wild and sequestered scene, with figures, 


imported from Holland by Emmerson in 1818 
(and from the Harman sale of 1844), 400 guineas ; 
and Salvator Rosa, view in the Apennines, also 
from the Harman sale, 450 guineas both bought 
in, and offered again in 1877, when the former 
sold for 490 guineas, and the latter for 2 10 guineas. 
This sale included the antique marble of an eagle, 
found in the Boccapudugli Gardens, near the 
Baths of Caracalla, Rome, in 1742 ; at the Straw- 
berry Hill sale in 1842 it realized 200 guineas, 
and it now fetched 530 guineas. The second note- 
worthy sale of the year took place on June i2th, 
and comprised the collection of fifty-seven pictures 
of E. J. De Bammeville; of the total of ^4,106, 
,1,253 represented pictures bought in. One of 
the pictures in this sale was purchased for the 
National Gallery, viz., Lorenzo di San Severino, 
Marriage of St. Catherine, formerly in the Church 
of Santa Lucia at Fabriano, 57x57, 375 guineas. 
The other pictures included L. Cranach, Christ 
Blessing Little Children, boy in red supposed to 
be Luther, 151 guineas; Botticelli, Madonna, and 
Child in her arms, circle, 2 10 guineas, and Madonna 
adoring Infant, St. John behind, 520 guineas; 
Masaccio, Madonna dictating to St. Bernard, three 
angels, 460 guineas ; Era Angelico, the Last Judg- 
ment, 600 guineas (both bought in) ; and Duccio 
di Buoninsegna, the Crucifixion, 265 guineas 
(Davenport Bromley). 




R. RALPH BERNAL'S sale, in 
1855, marks an epoch in the history 
of such events. The collection com- 
prised 4,294 lots, it occupied 32 days 
in selling, and realized the grand total 
of ,62,690 i8j. whilst the prints, books, and fur- 
niture brought it up to ,70,954 45-. In a note pre- 
fixed to the sale catalogue of Messrs. Christie and 
Manson, J. R. Planche wrote: " Distinguished 
amongst English antiquaries by the perfection of 
his taste, as well as the extent of his knowledge, the 
difficulty of imposing upon him was increased by 
the necessity of the fabrication being fine enough in 
form, colour or workmanship, to rival the master- 
piece it simulated : to be, in fact, itself a gem of art 
which it would not pay to produce as a relic of 


antiquity. Mr. Bernal could be tempted by nothing 
that was inferior. Even his pictures, though 
avowedly not selected for their value as paintings, 
but for their illustration of costume, have probably, 
taken as a whole, more merit in them than any 
similar collection in Europe." 

Ralph Bernal, who was of Hebrew descent, 
was born about 1783, and was educated at Christ's 
College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A., 
1806, and M.A., in 1809; he was called to the 
Bar at Lincoln's Inn, February 5th, 1810. Not 
being a Jew by religion he was eligible for Parlia- 
ment, which he entered as member for Lincoln in 
1818, and, in 1820, for Rochester, which he repre- 
sented in nine Parliaments; in 1841 he stood for 
Weymouth, and was seated on petition : at the 
dissolution of 1852 he retired from Parliament. 
In 1830 Mr. Bernal was appointed Chairman of 
Committees of the House of Commons, at a salary 
of ^2,000 a year, and this office he filled for twenty 
years. He died on August 26th, 1854. " He 
lived," writes Mr. Humphry Ward, "at a time 
when no one either knew or cared about the choice 
things which nowadays ten thousand collectors seek 
for with frenzy. No one of his contemporaries 
in England though Sauvagest and others were 
equally fine judges in France knew so much 
as he about old armour or mediaeval goldsmiths' 
work, or the steel inlaying of the Milanese, or the 
makers and the decorators of the pate tendre of 
Sevres, or about majolica, or those infinitely delicate 
kinds of Chinese porcelain for which English 



and American connoisseurs are prepared to pay 
any price. What times those were for the collec- 
tor! one is tempted to say as one looks through 
the priced Bernal catalogue with its pretty engrav- 
ings by Mason after Fitzcook's drawings. The 

(Bernal Sale. See p. 172.) 

things sold for what we should consider literally 
nothing, though in almost every case they marked 
a considerable advance on the price Mr. Bernal 
paid. As you walk through the South Ken- 
sington Museum, you can discover numbers of 
specimens of Limoges enamel, or of the " ruby- 
backed" oriental plates, or of a score of other 


curiosities with labels marking the prices at 
which they were obtained in the Bernal sale: $ 
for the plates, ^50 or 60 for the pieces of 
Limoges, and so forth in every instance about 
one-tenth or one-twentieth part of what would be 
paid now, so tremendous has been the effect of 
the spread of education, the diffusion of wealth 
and the desire to possess at least some of the 

choice works of the past. 
What was remarkable, 
however, in the Bernal 
collection, was not the 
low prices at which things 
had been bought and 
were sold, but the fault- 
less taste that had pre- 
sided over their acquisi- 
tion. Mr. Woods, the 
present well-known and 
accomplished head of 
Christie's firm, is fond of 
quoting this Bernal sale 
as the supreme instance 
of a perfect collection ; 
there was nothing, out of all the 4,294 objects that 
was not good, genuine, and, it may almost be said, 
in intact condition." 1 

The sale began on Monday, March 5th, 1855, 
and concluded on April 3Oth. As a cheap edition, 
with illustrations, of the catalogue is published 

(Bernal Sale. See p. 171.) 

Scri&ner's, December, 1890. 



in Bohn's Illustrated Library, anything like an 
exhaustive analysis of the sale is unnecessary, 
and we must content ourselves with enumerating 
a few of the more interesting or important items. 
Dresden porcelain : a pair of small sceaux scalloped, 
each with eight small subjects of figures, ^40 
these beautiful speci- 
mens were purchased 
by Mr. Bernal for 
^5; an egg-shaped 
scalloped vase, with 
two subjects after 
Watteau, flowers on 
gold ground, 40 
guineas ; a clock in 
the form of a temple, 
with pilasters at the 
angles, and dome top, 
surmounted by two 
female figures, dated 
1727, 18 in. high, 
120 (Sir A. de 
Rothschild), see illus- 
tration p. 1 70 ; a pair 
of superb candelabra, 
each formed of a 
female draped figure bearing several branches for 
five lights, 24 in. high, 2 2oguineas ( Marquis of Bath), 
see illustration above ; a pair of two-handled vases 
and ewers, painted with Chinese figures, and 
colours, ^54 (Baron M. Rothschild). Old Chelsea : 
a pair of beautiful globular scalloped vases and 

(Bernal Sale.) 



covers, deep blue, painted with exotic limes, 105 
guineas (S. Addington) ; and an ecuelle, and 
cover and stand, with pink scalloped edges, 26 
guineas (F. Baring). Gres de Flandres : a blue 
and white pilgrim-shaped bottle, with perforated 
ridges at the sides, inscriptions relating to the 
shield and arms of the Prince of Orange, and 
medallion of a helmeted head, date 1590, 18 

(British Museum), see 
illustration, p. 169. 

Faenza and Raf- 
faelle ware : a salt- 
cellar of Raffaelle 
ware, of triangular 
form, painted with 
rich ornaments of 
cupids and negroes' 
heads, date 1532, 
2|- in. high by 6 in. 
l n g ;6i (British 
Museum) : a tazza- 
shaped dish, deep 
blue, with ten cupids, 
supporting banners, 
date 1520, loin, diameter, 6\ (A. Fountain); a 
flat-shaped pilgrim's bottle, with cover, snake 
handle, embellished with arabesque ornaments, 
camei, and subjects of Hercules and the Centaur, 
date about 1540, 12^ in. high, n in. wide, 
40 guineas (Baron A. de Rothschild), see illus- 
tration above ; and a plate of the most rare and 
interesting character, in very strong colours : the 


(Bernal Sale.) 


subject believed to be Raffaelle himself and the 
Fornarina seated in the studio of an artist, who 
is occupied in painting a plate ; 9^ in. diameter, 
^120 ( Marlboro ugh House), see illustration, p. 141 
this lot realized at the Stowe sale, August i ;th, 
1848, only ^4, and it was afterwards sold to 
Mr. Bernal for ,5. Palissy ware : a circular dish, 
on a foot, a lizard in the centre and with very rich 
border, \2\ in. diameter, ^"162 (Baron G. de 
Rothschild), a true specimen of the extremely 
rare Palissy ware, purchased in a broken state in 
Paris for 12 francs, and after being admirably 
restored, sold to Mr. Bernal for ^"4. 

Sevres : an ecuelle, cover and stand, gros-bleu, 
painted with six subjects of cupids by Chabry, 1771, 
^"125 (Marlborough House); an elegant vase, with 
handles of goats' heads, gros-bleu, with frieze and 
gold, with an exquisite medallion of Fame recording 
the events of Time, 14 in. high, 121 guineas 
(S. Addington), this article cost Mr. Bernal 17 
guineas ; a gros-bleu vase and cover of beautiful 
form, with two handles, and festoons and leaves 
falling from the centre of the neck to the bottom of 
the handles, painted with Venus, Adonis, and Cupid 
in front, and bouquet of flowers on reverse, i6|-in. 
high, 213 guineas (S. Rucker) ; a magnificent 
cabaret, of the finest gros-bleu, with wreaths of 
gold, consisting of plateau, teapot, sucrier and 
cover, milkpot, and two cups and saucers, painted 
by Leguay, 1775-6,^465 (Marquis of Bath), 
said to have cost Mr. Bernal 65 guineas ; a pair 
of fine vases and covers, green ground pencilled 



(Bernal Sale.) 

(Bernal Sale.) 


with gold, each with two bou- 
quets with flowers in medal- 
lions by Dodet, 17 in., 305 
guineas (C. Mills) ; a pair of 
oval jardinieres, a very fine 
bleu de Vincennes ground, 
with children after Boucher, 
1 754, ^100 (Lord Falmouth) ; 
a pair of vases rose du Barri, 
each painted with two groups 
of cupids in medallions, the 
curved leaf-shaped lips form- 
ing handles, 14.^ in., ,1,942 
i os. (Hertford) see adjoin- 
ing illustration ; this magni- 
ficent pair of vases were 
formerly in the possession of 
Henry Baring, who sold them 
to Mr. Bernal for about ,200 ; 
a pair of vases, of very elegant 
form, turquoise, with oval 
medallions of a shepherdess, 
and a girl bathing her feet, 
by Dodet and Drand, 18 in. 
,1,417 i os. (the same) ; a noble 
oviform vase and cover, green 
with gilt busts forming the 
handles, exquisite painting of 
a peasant family, in the manner 
of Greuze, 18 in. high, ,388 
los. (the same), see adjoin- 
ing illustration ; a pair of tall 



vases, and covers, of rare form, gros bleu, deli- 
cately pencilled with gold stripes, with medallion of 
a sacrifice to Venus and Bacchus, 14 in. high, ,700 
(S. H. Sutherland) ; a centre vase and cover, gros- 
bleu with upright handles, the centre with an 
exquisite painting of a peasant and two girls 
gathering cherries, donkey 
with panniers at their side, 
1 8 in. high, ,871 los. 
(Marquis of Hertford); a 
pair of vases and covers of 
equally high quality, gros- 
bleu, on the necks are two 
exquisite paintings by Gre- 
mont of a nymph at the 
bath, 15^ in. high, ,900 
(Sir A. de Rothschild)- 
see adjoining illustration ; 
and a pair of oviform vases 
and covers of equally high 
quality, gros-bleu, with flat 
handles, the front nearly 
covered with an exquisite 
painting of Bacchus seated, 
with a nymph presenting a 
wreath to Cupid in landscapes, 13 in. high, ,590 
(Marquis of Bath). 

The antique jewellery, rings, crosses, brooches, 
and ornaments included an ancient Gaelic brooch, 
of silver, of circular form, scalloped and surrounded 
by small upright obelisks, each set with a pearl at 
top; in the centre is a round crystalline ball, con- 


(Bernal Sale.) 


sidered a magical gem, 4f in. diameter (see illustra- 
tion, p. 53), 71 (British Museum). This Scottish 
brooch is traditionally said to have been made by 
a tinker on the estate of Lochbury in Mull, from a 
silver one found there in or about the year 1 500, 
and it was successively the property of Dr. Lort, 
at the sale of whose effects, July I5th, 1791, it was 
purchased by Samuel Tysson ; from them, at 
Tysson's sale, May i8th, 1802, it was purchased 
by Mr. Bindley, and at his sale by Mr. Thomas, 
and again at Thomas's sale by Mr. Bernal, for 
10 guineas. The armour and arms comprised 
complete suits, cross-bows, daggers, gauntlets, 
guns, pistols, halberds, helmets, swords, shields, 
bucklers, and so forth. The Byzantine metal 
work, included King Lothaire's magic crystal, a 
highly interesting relic, engraved with the whole 
history of Susannah, in copper gilt, gothic frames 
set with imitations of precious stones, the crystal 
4|- in. diameter, ^267 (British Museum) this 
object was purchased in the Low Countries for 12 
francs, and sold to Mr. Bernal for 10. The more 
interesting examples of mediaeval metal work in- 
cluded Sir Thomas More's brass candlesticks, 
or rather flower vases, with flowers and leaves 
enamelled in blue and white (see illustration, p. 1 38), 
221 guineas (Duke of Hamilton); the celebrated 
copper formed Reliquaire of the kings, copper gilt 
enamelled with blue and turquoise, presented by 
Pope Eugenius IV. to Philip le Bon Duke of 
Burgundy, containing at the time the relics found 
in the Chatreux at Dijon in 1430, 66 (British 



Museum) ; and the St. Thomas a Becket Reliquaire, 

a small copper of copper gilt, richly enamelled with 

blue ; on the front is represented the martyrdom of the 

saint, 4f inches long, nearly 2^ inches wide and 6 

inches high (see illustration below), ^28 17^. 6d. 

(Col. Sibthorp, M.P.) this is said to have cost 

^12. Of the large number of Limoges enamel we 

can only mention an elegant ewer, with a fine 

subject of an equestrian combat around the body, 

and with busts in 

medallions of Henri 

II. or Francis I., 10 

inches by 4 inches, 

130 guineas (S. 

Addington); and a 

beautiful casket in 

original silver gilt 

chased mounting, 

highly embellished 

with gems, camei, 

etc., and composed 

of five plaques of ST. THOMAS A BECKETT RELIQUAIRE. 

enamels in panels (Bernai Sale.) 

representing the sibyls in black and white, 4^ 

inches long by 5^ inches wide (see illustration, 

p. 178), 240 guineas (Mr. T. Smith, M.P.). 

Finally, the pictures included : Largilliere, Pre- 
tender, in red dress wearing the Order of the 
Garter, and his sister in white satin at his side, 
26x21, in guineas (Farrer) ; Mignard, Madame 
de Maintenon, in a yellow damask dress and blue 
robe lined with ermine, 52 x 40, 80 guineas (Duke 

I. N 


of Hamilton) ; and Princess Henrietta, Duchess of 
Orleans, in a blue and white dress, ornamented with 
fleurs-de-lys, 40 x 33, 78 guineas (Vardon), " this 
beautiful portrait is one of the last works of the 
master;" Drouais (not Greuze as catalogued), 
Madame de Pompadour in a white flowered dress, 
with a muff, oval, 185 guineas (S. Lyne Stephens) ; 

(Bernal Sale. See p. 177.) 

Mytens, Charles I., in a pink silk dress with slashed 
sleeves, with lace collar, and the ribbon and badge of 
the Garter, 46 x 36, 80 guineas (Duke of Hamilton) ; 
Sir Peter Lely, Nell Gwynne, in a white dress and 
blue mantle, seated on a bank in a landscape, 
49x40, 62 guineas (J. Neeld, M.P.) ; Cuyp, 
William II., Prince of Orange, in a white dress, 
edged with gold, on a brown horse, 19 x 13, 100 
guineas (Marquis of Londonderry) ; Primaticcio, 


the Cardinal of Chantillon, in a crimson damask 
dress and cloak, with a broad front of ermine, a 
small red cap on his head, half-length, 36 x 28, 
dated 1531 (H.R.H. the Due d'Aumale); 
S. Coello, Anna Maria of Austria, Queen of 
Philip II. of Spain, in white silk dress, orna- 
mented with broad gold bands of arabesque pat- 
tern, " a noble chef-dceuvre of the great Spanish 
portrait painter," signed, 205 guineas (Sir H. H. 
Campbell) ; W. Mieris, Portrait of the artist, in a 
yellow silk dress and crimson velvet cloak, fastened 
by a jewel, oval, 34 inches high, 62 guineas ; 
Palomino, Isabella de Valois, wife of Philip II., in 
a black dress, with pink sleeves, with necklace of 
pearls and jewels, 75 x 43, 1 10 guineas (C. Mills) ; 
Janet, Elizabeth of Austria (not Isabel), Queen of 
Charles IX. of France, in white dress, beautifully 
ornamented with jewels, three-quarter length, 
14 x 10, 147 guineas (Due d'Aumale); Janet, or 
more probably Bernard Van Orley, Eleanor of 
Portugal, Queen of Francis I., in a black dress 
with slashed sleeves, three-quarter length, 
I5^x 12, 212 guineas (the same); Holbein, Anne 
of Cleves, in a black dress ornamented with broad 
stripes of gold damask, gold chain around her 
neck, a flat gold cap on her head, half-length (see 
illustration), 15^ inches x 14 inches, "an exquisite 
portrait on vellum," 175 guineas (Morant); Hol- 
bein, Lady Johanna Abergavenny, in a crimson 
dress with yellow sleeves, a gold head dress em- 
broidered with initials, A. i., half-length, from 
Strawberry Hill, 16x12, 52 guineas (R. Neville) ; 


and the Portrait of Nicholas, Lord Vaux, the poet 
and musician, in a black dress and cap, seated at 
a table, an open book before him, he holds a viol 
de gambe in his left hand, green drapery behind, 
j ^1. x i j f a most beautiful portrait of the highest 
interest," 100 guineas (Morant) ; and a Portrait 
by an unknown artist of Edward IV., in a gold 
dress and crimson cloak edged with fur, 150 
guineas (Duke of Newcastle). 

The echoes of the great Bernal Sale had 
scarcely died away ere the death of Samuel 
Rogers, the Banker Poet, on December i8th, 
1855, was followed almost immediately by the 
announcement of the sale of his numerous art 
treasures. Rogers was born in 1763, and was a 
man of wealth, as well as one of fine critical taste. 
For about three-quarters of a century he knew 
every person worth knowing in the political, 
literary and artistic world, and his breakfasts at 
22, St. James's Place were as famous, in their 
way, as the celebrated receptions at Holland 
House. He was a constant attendant at art sales 
from the early part of the century, but his pur- 
chases were never showy he depended upon his 
own judgment, and was not led away by outside 
enthusiasm, or public excitement. Nearly every 
picture in his collection realized two or three times 
more than he originally paid ; and the eighteen 
days' sale, from April 28th, 1856, realized a total of 
,42,367 the 233 pictures alone brought ^30, 1 80. 
Innumerable friends and associates of Rogers have 
left permanent records of their impressions of his 


famous house. Byron, who quarrelled with 
Rogers, as he quarrelled with nearly everybody 
else, except Shelley, wrote in his diary: " If you 
enter his house his drawing-room his library 
you, of yourself, say, this is not the dwelling of a 
common mind. There is not a gem, a coin, a 
book, thrown aside on his chimney-piece, his sofa, 
his table, that does not bespeak an almost fas- 
tidious elegance in the possessor." Macaulay, 
writing in June, 1831, says, "I breakfasted with 
Rogers yesterday. What a delightful house it is ! 
The furniture has been selected with a delicacy of 
taste quite unique. In the drawing-room the 
chimney-pieces are carved by Flaxman into most 
beautiful Grecian forms. The bookcase is painted 
by Stothard in his very best manner with groups 
from Chaucer, Shakespeare, and Boccaccio. In 
the dining-room are some beautiful paintings, a 
cast of Pope taken after his death by Roubiliac, 
and a mahogany table, in which stands an antique 
vase. Chantrey asked Rogers who made the 
table. ' A common carpenter/ said Rogers. 
1 Yes/ said Chantrey, ' I was the carpenter.' ' 

A description in the Athen&um of December 
29th, 1855, gives such a vivid picture of the con- 
tents of the house as they were arranged by the 
owner, that we must be excused for quoting it at 
length, and to avoid the necessity of going over 
the same ground twice, we give the prices which 
the articles alluded to realized in brackets : 
1 The poet's house consists merely of a front and 
back room on each floor, separated by the stair- 


case, and is a narrow strip extending from St. 
James's Palace to the Green Park, where its con- 
tracted frontage is distinguished by a triple bow 
window and carved gilt balcony. The street 
entrance conducts by a long narrow passage by 
the side of the staircase direct to the dining-room 
door. On entering this apartment, the large 
window, shaded by evergreens, at once removes 
the confined feeling connected with a town house. 
In front of the window rises, dark and monumental, 
a handsome mahogany pedestal, surmounted by a 
beautiful vase ; the latter is antique, the former 
the work of Chantrey when a journeyman. Viewed 
from the window, the pedestal has a stone-like ap- 
pearance. To the right of the door on entering is 
a sideboard supporting ancient painted Greek 
vases, and Roubiliac's terra-cotta model of the 
head of Pope. Above the glass is a portion of a 
fresco from the Carmine at Florence, by Giotto 
[75 guineas, National Gallery]. In the corner to 
the left, and towards the fireplace, is the original 
terra-cotta model by Michael Angelo for his well- 
known statue of the Duke Lorenzo dei Medici. 
Over the chimney-piece is the sketch by Velasquez 
of the Infant Don Balthazar [1,210 guineas, Sir 
Richard Wallace, purchased in Spain, in 1827, 
for Rogers]. Between the fireplace and the 
window is the poet's writing table, and immedi- 
ately on a level with his eye are three small 
pictures. The right hand one, Christ on the 
Mount of Olives [450 guineas, Baroness Burdett- 
Coutts, from the Orleans Gallery], was painted 


when Raphael was about two-and-twenty. It is 
one of a series of pictures that ornamented the 
prcdella or step of the great altarpiece executed 
by Raphael for the nuns of St. Antonio at 
Perugia. The large picture is in the Royal 
Palace at Naples : the other compartments of the 
predella belong to Mr. Miles of Leigh Court 
[sold in 1884], and Mrs. Whyte of Barron Hill. 
The remaining subjects over Mr. Rogers' writing 
table are a Virgin and Child, worshipped by six 
saints, by Ludovico Carracci, and a lonely land- 
scape, The Mill, by Claude [660 guineas, Baroness 
Burdett-Coutts], No. 1 1 of the " Liber Veritatis." 
On this side of the room is the magnificent sketch 
by Tintoretto for his celebrated picture of the 
Miracle of the Slave [410 guineas, the same]. It 
formerly belonged to Pilkington. Near, on the 
same wall, hangs a fine original study by Titian, 
of Charles V. on horseback. Low down, next the 
window, is one of the most powerfully painted 
heads by Rembrandt, being his own portrait 
[310 guineas it cost Rogers ^"69 at Lord Carys- 
foot's sale]. The touches and texture are truly 
marvellous. On the wall facing the fireplace is 
the large study by Paul Veronese for the cele- 
brated picture in the Durazzo Palace, from which it 
differs in many respects. Mr. Rogers purchased 
it from the Hope Collection in 1816 for ^90 
[380 guineas, Baroness Burdett-Coutts]. This is 
the picture which he actually crawled on his hands 
and knees to obtain. Near it are a superb sketch 
by Rubens for the picture of the Horrors of War 


in the Pitti Palace at Florence [200 guineas, 
Bentley for the National Gallery], and the Head 
of our Saviour, by Guido [cost 25 J guineas, 
bequeathed to the National Gallery], one of the 
three destined to grace our National Gallery. 
Many of the largest pictures in the room are con- 
trived by very simple machinery to advance 
from the wall and turn in almost every possible 
direction. Immediately from the dining-room 
door, to the left, the staircase leads by a curved 
and unbroken flight of steps to the first floor, 
opening by a door upon a covered gallery, con- 
necting the drawing-room with the small square 
apartment in front, which is the poet's celebrated 
library. The gallery is lighted by a glazed 
window from the staircase, the walls of which are 
relieved by choice casts from the marbles of the 
Parthenon. Here, scarcely to be seen, is hung 
the sketch by Titian for the" famous Gloria at 
Madrid [270 guineas, Lord H. Vane]. Here, in 
semi-darkness, are some of the choicest painted 
Greek vases and Egyptian sculptures. Some of 
the rarest objects of vertu are laid out on a table, 
including an especially fine specimen of a Greek 
Rhyton. The library is lined with bookcases 
surmounted by Greek vases, each one remarkable 
for its exquisite beauty of form. Upon the gilt 
lattice-work of the bookcases are lightly hung in 
frames some of the finest original sketches by 
Raphael, Michael Angelo and Andrea del Sarto, 
and finished paintings by Angelico da Fiesole and 
Fouquet of Tours. Modern works also, by 


Turner, Wilkie, and Mulready are there. The 
large painting, by Reynolds, of Cupid and Psyche, 
is over the fireplace in the same apartment [400 
guineas, Mr. Rogers gave 250 guineas for it]. 
Over the drawing-room fireplace, sculptured by 
Flaxman, is the study of Rubens [1,050 guineas, 
for the National Gallery], from Andrea Man- 
tegna's Triumphal Procession of Julius Caesar, 
now at Hampton Court. Beneath this picture is 
a range of interesting miniatures and various 
relics, including orange blossoms under glass. 
The chief picture towards the window is the 
beautiful ' Noli me Tangere/ by Titian. It is for- 
tunately destined to pass to the National Gallery 
[to which Mr. Rogers bequeathed it]. Over the 
sofa hang pictures by Watteau, Le Nain, and Jan 
Van Eyck, the latter a most exquisitely painted 
figure of Madonna and Child, surmounted by the 
richest ornamental architecture. Facing the 
window is a bold allegorical picture by Rem- 
brandt, and a mellow Moonlight scene by Rubens 
[310 guineas, Lord Ward, from Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds's Sale]. Opposite the chimney-piece, a 
cabinet of light wood is panelled with pictures by 
Stothard. The subjects are the characters of 
Shakespeare, the Canterbury Pilgrims, the char- 
acters of the Decameron, and the Sans Souci. 
In the centre of this side of the room is a fine 
picture of Annibal Carracci of the Coronation of 
the Virgin ; another repetition of this subject 
hangs to the right, but is very different in treat- 
ment. It is a small altarpiece by Lorenzo di 


Credi [380 guineas, Lord Overstone]. Near this 
again hangs the well-known Madonna and Child, 
from the Orleans Gallery, attributed to Raphael, 
but certainly differing in feeling, form, and tone of 
colour from others of his well-known works at that 
period [480 guineas, Mackintosh, cost Mr. Rogers 
66 in 1816]. An extraordinary riposo by Cor- 
reggio, remarkable for powers of handling and 
incorrect drawing, is possibly one of his early 
genuine works [240 guineas, cost Rogers 51 
guineas]. The famous Puck, by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, graces this room, and the collection 
possesses, altogether, seven excellent specimens 
of this English master." 

So far the Atkenmim. There were nine ex- 
amples of Reynolds in the collection. Of these 
the highest price was paid for the celebrated 
Strawberry Girl, 2,100 guineas, purchased for the 
Marquis of Hertford, and now in Sir Richard 
Wallace's collection at Manchester House ; the 
next in importance was Puck and 'Titania, with 
Bottom in the background, sold by Reynolds to 
Boydell for 100 guineas, purchased by Rogers for 
210 guineas, and now bought by the Earl 
Fitzwilliam for 980 guineas ; Cupid and Psyche, 
Landscape background, 400 guineas ; A Girl 
Sketching, from the Thomond sale, 350 guineas ; 
View from Richmond Hill, from the same collec- 
tion, 430 guineas ; The Mob Cap in the " Infant 
Academy," the engraved picture, 780 guineas 
( Windus) ; Girl with a Bird, 2 30 guineas ; A Woody 
Landscape, 105 guineas ; and the Sleeping Girl, 


From the S. K ; Ke\ . 1 )a\enport Bromley, 1863 

460 gs. : A. Barker, and Earl Dudley. 1892 i,6oogs.). 

"This j)ortrait was called a Vcrroi hio in Mr. S. Ko^ers's collection, 
till Dr. \\aa-en pronounced it to be by Antonio I'ollajuolo. The 
catalo-ur of Mr. liromli i iliis, but that nevertheless 'it i.- 

generally considered that the treatment agrees entirely with that of 
Filippino Lippi.' It also c|uoted Ya>ari's description of ' La Simonetta ' 
a-v ' una giovine e bella donna di colla notabilmente lungo,' which, 
however, applies to the well-known portrait in the Pitti Gallery by 
Botticelli, which is always called 'La Bella Simonetta' (No. 353), and 
is said to he the portrait referred to by Vasari in his life of that painter 
as one of two profile portraits in the guardaroba of Duke Cosimo ; one, 
he says, uas Lucre/ia Tornabuoni. wife of Loren/o Medici, the other 
was 'si dichi che sia 1'innamorata di (iiuliano cle' Medici/' The I'itti 
catalogue says this lady \\-as 'chantee,'by the poets Pulci and Poli/iano, 
and tint she was born at Porto-Venere, of a Genoese family, and 
married at Florence a member of the noble house of the Cattani. But 
there is in the collection of which the Due d'Aumale has recently made 
the magnificent gift to the French nation to be called the ' Musee 
Conde,' a. portrait also called 'La Bella Simonetta' by Antonio 
I'ollajuolo, which bears inscribed on it in capitals, 'SIMONETTA 
JANUK.V--IS VESPUCCIA. 1 This is especially noticed in an article in 
\\\t Journal des Debats, January, 1887, by M. Fillet, the expert, as one of 
the pictures purchased by the Due d'Aumale of M. Reiset in 1879. The 
writer also says that some of these pictures were from the collection 
of M. S. Rogers, the poet. It is remarkable that a portrait of ' La 
Simonetta ' should have been in the Rogers' sale, and one attributed 
to Pollajuolo, as is the one now in the Muse'e Conde. The question 
arises whether the picture in the Bromley sale above recorded is not 
the same as that. If so, then it should have the arms of the Soderini 
family, if such they are. on the background. As to the inscribed name, 
nothing is said either in the catalogue of the Rogers sale, nor in the 
Davenj. iit Bromley sale. Mr. Barker's collection was sold in 1874 
and 1879 at Christie's, but the 'Simonetta' does not appear in either 
catalogue, so it is to be concluded that he had sold it." (Redford, 
"Art Sales," ii. 237.) As regards Mr Redford's interesting speculations, 
we can only add that the Dudley picture has the arms of the Soderini 
family emblaxoned on the background, and that there can be no ques- 
tion about the fact that this identical picture was successively in the 
possession of Rogers, Davenport Bromley, and Alexander Barker. 
Dr. Richter, in his "Commentary" on Va>an London, 1892), em- 
phatically states that "the portrait in the I'itti Palace (No, 353,1 neither 
represents La bella Simonetta. nor is it by Botticelli." (See vol. ii.. 



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150 guineas (Bentley). The other pictures in- 
cluded three by C. R. Leslie, the Princes in 
the Tower at Prayer, for which the owner paid 
the artist 40 guineas, now brought 2 1 5 guineas ; 
Sancho and the Duchess (a replica of the original 
now in the National Gallery), for which Rogers 
paid Leslie 200 guineas, sold for 1,120 guineas, and 
The First Lesson, 320 guineas ; F. Bassano, the 
Good Samaritan, 230 guineas (National Gallery 
it cost Rogers ^40); Mazzolino di Ferrara, Christ 
disputing with the Doctors, from the Ottley sale of 
1837 (115 guineas), 500 guineas (Bentley) ; Murillo, 
St. Anthony of Padua (wrongly called St. Francis), 
and the Infant Jesus, cabinet size, 230 guineas 
(Baroness Burdett-Coutts), and St. Joseph and the 
Infant Jesus, 12 x 19^-, from the Hope sale of 
1816 (27 guineas), 380 guineas (the same); Teniers, 
the Enchantress, from the Reynolds and Thomond 
(115 guineas) collections, 300 guineas (Danby 
Seymour) ; in addition to the two examples of 
Rubens already mentioned there were a Moonlight 
Landscape, with horses grazing, from the 
Reynolds' collection, 310 guineas, a Boar Hunt, 
310 guineas, both purchased by Lord Ward ; and 
the Waggon, 6 10 guineas (Bentley) ; and Watteau, 
a Masquerade, and a Concert, the companion, a 
pair from Lord Carysfoot's collection (at the sale 
of which they were purchased for 60 guineas), 
330 guineas. 

The dispersal of the Rogers collection was soon 
followed by that of Lord Orford. This sale was 
advertised as comprising " a highly important 


collection removed from a noble mansion in the 
country," but the owner of the collection was pretty 
generally known to be Lord Orford. The seventy- 
one pictures sold on June 26th, 1856, produced a 
total of 1 1,577. By far the most important work 
in the sale was the celebrated Rubens known as 
the Rainbow Landscape ; it was formerly in the 
Balbi Palace at Genoa, was purchased at the 
Watson Taylor sale in 1823 by Lord Orford, and 
now realized ,4,550. There were also four by 
Canaletto, Courtyard, Venice, 160 guineas; 
Staircase, Doge's Palace, bought by Lord Orford 
in 181 2 at St. Petersburg of the executors of Count 
Algarotti, 240 guineas (Duke of Cleveland), St. 
Mark's Palace, 260 guineas, and St. Mark's 
Church, 2 74 guineas; Berghem, Italian Landscape, 
Peasant in red dress, two Cows, Horse, and Man, 
470 guineas (Pennell) ; Lo Spagna, Glorification 
of the Vigin, 70 x 3i|-, with arched top, from the 
Ercolani collection, Bologna, 620 guineas (National 
Gallery) ; J. Ruysdael, Sea-Piece, storm, two figures 
on a wooden pier, beacon, 300 guineas ; M. 
Grunenwald, Altarpiece, Virgin standing on the 
moon, 130 guineas (H.R.H. Prince Albert); De 
Koning, Landscape, from the Pourtales collection, 
390 guineas ; Murillo, Christ bearing the Cross, 
from the Bishop of Tarento's collection, 690 
guineas ; Sasso Ferrato, Marriage of St. Catherine, 
1,025 guineas (Marquis of Hertford); and John 
Opie, Peasant Boy and Girl, 310 guineas. 

The principal sale of 1857 comprised the 
extensive collection of pictures, objects of art, 


armour, and old decorative furniture, formed 
chiefly by Charles, fifteenth Earl of Shrewsbury, 
r.irly in the present century. The sale was held 
at Alton Towers, in the valley of the Churnet, 
Staffordshire, and the entire receipts of the thirty 
days' dispersal of 3,981 lots, from July 6th, 
amounted to ,42,198 i6s. The Times published 
a long leading article on the event, commenc- 
ing it with the following sentence : " One of the 
noblest families in the English peerage is extinct, 
its effects for sale, and the manor over which the 
premier Earls of England have held right of 
jurisdiction since the days of Henry II., is about to 
pass into the keeping of strange hands." Redford 
observes : " As regards pictures, the collection was 
by no means of a high order, although most of 
them came from Rome, and were purchased in 
1829 by the Shrewsbury family in one lot from 
Madame Bonaparte, the mother of Napoleon. 
These had been obtained by her son Lucien, who 
had many fine pictures, the best of which were sold 
in London ; and it is evident that Madame Mere 
must have made a very successful sale of pictures 
which her son Lucien knew were inferior to his 
own. The Earl Charles also bought pictures by 
the advice of Bryan the picture dealer, and being a 
strict Roman Catholic the subjects were all in 
accordance with that feeling." The collection of 
708 pictures occupied six days in selling, and 
produced a total of "12,940; the great majority, 
indeed, did not reach ,50, and the best of those 
which reached three figures were the following : 


Velasquez, Philip IV., full-length, when about 25 
years of age, 123 guineas (probably, according to 
Curtis, the picture now in the Holford collection) ; 
the best of the several Murillos was The Virgin in 
purple robe and blue drapery, holding the Child in 
her arms, 206 guineas ; Sasso Ferrato, Virgin and 
Child sleeping, 131 guineas; Carlo Dolci, St. 
Catherine, her cheek resting in wheel, 1 2 1 guineas ; 
G. Bellini, Circumcision, signed, 162 guineas; 
Raphael, Virgin kneeling in a Landscape, holding 
a book, 2 10 guineas ; Perugino, Virgin, seated, with 
Infant in her lap on a cushion in Landscape, 205 
guineas ; De Heusch, Landscape with waggon 
attacked by banditti, 120 guineas; J. Wynants, 
Landscape, river scene with fallen tree, 130 
guineas ; and Gonzales Coques, Gentleman and 
Lady, with three children and servant in a garden, 
165 guineas. 

Lord Northwick's celebrated collection of 
pictures, and objects of art, by some curious mis- 
chance, was not sold at Christie's, but by Phillips 
of Bond Street on the premises at Thirlestane 
House, Cheltenham, July 25th, 1859, and is here 
referred to inasmuch as the collection is frequently 
mentioned in the course of this work. 

The principal picture sale of 1860 comprised 
two small collections, that of the Rev. Frederic 
Leicester, and of the Hon. Percy Ashburnham, 
May 1 9th. The former consisted of twenty-nine 
pictures which realized the total of ,4,565, and 
among them were : Cuyp, The Ferry Boat, a view 
on the Maes, with ferry-boat full of figures start- 


l-'rom the collections of the Hon. H. M. Pierpoint ; G. T. Braiiu. KM.|. 
1857 (240 gs.) ; and Adrian Hope, 1894. Exhibited at the British 
< iullery, 1835 : Smith's ''Catalogue Raisonne," vol. viii. No. 69. (See 
vol. ii., p. 236, where the price, 2,900 gs , is inadvertently omitted.) 

r lap c in Lui 

janditti, i : 

scene with fallen 

'KJ .H ,( ant in a 


; ,-t-K^ : 

) .pd .t)/ .iirv . : . . ' 

imo\ltiten}tii)KM'&\ a^oM 

Boftd Street on the pn at Thi 

l^eltenham, July . and 

i to inasmuch as the collection is fre 
u>!*eil in the course of this work. 
- principal picture >f 1860 

Elections, that of the Re 
ami of the Hon; Percy A 
The former of twer, 

h realized 
w-^re ; Cir 
wit*: ferr\ 


ing from a wooden jetty, 22^- x 28, from the col- 
lection of Sir Robert Price (dispersed in 1854), 810 
guineas ; W. Mieris, The Greengrocer, at a stone- 
arched window a young lady, the wife of the 
artist, in a brown silk dress, choosing a melon 
from a basket, 1731, 15^ x 13, from the 
Saltmarshe collection, 255 guineas; Canaletto, 
Piazza, di San Marco, Venice, looking towards the 
front of the Church of the Campanile, from Mr. 
Cankrien's collection, 350 guineas ; Gonzales 
Coques, Henry III., Stadtholder, in a green silk 
dress, with portraits of his Secretary, Chancellor 
De Witte, his Consort, and others, 380 guineas ; 
Teniers, his own Chateau, with portraits of himself 
in a red cloak, his two daughters and son, stand- 
ing on the bank of a river, 24 x 20, from Sir 
George Warrender's collection, 465 guineas ; J. 
and A. Both, The Ferry Boat, known as " The 
Courteney Both," Cavalier and Lady on horseback 
in conversation with peasants in a ferry boat, in 
which are two cows, Roman ruins on the woody 
bank, from the Acraman and French collections, 
360 guineas ; Murillo, The Virgin in a crimson 
and blue drapery, pressing the Infant to her 
bosom, from the Joseph Bonaparte collection, 220 
guineas ; and J. Ruysdael, Solitude, a Grand 
Landscape with ruined chateau, seen between the 
stems of a group of venerable oaks and backed by 
a wood, 305 guineas. 

The collection of the Hon. P. Ashburnham con- 
sisted of about thirty pictures which realized a total 
of close on ,7,600. The principal pictures were 


the following : Teniers, The Enchantress quitting 
the infernal regions, formerly the property of Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, who gave Dr. Chauncy three of 
his own productions and two others by old masters 
in exchange, 230 guineas ; J. and A. Both, a Grand 
Italian Landscape, representing a rocky and highly 
picturesque scene upon the aspect of a sultry day, 
from the Earl of Shaftesbury's collection, 300 
guineas; Paul Veronese, the Vision of St. Helena, 
empress in robe of delicate crimson hue reclining 
in sleep before a stone cornice, formerly in the 
collections of the Duke of Marlborough and the 
Duke of Leeds, 270 guineas; and Andrea del 
Sarto, Carita, a noble female figure, seated, 
surrounded by a group of children in a grand 
Landscape, 1529, formerly the property of W. Y. 
Ottley, 500 guineas. 

The Scarisbrick collection, formed by Charles 
Scarisbrick at Scarisbrick Hall and Wrightington 
Hall, Lancashire, constituted the chief sale of 
1 86 1 . The dispersal of this exceedingly extensive 
collection commenced on November 7th, 1860, 
with the carved oak furniture and valuable carvings, 
the 172 lots realizing ,2,001 ; on November 26th, 
and five following days, the sale of the library 
realized ,3,82 1, and included a probably unrivalled 
set of the original editions, in seventy-nine volumes, 
of the works of Daniel Defoe, which sold for ,76. 
The first portion of the pictures was sold on May 
nth and i3th, 243 lots, bringing ,20,373 7 s -'> tne 
second portion was sold on May i7th and i8th, 
bringing a total of ,5,437 1 is. ; and the third and 


final portion on May 24th and 25th, ,3,409; in 
all there were 760 lots. In the intervals between 
the sales of the pictures, Messrs. Christie sold on 
May 1 3th and i4th, the Scarisbrick engravings, 
,1,149 95-. 6d\ on May I5th and i6th, the objects 
of art and vertu, ,4,852 8^.; on May 2Oth and 
2ist, the drawings by ancient and modern masters, 
,469 ijs.; and on May 22nd, the armour, arms, 
curiosities, and cigars, ,799 6^. The grand total 
of the property amounting to over ,42,347. 

There were a few important pictures, including 
Hobbema, Landscape with winding road, cottage 
and figures, from Dawson Turner's collection, 440 
guineas ; eight good examples of Berghem, among 
them a Landscape, with two women, one milking 
a goat, 300 guineas (Lord Dudley); another, with a 
Lady on a white horse, farrier shoeing a mule, 
490 guineas ; another with Italian woman nursing 
child, one milking cow, peasants, goats, etc., signed 
and dated, 1649, 250 guineas ; and another, Peasant 
nursing child, man playing hurdy-gurdy, goats, etc., 
231 guineas; P. de Hooghe, Interior, lady in red 
dress, child in open door, 420 guineas ; W. Van 
de Velde, A Calm, 1 fisherman putting off in boat, 
from the Vernon and Redleaf collections, 620 
guineas (Marquis of Hertford) ; and A Fresh 
Breeze, with man-of-war, 232 guineas; J. Wynants, 
Landscape, with figures at a ford, cattle crossing, 
350 guineas (the same) ; Baroccio, " Noli me 
Tangere," engraved by R. Morghen, 7 20 guineas ; 

1 This was sold at Robinson and Fisher's, June 4th, 1896, for 
430 guineas. 

I. O 


A. Ostade, View at cottage door, man playing 
hurdy-gurdy, little girl and three other figures, 
from the Capron collection, 470 guineas (Lord 
Dudley) ; Velasquez, Portrait of Olivares, in black, 
standing, left hand on rapier, from Altamira and 
Baillie collections, 240 guineas ; Guido, St. James, 
green and orange dress, from Louis Philippe's 
collection, 1,250 guineas (Graves); the most im- 
portant of nearly a dozen examples of J. Ruysdael 
was a Landscape, stream, lofty hill, and fallen 
beech tree, 1,250 guineas ; another good example 
of this master was a Landscape with a Chateau, 
cascade, and peasants and sheep crossing a bridge, 
340 guineas ; L. da Vinci, Herodia's Daughter, 
crimson dress edged with blue and pearls, wreath 
of leaves on her head, an alabaster tazza, from 
the Barbarini Palace, 370 guineas (Davenport 
Bromley) ; Murillo, Annunciation, from the Church 
of St. Trinidad, Seville, ^222 i of several works by 
John Martin, we may mention Joshua commanding 
the Sun to stand still, the engraved picture, 450 
guineas ; The Fall of Nineveh, 205 guineas ; and 
The Deluge, 150 guineas. The objects of art 
included the Aldobrandini Caesar Tazzas attri- 
buted to Cellini, ,1,280; and a pair of etageres 
of Cellini design, 19 inches high, from the Stowe 
collection, iJ2. Two drawings, apparently not 
included in either of these sales, were sold at 
Christie's on March 25th, 1872, J. Martin, A 
Classical Landscape, 33 guineas; and Copley 
Fielding, Landscape, with cattle on a road, and 
figures seated under a group of trees, 410 guineas. 


A large number of " English pictures of the 
highest class, many of which have never been ex- 
hibited," the "property of Mr. L. V. Flatou, who 
in future intends to confine his attention to the 
Publication of an important work which is now 
being printed for him," came up for sale on March 
23rd, 1861. But a very large proportion of these 
pictures were bought in; those which were actually 
sold included E. W. Cooke, Entrance to Calais 
Harbour, from the Redleaf sale, 350 guineas; W. E. 
Frost, Wood Nymphs surprised Bathing, "one of 
the finest of the artist's productions," 360 guineas ; 
F. R. Lee, Canterbury Meadows, with group of 
cows painted in by T. S. Cooper, 400 guineas ; 
and Clarkson Stanfield, View on the Irish Coast, 
410 guineas; and Cittara in the Gulf of Salerno- 
rough weather, 500 guineas. 

The great china sales may almost be said to date 
from this year, June I4th, as the prices realized far 
exceeded anything which had hitherto been paid 
for similar articles. The sale was made up of a 
number of properties ; and the principal prices 
were the following : Sevres : a pair of Campana- 
shaped Vases and covers, presumably unique, 
green ground richly pencilled with gold, with 
flattened handles and ornaments in slight relief in 
pure white and gold, painted with miniatures of 
Venus and Cupid, and flowers in colours on white 
ground, 500 guineas ; a pair of eventail jardinieres 
on stands, of the first quality, green ground richly 
pencilled with gold, painted with exquisite minia- 
tures after Teniers, 355 guineas ; a jardiniere of 


oblong shape, with white and gold scroll-foliage 
handles, the ground apple-green, white and gold, 
painted with subjects after Teniers, 106 guineas ; a 
beautiful cabaret, deep blue, pencilled with gold, 
exquisitely painted with figure-subjects after Teniers 
in medallions, consisting of plateau, teapot, milk- 
pot, sucrier and cup and saucer, 137 guineas. An 
oviform Vase of the finest old Chelsea, white and 
gold scroll- pattern handles, deep blue ground 
beautifully pencilled and exquisitely painted with 
the subject of Leda and the Swan, ^129; a pair of 
very fine Vases of the same, deep blue ground 
beautifully pencilled with Chinese figures in land- 
scape, 406 guineas. This porcelain sale was 
followed on the next day by one of pictures 
which included those collected by Sir John Swin- 
burne. Among these were Peter Nasmyth, Woody 
Landscape, with figures on road, river beyond and 
open distance, warm effect of evening, " a charming 
work selected for Sir John by Mulready," 220 
guineas; David Wilkie, The Errand Boy, the 
celebrated engraved picture, purchased direct from 
the artist, 435 guineas ; Sir A. W. Callcott, South- 
ampton Water, a grand gallery picture, executed 
for Sir John Swinburne in 1812, 1,205 guineas 
(Flatou) ; and W. Mulready, Punch, a fine com- 
position of thirty figures, purchased direct from 
the easel in 1812, 955 guineas. 

Pre-Raphaelite pictures formed the great collec- 
tion sold during 1862. The premature death of 
T. E. Plint, of Leeds, threw on the market a large 
assemblage of works almost exclusively executed 


by the small band of men who were distinguished 
as constituting the Pre-Raphaelite school Sir 
John (then Mr.) Millais, Holman Hunt, Ford 
Madox Brown, and Henry Wallis. The sale, which 
took place on Friday (drawings) and Saturday 
(pictures), March 2nd and 3rd, realized a total of 
,5,269 19^. 6d. and .13,121 us. 6d. respectively. 
The most important of the pictures and drawings 
are included in the following list : Arthur Hughes, 
The Knight of the Sun, 38 x 5 1, 200 guineas ; The 
King's Orchard, 26 x 20, ^103 ; and three others 
which realized from 25 1042 guineas ; W. Holman 
Hunt, Claude and Isabella, 8x5, the finished 
study, 200 guineas ; and a scene from " The Two 
Gentlemen of Verona," 10 x 13, 140 guineas; 
this artist's drawings included the Plain of Rephaim, 
*3i x T 9a> I2 guineas; Nazareth, ^151; the 
Dead Sea from Siloam, 63 guineas ; Jerusalem 
during Ramazan, 100 guineas, and Cairo, sunset in 
Gebel Mokatum, 100 guineas ; J. C. Hook, Arming 
Christian, 29 x 35^, 260 guineas; J. F. Lewis, 
Street in Cairo, 14^ x 21^, 170 guineas; J. W. 
Luard, " A Welcome Arrival," the Crimea, 
29 x 37, 200 guineas ; Sir John E. Millais, 
Wedding Cards, 1 20 guineas ; The Bridesmaid, 
1 20 guineas ; The Proscribed Royalist, 525 guin< ;as ; 
The Carpenter's Shop, 525 guineas, and the 
Black Brunswicker, 780 guineas ; six drawings 
for Trollope's " Framley Parsonage " realized 
from 20 to 40 guineas each, and some other 
drawings varied from iij guineas to 31 guineas; 
J. W. Oakes, The Warren, 180 guineas; Sir 


J. Noel Paton, P.R.S.A., The Dead Lady, 170 
guineas ; H. W. Pickersgill, Christiana and Com- 
panions, 1 80 guineas ; D. G. Rossetti, Dr. Johnson 
and his Lady Disciples at the Mitre, 14 x 14, 72 
guineas; Clarkson Stanfield, The Shipwreck, 250 
guineas ; Henry Wallis, Gondomar at the Execu- 
tion of Sir Walter Raleigh, 190 guineas; The Re- 
turn from Marston Moor, 135 guineas; Martin in 
Chepstow Castle, 221 guineas; Elaine, the sketch, 
7 x 14, no guineas, and the finished picture, 475 
guineas; W. L. Windus, Burd Helen, 353 guineas 
(bought in). 

About six weeks after the dispersal of the re- 
markable collection of pictures by artists of the Pre- 
Raphaelite school, a much more comprehensive 
sensation was provided by Messrs. Christie. This 
was the collection of modern pictures formed by 
Elkanan Bicknell. Bicknell was the son of a 
schoolmaster at Ponder' s End, and a partner with 
Mr. Langton, an oil merchant and refiner of waste 
spermaceti, at Newington Butts, from which a 
large fortune was derived. His house at Herne 
Hill was a complete gallery of pictures and sculp- 
ture ; in an obituary notice the Athenceum re- 
ferred to his death as a great loss to the arts, and 
claimed him with Mr. Vernon, Mr. Wells, and Mr. 
Sheepshanks, as the four principal collectors of 
modern art "men who, unimpelled by the motive 
of investment for profit, collected for the pleasure 
and instruction they derived from contemplation 
and love for the art exhibited in the painter's works." 
Mr. Bicknell was born December 2ist, 1788, in 


Blackman Street, London, his father at that time 
beinga serge manufacture there. In 1808, Elkanan 
was sent to Cause, near Shrewsbury, to learn farm- 
ing, but at the end of a year he abandoned the 
project and returned to London. He commenced 
to form his celebrated gallery in 1838. His second 
wife was a sister of Hablot K. Browne, " Phiz " ; 
and one of his sons married a daughter of David 
Roberts, R.A. Mr. Bicknell died on November 
2;th, 1 86 1. About one-third of his collection is 
said to have been purchased by the Marquis of 
Hertford at the sale. The Star of that period 
(not to be confounded with the Star of to-day), 
contained in its issue of April 28th, a very interest- 
ing article on the sale, and as that article may be 
taken as recording an epoch in the History of 
English Art, we need not apologize for quoting it 
at length. It runs as follows : 

" There took place last Saturday an event in 
London, such, as we venture to think, could scarcely, 
in the same time and under the same conditions, 
have happened in any other city in the world. It 
was not a great national event a royal reception, 
or a popular demonstration. It was not any- 
thing attacking or symbolizing institutions or 
sentiments peculiarly British. It had nothing 
to do with our glorious constitution, our Lords, 
our Commons, our free press, our meteor flag, 
our climate, our racecourse, or our bitter beer. 
It was just something which might have happened 
anywhere else, and yet which we venture to affirm 
could not be paralleled out of London. It was 


merely a sale of pictures. The collection of paint- 
ing thus sold had been gathered together by a 
private Englishman, a man of comparatively ob- 
scure position, a man engaged at one time in mere 
trade ; a man not even pretending to resemble a 
Genoese or Florentine merchant prince, but simply 
and absolutely a Londoner of the middle class, 
actively occupied in business. This Englishman, 
now no more, had brought together a picture 
gallery which would have done no discredit to a 
Lorenzo the Magnificent, although his name is 
probably still hardly known to the general public of 
the very city in which he lived. He had been the 
patron of some of the greatest of modern artists, and 
had formed a collection which would have brought 
tourists from all parts of the world to the dingiest 
and most decaying of Italian towns. Offered for 
sale in an auction room on Saturday, to that select 
section of the London public, who both care about 
and can pay for pictures, and who found it con- 
venient to be at the time in Messrs. Christie and 
Manson's establishment, the collection realized a 
sum of money only wanting a few hundreds of sixty 
thousand pounds. The artists whose works were 
thus purchased, were for the most part, too, our 
own. It was no mere competition of fashionable 
pretenders, feeling themselves secure to praise and 
purchase so long as your ' Raphaels, Correggios 
and stuff' were in question. English money was 
spent upon English art. 

" But; as a whole, the collection was a magnificent 
display of English art. Painted (with very little 


exception) by English artists, gathered together by 
an English collector, it appears from the names 
which we have seen to have been purchased almost 
altogether by Englishmen. We were slow to obtain 
a name as a nation possessing artists. Long after 
the world had consented to acknowledge that 
Britons could write poems and construct dramas, 
foreign nations were entirely incredulous as to our 
capacity to paint pictures. Boileau professed to 
have never heard of Dryden ; but it is only in our 
own time that Boileau's countrymen are beginning 
to hear and to care anything about Gainsborough 
and Turner. Nor was the reputation which we 
enjoyed as collectors, which is of a good deal older 
date, very honourable in its character. The rich 
Englishman was supposed to go about the world 
staring with lack-lustre, unappreciating eyes, at 
the wonderful productions of Italian and Spanish 
pencils productions which he pretended to admire 
because he thought it genteel to do so, and which 
he consented to purchase because he supposed it 
due to his social state to display expensive paintings 
to his guests. This was the continental notion of 
an English art-patron. 

" Voltaire embodied it, and fifty others since his 
time gave it what new colouring their natures could. 
Many a Frenchman who came over to last year's 
Exhibition, frankly acknowledged himself amazed 
at the pictorial collection which our British court 
had to show, and returned impressed with the 
belief that John Bull was a better judge of pictures 
than his neighbours had supposed. We have 


plenty of picture-fanciers indeed, who purchase 
and criticise still upon just the same principles as 
the honest Briton in ' Peregrine Pickle ; ' but it 
would be impossible to deny that the taste for art 
has immensely progressed in England during the 
past two or three generations. Some of the finest 
collections of pictures to be found in Europe are at 
present the property either of the English nation, 
or of individual Englishmen. Those who are not 
disposed to render us full credit in this respect, 
might have been better able to appreciate the fact 
had they attended the sale on Saturday, and ob- 
served the artistic wealth accumulated in one 
English collection, which did not claim to be among 
the foremost." 

The sale took place on April 25th, 1863, the 145 
lots realizing ,58,639 i2s., and included the follow- 
ing pictures : Sir A. W. Callcott, View near South- 
ampton, i oo guineas; and an "English Landscape 
with cattle introduced, by Sir E. Landseer, 72 x 54, 
2 >95 guineas (Fletcher) ; G. Chambers, Sheerness, 
1 10 guineas, and Boats and Shipping, 295 guineas ; 
W. Collins, Selling Fish, the etched picture, 
33^- x 46j(costBicknell 32oguineas), 1,130 guineas, 
and Early Morning on the Sussex Coast, 34^ x 47^, 
960 guineas; T. S. Cooper, Interior, cow and 
sheep, 22 x 30^, 250 guineas; T. Creswick, land- 
scape known as " The Stepping Stones," 28 x 35, 
250 guineas; W. Dyce, King Joash with Elisha, 
an Art- Union Prize of ^140, 220 guineas; W. 
Etty, Venus and Cupid, 98 guineas (H. Bicknell) ; 
Copley Fielding, Dunstaffnage Castle, lox 13, 102 


guineas; W. E. Frost, Naiad, in guineas, and 
Musidora, 105 guineas, both small ovals about 8x6; 
The Sirens, iijx 15^, 280 guineas, and Euphro- 
syne, 36^ x 71^, 781 guineas; T. Gainsborough, 
Landscape with sheep, 47 x 58,38oguineas,and Re- 
pose, 47 x 58, 781 guineas the celebrated picture 
sold again in the James Price collection, 1895 5 F- 
Goodall, Raising the May Pole, the sketch, 16x27, 
600 guineas ; Louis Haghe, Santa Maria Novella, 
Florence, 42 x 60, 290 guineas (Holloway), and 
An Artist in his Studio, 175 guineas ; W. Hilton, 
Triumph of Amphitrite, 54 x 89, 270 guineas ; H. 
Jutsum, a Cornfield, 34 x 53, 130 guineas; Sir 
Edwin Landseer, The Prize Calf, 26 x 20, 1,800 
guineas ; Two Dogs looking for Crumbs, 25 x 30, 
2,300 guineas, and Highland Shepherd, 57 x 31, 
2,23oguineas; C. R. Leslie, The Heiress, 33^ x 28, 
1,200 guineas; J. Linnell, Christ and the Two 
Disciples at Emmaus, 45 x 60, 275 guineas ; 
W. J. Muller, Devonshire Watermill, 20 x 33, 
300 guineas, and Gillingham, 29 x 24, 390 guineas ; 
P. Nasmyth, a view near Edinburgh, 171 x 23 J, 
! ^5 guineas, and a Lane near Epping, 17 x 24, 
195 guineas ; David Roberts, ten highly important 
works, Chapel of Ferdinand and Isabella at 
Granada, i8|- x 14!, 260 guineas (Marquis of 
Hertford) ; Interior of St. Miguel, Xeres, 30 x 25, 
570 guineas said to have cost Mr. Bicknell 100 
guineas ; the Ravine Petra, 49 x 38, 280 guineas 
(Holloway); Tyre, 22 x 44, 350 guineas (Rhodes) ; 
Sidon, 360 guineas (the same) ; Street in Cairo, 
30 x 24 said to have cost ,50 525 guineas; 


Melrose Abbey, 24 x 20, 260 guineas ; Karnac, 
56 x 43, 320 guineas; Baalbec, 61 x 51, 750 
guineas, and Interior of St. Gomar, Lierre, 47 x 36, 
said to have cost Mr. Bicknell "300, and now 
purchased by the Marquis of Hertford for 1,370 
guineas ; Clarkson Stanfield, Shipping near St. 
Malo, 28 x 43, 1,230 guineas; Beilstein on the 
Moselle, 45 x 64, 1,500 guineas; Pic du Midi 
d'Ossau, 83 x 59, 2,550 guineas according to 
Mr. Redford these three pictures cost Mr. Bicknell 
1,100 guineas; and Lagodi Garda, 28x43, 820 
guineas. The unrivalled series of pictures by J. 
M. W. Turner, included Helvoetsluys, the City of 
Utrecht, 64, going to sea, exhibited in 1832, 36 x 48, 
i, 600 guineas (cost 270 guineas) ; Antwerp, Van 
Goyen looking for a Subject, exhibited in 1833, 
36 x 48 2,510 guineas (cost 300 guineas) ; Ivy 
Bridge, Devon, 36 x 48, 880 guineas (bought 
in) ; Wreckers, Coast of Northumberland, steamer 
assisting ship off, exhibited in 1834, 36 x 48, 
i, 890 guineas; Calder Bridge, Cumberland, 36 x 48, 
500 guineas (H. Bicknell) ; Venice, Campo Santo, 
exhibited 1842, 24 x 36, ,2,000; Venice, Giu- 
deca, same size as last, exhibited in 1841, 1,655 
guineas ; Ehrenbreitstein on the Rhine, exhibited 
1841, i, 800 guineas ; Port Ruysdael, 36 x 48, 
exhibited 1827, 1,900 guineas the last three 
pictures are said to have cost Mr. Bicknell less 
than 1,000; and Palestrina, exhibited 1850, 1,900 
guineas (bought in). T. Webster, The Disputed 
Title, 19 x 23, 270 guineas ; the Impenitent, 
l % x 15* 350 guineas; and Good Night, 1,150 


guineas (said by Mr. Redford to have cost Mr. 
Bicknell 250 guineas), and The Smile and The 
Frown, a pair, n x 24, i, 600 guineas. 

The drawings, of which 421 lots brought 
,15,950 i6s., were sold on April 29th, 3Oth and 
3ist, and the more important of those which 
realized ^100 and upwards, included: Peter de 
Wint, Corn Harvest, 101 guineas, and another of 
the same subject, 250 guineas ; River, Canterbury 
Meadows, 270 guineas; Gleaners Disturbed, 365 
guineas ; C. Fielding, Bridlington Harbour, 530 
guineas (Marquis of Hertford); Rivaulx Abbey, 
1 830, 460 guineas ; the same, an evening effect, 1 842 , 
600 guineas; Traelte Mawr, 1850, 420 guineas; 
Loch Katrine, 260 guineas ; Bowhill Downs, 392 
guineas ; Langdale Pikes, 350 guineas, and Crow- 
borough Hill, 760 guineas (Marquis of Hertford) ; 
J. D. Harding, Bern Castle, 280 guineas; W. Hunt, 
Tambourine Girl, 190 guineas; and Girl seated with 
basket, 183 guineas; Samuel Prout, Amiens, no 
guineas; Cathedral Porch, 102 guineas; Interior 
of Cathedral, 106 guineas ; Place de la Pucelle, 
Rouen, 140 guineas, and Porch of Chartres, 120 
guineas; David Roberts, The Great Square, Tetuan, 
410 guineas, and the Seminario de Santiago, 250 
guineas Mr. Redford states that these two draw- 
ings cost Mr. Bicknell 45 guineas; Clarkson 
Stanfield, Sunderland, 135 guineas, and Honfleur, 
99 guineas; and J. M. W. Turner, Himalaya Moun- 
tains, 1 70 guineas ; Lake of Geneva from the Jura, 
141 guineas, the Righi, 296 guineas ; Castle of Elz 
on the Moselle, 1 60 guineas; Rouen, 200 guineas; 


Lake of Lucerne, 680 guineas ; Scarborough Castle, 
1809, 520 guineas; Mowbray Lodge, Ripon, 510 
guineas ; Grouse Shooting, with portrait of the artist, 
and dogs by G. Stubbs, 430 guineas ; Woodcock 
Shooting with portrait of Sir H. Pilkington, 1813, 
510 guineas " these were the Yorkshire drawings 
done for Sir H. Pilkington ; they cost Mr. 
Bicknell ^600 the four"- Redford. 

Mr. Bicknell's engravings were sold on May 7th, 
of the same year. We may here conveniently in- 
clude the sale on April 7th, 8th, and 9th, 1881, 
of the pictures and drawings of Henry Sanford 
Bicknell, removed from Cavendish House, Clap- 
ham Common. This sale included several pictures 
which had been sent to Christie's in 1865, some of 
which were bought in, and the total proceeds of the 
488 lots amounted to ,24,524 Ss. 6d. Pictures : 
David Roberts, Rome, Castle and Bridge, with 
St. Angelo, 10 x 24, 300 guineas ; the Dogana, 
Venice, 20 x 30, 490 guineas; the Forum, 18 x 36, 
440 guineas ; Interior of churches of SS. Giovanni 
e Paolo, 21 x 29, 500 guineas; St. Peter's, 
Christmas Day, 42 x 53, 380 guineas; Interior of 
Church of St. Gomar, sketch, 45 x 36, 5 50 guineas; 
Ruins of Koom-Ombos, 330 guineas ; and St. 
Andrews from the Sea, 220 guineas. Clarkson 
Stanfield was represented by a Jetty, io|- x i6j, 
,2,365, and Mouth of the Humber, 280 guineas ; 
W. P. Frith, " Beware, Beware," 29 x 19, 330 
guineas; F. Goodall, six examples, of which the 
more important were : Arab Mother and Child, 115 
guineas, and the Palm Offering, sketch, 22 x 15, 


260 guineas ; J. M. W. Turner, Off Margate, 130 
guineas ; Ivy. Bridge, Devon, 800 guineas (bought 
in at the 1863 sale for 880 guineas), and Palestrina, 
3,000 guineas this fine work was successively 
bought in in 1863 for 1,900 guineas, and in 1865 
for 2,100 guineas. The drawings were: David 
Roberts, Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem, 240 guineas, 
and Luxor, 203 guineas. 

The sale of John Leech's drawings and pictures 
took place after his death (which occurred on Oct. 
29th, 1864), on April 25th, 1865, and the catalogue 
of the sale contains an interesting Preface. The 
drawings sold at extremely good prices, which 
ranged from about thirty to over a hundred guineas. 
The collection of pottery and porcelain of Joseph 
Marryat, the author of the standard work on these 
subjects, was sold on February 9th, 1867, and 
seven following days, realizing a total of about 

Although the collection formed by Peter Allen, 
of Sedgley Park, Manchester, was small, it was a 
choice one; it was sold on March 6th, 1869, and 
eighty-three lots brought ,4,934. There were 
forty-six fine drawings by David Cox, including 
Windsor from Virginia Water, 230 guineas; Hay- 
maker, Vale of Carmarthen, 99 guineas ; Windsor 
Castle, Guards exercising, 200 guineas; Landscape, 
figures in road, 1834, 105 guineas; Welsh Land- 
scape, man and horse crossing a stream, 24 x 34, 3 5 5 
guineas; Landscape, with windmill 135 guineas; 
the original study of a Welsh Funeral, 1 09 guineas ; 
Landscape, figures near stile, 1851, 150 guineas; 


Going to Harvest Field, 1845, 200 guineas; Broom 
Gatherers, 1854, 200 guineas ; Landscape, pool of 
water and horses in foreground, 1840, 226 guineas ; 
Wind, Rain, and Storm, 395 guineas, and the Weald 
of Kent, 345 guineas ; ten drawings by Peter de 
Wint : the Shore of Morecambe Bay, stormy, 315 
guineas, and Landscape with windmill, 299 guineas ; 
two by J. M. W. Turner : Inverary, 190 guineas, 
and the Temple of Jupiter at ^Egina, 210 guineas ; 
and others by Sir A. W. Callcott, Cattermole, 
Frere, W. Hunt, M tiller, S. Prout, Uwins, and 

The two great sales of 1870 were the collections 
of Edwin Bullock and Charles Dickens. " Mr. 
Bullock," says the Daily News of May 2Oth, " was 
well known as one of the most liberal amateurs in 
the Midland Counties, and had for the last forty 
years been a constant purchaser of modern pictures 
from the various exhibitions,. and by many com- 
missions given directly to the artists. The collec- 
tion is particularly remarkable for the large number 
of drawings and oil paintings by the late David Cox, 
who, it will be remembered, came from the neigh- 
bourhood of Birmingham. There are more than a 
hundred works of this highly esteemed painter of our 
water-colour school, all of great interest, and some 
remarkable examples. They illustrate the career 
of the artist from the year 1813, of which early 
time there is one very bold and effective drawing 
of Hastings Beach, down to his latest period." The 
sale took place on Saturday and Monday, May 2 ist 
and 23rd, and the total realized by the 492 lots 


amounted to ^42,700. The principal pictures 
were the following : Sir A. W. Callcott, Hamp- 
stead Heath, figures, 195 guineas; W.Collins, The 
Reluctant Departure, exhibited in 1815, 1,400 
guineas ; J. Constable, six examples, including 
Weymouth Bay, 510 guineas ; River scene, with 
rustic bridge, 100 guineas ; Hampstead Heath, two 
donkeys, 560 guineas; Landscape, Salisbury Marsh, 
with bridge, 380 guineas ; Heath scene, cart, cattle, 
and donkey, 750 guineas ; and the Manor House, 
130 guineas ; of the long list of pictures by David 
Cox, we can only mention those which ran well into 
three figures, and these are as follows : Landscape, 
men, white horse, and dog at gate, 205 guineas ; 
River Scene, North Wales, with anglers, 150 
guineas ; Churchyard, Darley Dale, 200 guineas; 
River Scene, early morning, horses watering, 200 
guineas ; Landscape, with waggon, man on bridge, 
1 840, 245 guineas ; Going to the Hayfield, 1853, 400 
guineas ; Windsor Castle, 240 guineas ; Hayfield, 
425 guineas; Collecting Flocks in North Wales, 
1 848, 400 guineas ; and a Coast scene, 192 guineas ; 
W. Etty, the Grape Gatherer, the Bacchante, 510 
guineas, and scene from Milton's " Comus," 1,005 
guineas. F. Goodall, a replica of his Charles I. and 
children in a boat, with the swans, 640 guineas ; 
Sir E. Landseer, The Highland Shepherd's Home, 
1,000 guineas; C. R. Leslie, The Rivals, 130 
guineas ; The Opera Box, 260 guineas ; Scene 
from the Twelfth Night, 520 guineas, and the 
Rape of the Lock, 1,300 guineas; J. Linnell, The 
Woodlands, woodcutters, man on horseback, and 
I, P 


waggon, 1850, 1,300 guineas; David Maclise, 
Alfred in the tent of Guthrum, 550 guineas ; W. 
J. Muller, Landscape, peasants and sheep, 390 
guineas; Port of Rhodes, 160 guineas; Lago Mag- 
giore, 590 guineas; Gillingham, On the Medway, 
360 guineas ; Angers, 250 guineas ; a Savoyard Boy, 
1 10 guineas ; and Compton Dando, children sailing 
boat, 1,250 guineas ; Peter Nasmyth, Landscape 
in Hampshire, cottage, boy fishing, woman and 
cows, i, 1 60 guineas ; P. F. Poole, May Day, 235 
guineas ; David Roberts, Ruins of Koom-Ombos, 
evening 320 guineas, and Colleoni Monument, 390 
guineas ; C. Stanfield, Gulf of Salerno, near Vietri, 
1846, 950 guineas; J. M. W. Turner, Venice, the 
Dogana, and St. Maria della Salute, exhibited in 
1844, 2,560 guineas ; T. Webster, the Playground, 
410 guineas; and A Present to the Lady of the 
Village, 250 guineas. 

The more important of the water-colour drawings 
were the following : David Cox, Cutting the Stick, 
135 guineas, Welsh Road, cattle and ducks, 1846, 
230 guineas; Cross Roads, 1847, 370 guineas ; 
The Left Road, 1854, 200 guineas; Forest 
scene, figures and white horse, 1 70 guineas ; 
Bolton Abbey, 130 guineas; Malvern Abbey, 
105 guineas; Crossing the Downs; 1854, 105 
guineas ; Landscape, with rustic bridge and figures, 
295 guineas; Stokesay, Woman and Child, 130 
guineas ; Bolsover Castle, man and pony, 340 
guineas ; Penmaen Maur, 1858, 140 guineas ; Boys 
Bathing, alarmed by a bull, 3 30 guineas ; and Picture 
Gallery, Hard wick Hall, 300 guineas ; and Copley 


Fielding, Off Bridlington, a squally scene, 280 

Between the Bullock and the Dickens sale came 
the dispersal of the last works of David Maclise 
(who died April 25th of the year of the sale), on 
June 24th. The principal pictures were the Earls 
of Desmond and Ormonde, at the time of sale on 
show at the Royal Academy Exhibition 500 
guineas, and the cartoon in black chalk of the 
Meeting of Wellington and Blucher at Waterloo, 
300 guineas, purchased by the Royal Academy. A 
large number of the artist's sketches and studies 
also came under the hammer. 

The Dickens sale, which took place on July gth, 
was an interesting one rather from the eminence 
of the great novelist than from the superlative 
quality of the articles which it contained. The 
author of " David Copperfield " had passed away 
just exactly a month prior to the sale of his lares 
ct pcnates, and the suddenness of his death was 
still uppermost in men's minds when his pictures 
were offered for sale under the hammer. " The 
room is full of mementoes," says one of the reports 
of the period, in its " private view " notice of the 
sale. The more notable pictures were the follow- 
ing : P. H. Calderon, The Letter, Hever Castle, 
1 20 guineas, and Hide and Seek, the companion, 
131 guineas; W. Dobson, portrait of Oliver 
Cromwell in armour, 36 guineas ; A. L. Egg, 
portrait of Dickens as Sir C. Coldstream, ^170 ; 
W. P. Frith, Dolly Varden, 25 x 20, 1,000 
guineas,and Kate Nickleby at Madame Mantalini's. 


200 guineas these two pictures cost Dickens 20 
each; W. Gale, Mr. F.'s aunt (" Little Dorrit"), 
60 guineas ; R. Hannah, The Novel, 100 guineas, 
and The Play, 60 guineas ; C. R. Leslie, Pickwick 
and Mrs. Bardell, 8 x 6, ,131 ; Daniel Maclise, 
Girl at a Waterfall, 610 guineas purchased by 
John Forster, who refers to it in his " Life of 
Dickens," and who bequeathed it to the South 
Kensington Museum ; and Portrait of Dickens, 
painted in 1839, and presented to the novelist 
by the publishers on the completion of Nicholas 
Nickleby, 660 guineas (Rev. Sir E. Jodrell) ; 
David Roberts, The Simoom, ,255 ; Clarkson 
Stanfield, Eddystone Lighthouse, 103x101;- the 
drop-scene for the play by Wilkie Collins, "The 
Lighthouse," 990 guineas; an Arctic scene, 150 
guineas, and Man-o'-War, 175 guineas; T.Webster, 
Dotheboy's Hall, a sketch, 10x7, 510 guineas; 
D. Wilkie, Mother and Child, a water-colour sketch 
given to Dickens by the artist in 1840, 130 guineas. 
The miscellaneous mementoes included Dickens's 
favourite Raven in a glass case, which sold for 1 20 
guineas. The sale included 40 pictures and draw- 
ings, and 78 other lots were decorative objects 
generally ; the total proceeds amounted to ,9,410. 




have already had a number of 
practical proofs of the origin and 
growth of the remarkable develop- 
ment of the taste for pictures by 
modern masters, but the crowning 
demonstration of all occurred in 1872, when the 
collection formed by Joseph Gillott came up for 
sale. Gillott was born at Sheffield in 1799, of 
poor parents, and began his career as an 
operative grinder, chiefly in steel toy or tool 
making. He soon turned his attention to the 
manufacture of steel pens, which were then 
made by him at a cost of 3*. 6d. each. Gillott 
adapted the "press" used in button-making to 
turning out pens, and is said to have succeeded by 
this appliance in producing more pens than twenty 


pair of hands could do in the time. On the 
morning of his marriage he worked before break- 
fast, and turned out a gross of pens which he sold 
at once for l 4^> at ls - each. Gillott made 
money with great rapidity, and by 1836 had 
erected a large factory at Birmingham, and in this 
year is said to have produced 36,000,000, which 
sold at less than a shilling per gross; by 1872 
the annual output was computed at 150,000,000, 
and the number of workpeople employed 450. 

At the very beginning of his prosperous career 
Gillott developed a passion for pictures. In a 
short preface to the Sale Catalogue Messrs. 
Christie, Manson and Woods wrote : " The noble 
collection of pictures brought together by the late 
Mr. Joseph Gillott has enjoyed so world-wide a 
fame, and has been so long regarded by connoisseurs 
and justly so as a complete epitome of the 
English School, that very little -comment is neces- 
sary in bringing it before the public. Being the 
growth of so many years, its formation has been 
the result of no hasty or indiscriminate purchase. 
Nearly half a century has elapsed since Mr. Gillott, 
then a young man, first laid the foundations of it, 
and during the whole period the work with 
him a very labour of love has been steadily con- 
tinued upon principles of thoughtful and judicious 
selection, which excluded all but first-rate pro- 
ductions. Enjoying the friendship of many of 
those whose names are most honoured in the roll 
of English art among others, of Turner and 
Etty (in the works of both of whom the Gallery is 


especially rich) of Linnell and Miiller, of William 
Hunt and David Cox, and himself gifted with a 
refined and critical taste, and with a true artistic 
instinct which appears never to have been at fault, 
Mr. Gillott was in possession of advantages rarely 
falling to the lot of collectors. Of these, his 
ample means enabled him fully to avail himself, 
and the result has been a collection, both in oil 
and water-colour, altogether unrivalled among 
private galleries as embracing all the highest char- 
acteristics of the English School. Of landscapes 
the collection boasts many among the greatest 
ever executed by human hand, while there is 
scarcely a name of note in the history of British 
art, to whatever branch devoted, of whom one 
or more first-rate and characteristic examples will 
not be found." 

Gillott died on January 5, 1872. His collec- 
tion consisted of 525 pictures and water-colour 
drawings, of which 305 were works of the British 
School, 60 by old masters, and 160 water-colour 
drawings. " The pictures were hung chiefly in 
two galleries specially built in Mr. Gillott's resi- 
dence at Edgbaston, the west-end suburb of Bir- 
mingham, some being in the entrance hall, which 
was lit by a top-light, others in the drawing room, 
and the fine Turner drawings, with others, in the 
drawing-room " (Redford). The sale was in three 
parts: April 19 and 20, modern pictures of the 
late English School; April 26 and 27, pictures of 
the early English School ; May 3, Old Masters ; 
and May 4, water-colour drawings. The com- 


mercial value of the collection is indicated by the 
following tabulated statement of the results of the 
six days' sale : 


First day, oil pictures, English school . 89 29,718 7 

Second day -73 44,443 o 

Third day . 76 i9>55 6 5 

Fourth day . 58 36,830 12 

Fifth day, Old Masters 58 6,559 o 

Sixth day, water-colour drawings . . .160 27,423 o 

.164,530 4 1 

To this huge total may be added the amount of 
,4,195 realized by the sale of his choice collection 
of violins (April 29th). 

It is not possible to give, as we should like to 
do, a complete list of the Gillott pictures, and the 
amounts which they realized, but all the more im- 
portant examples will be found in the following 
enumeration. It should be mentioned that many 
of the works were commissioned by Gillott, and 
some of them sold for over twenty times the sum 
they originally cost. 

OIL PICTURES : R. P. Bonington, Landscape, 
with woman on a horse, 18 x 15, 200 guineas; 
View on the Seine, figures in a boat, n|- x 16^, 
300 guineas, and Landscape with timber waggon, 
20 x 38, 520 guineas ; Sir A. W. Callcott, Harvest 
Field, 9x12, 285 guineas; The Cow-boy, 51 x 42, 
410 guineas, and Coast Scene with fishing boat, 
22\ x 36, 1,400 guineas; W. Collins, Barmouth 

1 A slight error occurred in adding up the amount of one of 
the pages, and the correct official total is placed at^ 164,501 $s. 


Sands, with figures, 22 x 42, 1,780 guineas, and 
Cromer Sands, 40 x 47, 3,600 guineas (both these 
pictures were commissioned by Mr. Gillott, who 
gave ^300 for the latter) ; J. Constable, London, 
from Hampstead, 8 x 1 i, 390 guineas ; Rustic 
Landscape, 2 ij- x 17^, 350 guineas; View on the 
Stour, 24 x 45, 650 guineas (New York Museum), 
and Weymouth Bay, 700 guineas ; David Cox, A 
Hayfield, ii x 16, 450 guineas; Coast Scene, 
figures, cart, and boats, 8|- x 12^, 275 guineas; 
Cottages at Brixton, 7^- x 10, 205 guineas; Pass in 
Wales, with cattle at a ford, 1849, 14 x 18, 510 
guineas ; Peace and War, troops marching near a 
harvest field towards Lancaster Castle, 1846, 
1 8|- x 24, 3,430 guineas ; Outskirts of a Wood, with 
gipsies, 1847, 2 ^i x 36^-, 2,205 guineas (this work 
was sold at the Potter sale in 1884 for 1,350 
guineas) ; Old Mill at Bettwys-y-Coed, geese in 
foreground, 1847,28!- x 36, i, 500 guineas ; Wash- 
ing Day, landscape with two women at a pool and 
clothes hung out, cottage in the distance, 1843, 
1 8 x 25, 900 guineas, and Going to the Mill, 
36 x 29, i, 500 guineas ; John Crome, Rocky River 
Scene, 15 x 24, 305 guineas; Windmill, Mouse- 
hold Heath, near Norwich, 44 x 36, 360 guineas, 
and Richly Wooded Landscape, 25 x 33, 700 
guineas ; William Etty, Flowers of the Forest, 
25 x 31, 215 guineas; The Bather, 26 x 20, 470 
guineas ; The Graces, 280 guineas ; The Bather, 
48 x 35, 410 guineas; Circe, 39 x 66, arched, 600 
guineas; Judgment of Paris, 57 x 78, 8 10 guineas; 
and Pluto and Proserpine, 68 x 75, 1,000 guineas ; 


Thomas Faed, Sir Walter Scott surrounded by 
his Friends, 21 x 29, 910 guineas, and " Seeing 
Them Off," 24 x 19^, 700 guineas ; W. P. Frith, 
Dolly Varden with the Bracelet, 22^- x 18^-, 700 
guineas ; Thomas Gainsborough, a grand Land- 
scape, 57 x 62, 3 50 guineas; The Bullock- Waggon, 
signed, and dated 1787, 38 x 51, 500 guineas; 
Repose, 48 x 60, 900 guineas; a rustic Landscape, 
48 x 59, 1,030 guineas; a pair of companion pic- 
tures, Scottish River Scenes, 73 x 54, formerly in 
Lord Coventry's collection, Morning, 2 TO guineas, 
and Evening, 305 guineas, and a Portrait of the 
Artist, 29 x 24, 330 guineas (now in the New 
York Museum) ; F. Goodall, Scene in Brittany, 
14 x 21, 470 guineas; Peter Graham, On the 
Way to Castle Tryst, 49 x 70, 1,480 guineas; 
J. C. Hook, A Passing Cloud, lovers' tiff, 24 x 33, 
810 guineas; The Cowherd's Mischief, 27 x 42, 
700 guineas; Sea-Urchins, 7x11, 305 guineas; 
and the Sailor's Holiday, 5x11, 205 guineas ; J. 
C. Horsley, Check-Mate Next Move, Haddon 
Hall, 33 x 47, 1,630 guineas ; Sir E. Landseer, 
Lady Rachel Russell reading, 14 x 10, 2 70 guineas; 
Waiting for Deer to Rise, 20 x 27, 1,345 guineas ; 
St. Bernard Dogs, 18 x 24, 1,740 guineas; and 
Pointers, "To Ho!" 53 x 73, 1,920 guineas at 
the W. Wells' sale of 1877 this picture dropped to 
950 guineas ; J. Linnell, River Scene with figures, 
1826, nj x 16, 290 guineas; Barley- Harvest, 
Evening, 36 x 44, 1,630 guineas; Hampstead 
Heath, figures, donkey, boy and cattle, 1850, 
50 x 72, 1,660 guineas; Redstone Wood, 600 


guineas; Bayswaterin 1813, 13 x 1 8, 300 guineas; 
The Woodlands, woodcutters and timber-waggon, 
39 x 50, 2,500 guineas ; and Eve of the Deluge, 
animals entering the ark, 1848, 58 x 90, 1,040 
guineas ; Daniel Maclise, Installation of Captain 
Rock, 1834, 66 x 94, 385 guineas; The Last Sleep 
of Duncan, 45 x 60, 375 guineas; The Author's In- 
troduction to the Players, 45 x 72, 750 guineas, 
and Bohemian Gipsies, 72 x 168, 890 guineas; 
W.J.Miiller, Port of Rhodes, 16 x 24, 350 guineas; 
Cottage in North Wales, old man smoking, 1 1 x 6, 
200 guineas; Turkish Burial Ground, 13 x 20, 270 
guineas ; Dogana and S. Maria Salute, 10 x 18, 330 
guineas; Landscape with Hagarandlshmael, 1842, 
25 x 40, 280 guineas ; The Memnons, 24 x 40, 
315 guineas; The Treasure-Finders, Egypt, 
30 x 54, 410 guineas; Landscape with rainbow, 
boy with mice, and two children and two donkeys, 
30 x 48, 7 70 guineas; The Slave Market, 15 x 25, 
1,510 guineas ; The Chess Players, 1843, 23 x 33, 
3,950 guineas ; Bay of Naples, 42 x 70, 2,000 
guineas, and Dolgarog Mills, 55 x 70, 1,250 
guineas; W. Mulready, The Rattle, 15 x 13, 400 
guineas, and Baiting Horses, 16 x 14, 620 guineas ; 
Peter Nasmyth, Frith of Forth, 17 x 23, 1,070 
guineas; River Scene, angler, 10^- x 15, 285 
guineas ; Landscape with view of Chislehurst, 
12 x 1 6, 365 guineas ; Landscape, richly wooded, 
10 x 14, 370 guineas ; Meadow, with figures and 
sheep, 9 x 12, 180 guineas, and Landscape with 
farmyard, 12 x 16^, 390 guineas; G. S. Newton, 
Norman Peasant Girl in Church, 16 x 13, 400 


guineas ; Erskine Nicol, The Flyfisher, 560 
guineas; An Irish Cabin, 15 x 21, 200 guineas ; 
" Both Puzzled/' 30 x 22, 715 guineas ; and The 
Country Booking Office, 45 x 58, 1,100 guineas; 
J. Phillip, "Cosas de Espafia," 17 x 13, 870 
guineas; " El Aqua Bendita," 24 x 17, 700 
guineas, and Castanette Player, 25 x 18, 700 
guineas ; P. F. Poole, Hide and Seek, 420 guineas ; 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Portraits of Lady Galloway, 
60 x 45, and of Mrs. Yates, 50 x 40, each 300 
guineas ; C. Stanfield, The Wooden Walls of Old 
England, 27 x 45, 2,700 guineas, and Mouth of 
the Thames, 14 x 24, 790 guineas ; J. M. W. 
Turner, Going to the Ball, San Martino, Venice, 
1,700 guineas ; Returning from the Ball, St. Marino, 
Venice, 1 1,500 guineas ; Calais Sands, Coissards, 
low water (said to have cost Mr. Gillott ^350), 
28 x 42, 1,700 guineas these three were pur- 
chased by Lord Bective ; Coast Scene, with boats, 
12^ x 17^-, 300 guineas; Kilgarran Castle, 23 x 29, 
600 guineas; an open Sea View, 13 x 18, 800 
guineas, Kilgarran Castle, with bathers, 36 x 48, 
2, 700 guineas (New York Museum); The Junction 
of the Thames and the Medway, 42 x 56, 4,350 
guineas, and Walton Bridges, 37 x 49, 5,000 

1 This pair of pictures were in the B. G. Windus sale of 
1853, and there realized 520 guineas and 610 guineas respec- 
tively; they came up again for sale in 1878, when they were 
bought in at 1,200 guineas each ; they eventually passed into 
the collection of the late James Price, and were sold with his 
collection in June, 1895. Both these pictures were exhibited 
at the Royal Academy of 1846, and again at the Royal Jubilee 
Exhibition in 1887. Neither picture has been engraved. 


guineas ; T. Webster, Villagers looking at Punch, 
8x i5,3OOguineas;TheSeasons,asetof four, 5 J x 7, 
320 guineas; The Travelling Jeweller, 18 x 16, 
530 guineas, and Roast Pig, 30 x 48, 3,550 
guineas (for this picture it is said that Mr. Gillott 
paid the artist 700 guineas) ; Sir David Wilkie, 
Digging for Rats, 7 x 5^, 215 guineas; The Penny 
Wedding, 20 x 33, 700 guineas, and Escape of 
Queen Mary, 48 x 65, 600 guineas ; R. Wilson, 
Landscape near Rome, 310 guineas (one of four- 
teen pictures by this artist in the Gillott collec- 

Scene, sheep and figures, 8x12, 260 guineas, 
and Farm, with cows and ducks at a pool, 10 x 
14, 430 guineas; Peter de Wint, River Scene, 
bird's-eye view, 13 x 22, 300 guineas; William 
Hunt, Nest and Wild Rose, 8 x 1 1, 255 guineas,* 
Spring Gatherings, 12 x 16, 590 guineas; Prim- 
roses and Hedge-sparrows' Nests, 10 x 7, 250 
guineas; Primrose and Cherry Blossom, 12x9, 
255 guineas; C. Stanfield, Fort Roque, Calais, 
12x11, 360 guineas; J. M. W. Turner, On the 
Thames, 450 guineas ; The Source of the Tamar, 
350 guineas; Patterdale, 800 guineas; Powis Castle, 
i, 210 guineas; Windermere, 1,950 guineas (Lord 
Dudley); Brinkburn(not Brentburn) Priory, North- 
umberland, i, 060 guineas ; Zurich, 710 guineas, 
Hastings Beach, the Fishmarket, signed and dated 
1824, 1,100 guineas, Heidelburg; with rainbow, 
2,650 guineas (Lord Dudley); Ehrenbreitstein, 
2,650 guineas; and Bamborough Castle, 20x28, 


3,150 guineas (Lord Dudley) : with the exception 
of the last, these Turner drawings varied from 
7! x 10^ to about 17$ x 26^. 

The only examples of the OLD MASTERS which 
call for special mention are the following : Rubens, 
The Family of the Artist, from the Balbi Palace, 
Genoa, and Walsh-Porter collection, 90 x 81, en- 
graved, 1,230 guineas ; J. Ruysdael, Landscape in 
Guelderland, 29 x 36, 300 guineas ; Teniers, an 
Interior, with Alchemist, 16 x 25, 380 guineas, 
and Wouverman, The Fortune Teller, 13 x 15, 
600 guineas. This collection also contained 
two works by Rosa Bonheur, the principal one 
being a Scene in the Pyrenees, 27 x 40, 1,800 

The dispersal of the art collections of Prince 
Napoleon (Jerome), or rather that portion of them 
which was saved from the fire or the Communists 
in May, 1871, formed the" principle event at 
Christie's of May, 1872. The sale commenced on 
May 9, and was continued on the two following 
days, 369 lots realizing ^14,168 2s. In addition 
to some pictures there were other works of art 
formed by the Prince, " together with the magni- 
ficent plate, china, and bronze candelabra, all made 
in the style of the Greco- Roman house which the 
Prince furnished in the Avenue Montaigne. . . . 


Many of these objects have passed through fire, 
and carry marks upon the surface, while some 
have been half melted and broken/' Some of the 
pictures were cleverly restored, but the following 
list includes all the examples to which we need 


call attention : Giovanni Bellini, Virgin and Child 
in Landscape, green curtain, 600 guineas ; G. 
Antonio Beltraffio, Profile Portrait of a Lady, 
404 guineas (Holloway) ; Paris Bordone, Girl at 
Toilet, 700 guineas (Lord Dudley) ; Sandro 
Botticelli, Virgin and Child, seated, 250 guineas ; 
Angelo Bronzino, half-length portrait of Cosmo 
d'Medici, in armour, 325 guineas (Holloway); 
Francia (Francesco Raibolini), Portrait of a youth 
in black dress and cap, 390 guineas; Sebastian 
del Piombo, Christ bearing Cross, with Simon 
and soldier, Jerusalem and Calvary in the back- 
ground, 240 guineas. 

It may be here mentioned that the sale of May 
3rd and 5th, 1873, comprised 63 pictures and 200 
drawings of David Cox, (which had been in the 
possession of David Cox, Jnr., since the death of 
his father in 1859), many of which were quite un- 
known to the public. A few of the best pictures 
were : Boy throwing stones, 390 guineas ; Lugg 
Meadow, 395 guineas ; Rocks on the Lledr, 460 
guineas; Lancaster Sands, with figures, 1,000 
guineas ; Going to the Hayfield, with sketch on 
the back, 600 guineas ; View of Conway Castle, 
1,000 guineas, and Welsh Funeral, 730 guineas. 
The drawings included : Peat Gatherers, 670 
guineas ; Park Scene, 540 guineas ; Darley 
Churchyard, 360 guineas ; Going to the Cornfield, 
330 guineas ; Skirts of the Forest, 420 guineas, 
and Flock, hill-side, Bolton Abbey, 330 guineas. 
The 271 lots produced a total of ,25,325. 

The collection of the late Alexander Barker, of 


103, Piccadilly, formed the great sale event of 
1874. Mr. Barker was an excellent all-round 
judge of art, and this is all the more remarkable, 
perhaps, from the fact that he was an entirely self- 
educated man his father kept a bootmaker's shop 
in the west-end of London, and the Daily News 
of the period grimly pointed out that it was in the 
present instance a matter for congratulation that 
another cobbler defied the ancient saw, ne sutor 
ultra crepidam. Keen as was Mr. Barker's in- 
stinct in the matter of an object of art, he was 
apparently not averse to parting with it on business- 
like terms. Consequently the collection which was 
sold after his death did not include the whole of 
the hoard of treasures which he gathered from the 
various parts of Europe. The earlier sale was 
held on June 6th, 1874, and four following days, 
the 709 lots realizing the total of ,65,764 8^ 6d. 
The second sale took place on June iQth, 1879, 
and two following days, when 533 lots showed 
a total of ,13,666 14^. qd. The pictures in- 
cluded the following : G. Bellini, Madonna and 
Child, with St. Peter and St. Helena, half-length, 
from the Manfrini Gallery, 720 guineas; Ben- 
venuto di Sienna, Madonna and Child, enthroned, 
with angels, 500 guineas (National Gallery) ; 
Sandro Botticelli, The Story of Nastagio Degli 
Oneste, from the " Decameron " of Boccaccio, a 
composition in six panels, from the Gallery of the 
Pucci family ; the panels were as follows : the 
first column of figures representing the amounts 
at which they were respectively bought in at the 


1874 sale, and the second column those at which 
they were sold in 1879 : 


The Feast to His Friends . . . 950 420 

The Marriage Feast 650 280 

A Banquet with Centaurs . . . 400 150 

... 400 130 

Coast Scene with Horsemen, etc. . 500 160 

5 i75 

The other pictures in the 1874 sale by Botticelli 
were, Mars and Venus reclining, with Cupids, 
1,000 guineas; Venus reclining in landscape, 
amorini pelting her with roses, 1,550 guineas 
(both now in the National Gallery) ; Portrait of 
artist's wife in profile, with figure on the back of 
the panel, 225 guineas; and Madonna and Child, 
with St. John, from the Bammeville collection, 1,600 
guineas ; Carmona, The Wise Virgins, 170 guineas, 
and The Foolish Virgins, 100 guineas (bought in, 
and sold in 1879 for 50 guineas and 45 guineas 
respectively) ; Correggio, Juno with Peacock, from 
the Orleans and Baron Rothschild collections, 
42^- x 23, 135 guineas (bought in and sold in 
1879 for 41 guineas) ; Lorenzo di Credi, Madonna 
Kneeling over Infant, with St. Joseph, 460 guineas; 
Madonna Enthroned, St. Sebastian and vase of 
flowers, 640 guineas (Dresden Gallery) ; Madonna 
kneeling, with Infant Saviour and St. John, cir- 
cular, 3 10 guineas; Madonna seated, with Infant 
Saviour, 300 guineas, and three other Madonnas 
attributed to the same ; Carlo Crivelli, a pair, St. 
Catherine and the Magdalen, 210 guineas; and 
I. Q 


The Madonna in Ecstasy, Deity, angels, flowers, 
fruit, etc., 1492, 550 guineas (these three pictures are 
now in the National Gallery) ; Gentile da Fabrino, 
Madonna and Child with pomegranate, 38oguineas ; 
Pietro della Francesca, the Nativity, 49 x 58, on 
wood, from the Marini-Franceschi family, descend- 
ants of the artist, 2,300 guineas (National Gallery), 
Francia, Madonna and Child, St. John and angels, 
in landscape, 650 guineas ; Domenico Ghirlandaio, 
Madonna and Child enthroned, angels, St. John, 
Bonaventura, Francis, and Catherine, 350 guineas 
(Lord Bath) ; Giorgione, Portrait of the Artist's 
Mistress, from the Manfrini Gallery, 380 guineas, 
and Landscape, with Borso d'Este and Lucretia 
Borgia, 580 guineas ; Filippino Lippi, Adoration 
of the Magi, Portrait of the Accajuoli family, 700 
guineas ; B. Pinturicchio, a companion pair of pic- 
tures .1 long panels, Tent and Camp scenes, 300 
guineas (Lord Bath), the Return of Ulysses, from 
the Pandolpho Petrucci Palace at Siena, 2,050 
guineas, and three pictures illustrating the story 
of Griselda, together 690 guineas (these four 
works are now in the National Gallery) ; Antonio 
Pollajuolo, Madonna and Child, with goldfinch, 
660 guineas ; A. Privitale, Madonna, Child, and 
St. John, signed and dated 1510, 660 guineas 
(Dresden Gallery); Raphael, portrait of a Youth 
in profile, red hair, black cap and badge, 17 x 11, 
380 guineas (bought in, and sold in 1879 for 155 
guineas) ; Sasso Ferrata, Madonna and Child with 
two cherubs, 400 guineas (apparently bought in, 
and resold in 1879 for no guineas) ; Luca Sig- 


This ifiirnf.'itrc tie clicinince is unquestionably one of the greatest 
triumphs of Sevres work, and its history may be here told. Trie set is 
known as the " Coventry Vases," and these unique specimen^ <>t 
ceramic art were made in 1759. They were purchased by G< 
William, sixth Earl of Coventry, who married in 1752 one of the 
beautiful Miss Gunnings. The centre-piece, which is modelled to re- 
present the arms ot the city of Paris, is 14^ inches high, whilst the two 
jardinieres are 8} inches high. The rose du Barri ground is combined 
with green, and is a perfect example of this scara ^mbination ; the 
paintings are admirably copied from Teniers' well-known stj ; : ects-, with 
-r.nips of exquisitely painted flowers, by Morin, in the rev* 

Karl of Coventry's sale, June 12, 1874: purchased by the Earl of 
Dudley, by whom they were sold privately to Mr. J. \V. Goode ; at the 
Goode sale, July 17, 1895, the reserve price not being reached, they 
were bought in, and are still in possession of Mr. Goode's executor^. 
In addition to the information given in vol. ii. pp. 267-8, it may In- 
here mentioned that the late Mr. Goode had two copies made of them 
at his potteries, and the extreme similarity of the copies to the originals 
is most striking. These copies, one of which is now in possession of 
the Dudley family, and the other at Messrs. Goode's warchoi: 
South Audley Street, W., cost about ,300 each to produce. (See 
vol. ii., pp. 267-8.) 

f)eity, ang 

three pictu 
' entile da Fabr 

:vity, 49 x 
:hi family, < 
National G 
t, John and am 
Qomenico Ghirlan 
med, angels, St. J 

rtrait of the 

orb v 

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orfj ; : r 







.1 and dated 1510, < 
v) ; Raphael, portrait of 
Mack cap and 1 
in, and sold in i b 
adonna and C) 


norelli, Pair of Pilasters, each with three figures of 
saints, 255 guineas; the Story of Coridanus, 460 
guineas ; Triumph of Chastity, Cupid bound by 
maidens, 800 guineas (National Gallery) these 
two are frescoes transferred to canvas ; and Ma- 
donna kneeling over Infant, landscape background, 
410 guineas ; Francesco Ubertini, portrait of 
Youth with Guitar, with Apollo and Daphne, 
256 guineas (bought in, and sold in 1879 for 155 
guineas) ; and Leonardo da Vinci, Leda, to which 
full reference is made on pp. 111-113. 

A sale which possesses a special interest may 
be here included as having occurred in 1874 
(May 8th). It comprised the finished and un- 
finished pictures of Sir Edwin Landseer, who died 
on October ist, 1873. Special mention may be 
made of the following : Landscape, with cattle, 
315 guineas; Portraits of Duke of Devonshire, 
Lord and Lady Cavendish, deer and dogs in park, 
unfinished, 1,050 guineas ; Lady Godiva's Prayer, 
exhibited in 1868, 3,200 guineas; Horses and 
Dogs, 1,000 guineas ; Digging out the Otter, 610 
guineas ; Portraits of the Earl and Countess of Sef- 
ton and daughter, 570 guineas ; Portraits of Two 
Young Ladies, 6 10 guineas ; Portrait of Sir Walter 
Scott, with a book, 800 guineas ; Portrait of Her 
Majesty the Queen on a white Horse, unfinished, 
750 guineas ; Portraits of the Duke of Beaufort 
and Sisters when young, with dogs, 1,050 guineas ; 
" Old Brutus," rough, white-haired dog, 600 guineas, 
and a Newfoundland dog and terrier at a stream, 
1,050 guineas, and a large number of studies, 


sketches, and unfinished pictures, nearly all of 
which realized exceedingly high prices. 

One of the most important events of 1875, 
unique in itself, was the sale of the splendid collec- 
tion of antique engraved gems and cameos, formed 
by George, third Duke of Marlborough, in the 
latter part of the last century. The collection is 
best known through Jacob Bryant's work, which 
is illustrated with Bartolozzi's engravings from 
Cipriani's drawings ; it comprised 739 gems, which 
were offered in one lot on June 28th, and pur- 
chased for 35,000 guineas by Mr. Agnew for Mr. 
Bromilow, of Battlesden Park, Bedfordshire. 

The numerous great picture sales of this year 
commenced with that formed by Sam Mendel, 
of Manley Hall, Manchester, a textile merchant. 
According to Mr. Redford, " Art Sales," i. 200, 
Mendel (who was of German origin) " made no 
pretensions to being a great connoisseur, and did 
not collect works of art as a pursuit. He found 
himself a rich man, and he saw that other rich men 
in business, successful like himself, were displaying 
their wealth by buying pictures at high prices, and 
making their dwelling houses as magnificent with 
works of modern art as the aristocracy had always 
done with the pictures by the old masters." The 
general high excellence of the Manley Hall col- 
lection is due to the eminent firm of Thomas 
Agnew and Sons ; its entire dispersal occupied 
twenty-one days ; the pictures were sold on April 
I4th-i7th and 23rd-24th, and produced the total 
of ,101,184 i$s. 6d. ; which amount included 


3,050 guineas paid by Mr. Hermon (M.P. for 
Preston), for the highly interesting series of 271 
drawings and sketches of Lord Clyde's campaign 
in Oude by Mr. E. Ltindgren ; and the residue of 
the collection, the furniture and other appointments 
of the Hall, sold on the premises on March I5th 
and fourteen following days, brought ^42,855. 
The grand total amounted to ; 150,100 i$s. i id. 
Prior to the sale by auction, 100 of the more 
important works changed hands by private treaty. 
The more important of the 137 pictures of the 
English school and 25 by foreign artists were the 
following : R. Ansdell, Visit to the Shrine in the 
Alhambra, 72 x 47, 600 guineas ; T. Jones Barker, 
Relief of Lucknow, io6x 190, 970 guineas; R. 
P. Bonington, Chateau on the French Coast, 
14x24, 460 guineas; P. H. Calderon, Virgin's 
Bower, 70 x 46, 290 guineas ; Home after Victory, 
48x81, 900 guineas, and CEnone, 53 x 40, 750 
guineas ; Sir A. W. Callcott, Landscape with cot- 
tage and water, 27 x 39, 400 guineas, and Launce 
and his Dog (scene from " The Two Gentlemen of 
Verona"), 25 x 30, 385 guineas ; W. Collins, Land- 
scape, with boys angling, 17x22, 330 guineas, 
and The Skittle Players, 34x43, 2,300 guineas; 
J. Constable, Landscape with a Suffolk river, 
28 x 36, 600 guineas ; E. W. Cooke, Scheveningen 
Trawler, 35 x 54, 850 guineas ; T. Creswick, Pont- 
y-Pont Mill, 20x40, 420 guineas; John Crome, 
Landscape, road scene with trees, 71 x 55, 1,500 
guineas Mr. Redford states that this picture was 
bought for jCj at a sale in Cavendish Square, 


and that its authenticity was doubted ; W. C. T. 
Dodson, Abraham and Hagar,4i x 34, 470 guineas; 
A. Elmore, Katherine and Petruchio, 43 x 33, 300 
guineas ; W. Etty, Mars and Venus, 37 x 25, 500 
guineas; T. Faed, Only Herself, 53x39, 1,650 
guineas, and A Wee Bit Fractious, 53 x 39, 1,900 
guineas; W. P. Frith, Sterne's Maria, 44 x 31, 
900 guineas, and Before Dinner at Boswell's lodg- 
ings in Bond Street, 1769, 4,350 guineas ; W. E. 
Frost, Aurora and Zephyr, 35 x 28, 380 guineas ; 
T. Gainsborough, George IV. when Prince of 
Wales, 28 x 24, 460 guineas ; W. Gale, Jews' Place 
of Wailing, 21x29, 2 9 guineas; P. Graham, 
Among the Hills, 44 x 70, 1,550 guineas ; A Spate 
in the Highlands, 23 x 17, 410 guineas, and O'er 
Moor and Moss, 44x70, 1,050 guineas; J. R. 
Herbert, Mary Magdalene, 14 x 12, 360 guineas, 
and Christ and the Woman of Samaria, 38 x 56, 
530 guineas; J. C. Hook, the Lobster Catcher, 
29x42, 1,410 guineas; Sir F. Leighton, Noble 
Venetian Lady, i6th century, 34 x 25, 950 guineas ; 
C. R. Leslie, Hermione, 31 x 20, 520 guineas, and 
scene from "Henry the Eighth," 23x34, 1,300 
guineas (at the Brunei sale in 1860 this picture 
was sold for 960 guineas) ; G. D. Leslie, The 
Appointed Hour, 43 x 29, 720 guineas, and An 
Elopement, A.D. 1790, 47x89, 1,100 guineas; J. 
Linnell, the Rustic Bridge, 18x25, 600 guineas ; 
Midday Rest, Harvest Time, 37 x 55, i,3OOguineas; 
The Tramps, 28 x 39, 1,060 guineas ; The Journey 
to Emmaus, 22 x 31, 670 guineas, and Landscape 
with shepherd, 18 x 25, 720 guineas ; J. T. Linnell, 


Autumn Evening, 26 x 31, 7 20 guineas, and Open- 
ing the Gate, 29x44, 500 guineas ; W. Linnell, 
the Gleaner's Return, 42 x 64, 6 10 guineas ; Daniel 
Maclise, the Departure of Bayard, 48 x 34, 405 
guineas; H. S. Marks, the Notary, 28x36, 380 
guineas ; Sir John Millais, " O, Swallow, Swallow," 
painted in 1865, 40 x 29^, 1,000 guineas, Jephthah, 
1867, 50 x 64, 3,800 guineas (W. Armstrong), and 
"Chill October," 1871, 55x73, 3,100 guineas ; 
W. J. Miiller, Stapenhill Village, 30x48, 660 
guineas, and Gillingham, children fishing, 22 x 16, 
600 guineas ; P. Nasmyth, Waterfall, Glen Shirah, 
28 x 38, 1,400 guineas; H. O'Neil, Last Moments 
of Raphael, 48x72, 1,050 guineas;]. Phillip, 
Winnowing Corn, 37 x 30, 480 guineas ; David 
Roberts, Church of the Nativity, 44 x 55, 1,350 
guineas, and Interior of Seville Cathedral, 50 x 40, 
i, 800 guineas ; J. M. W. Turner, View on the 
River Maas, Holland, 22 x 36, 2,500 guineas, and 
Grand Canal, Venice, 36x48, 7,000 guineas; E. 
M. Ward, Last Sleep of Argyle, and Last Scene 
in the Life of Montrose, each 800 guineas, the 
engraved pictures; T. Webster, Results of In- 
temperance, 30 x 42, 800 guineas, and R. Wilson, 
Lake Scene, 33 x 42, 700 guineas. 

The pictures by Continental artists included 
the following : Rosa Bonheur, Souvenir of Nor- 
mandy, 39 x 5 1, 410 guineas; Coast Scene, 19 x 25, 
605 guineas, and Cattle in landscape, 3 20 guineas ; 
Henriette Browne, Giving Baby a Ride, i6x 17, 
600 guineas, and Abyssinian Girl, 35 x 24, 400 
guineas ; Paul Delaroche, President Duranti, 


21 x 1 8, 625 guineas; J. L. Dyckmans, Mary at 
the Cross, 19 x 15, 500 guineas ; Edouard Frere, 
the Go-Cart, 240 guineas ; and "It is caught ! " 
400 guineas ; Louis Gallait, Columbus in Prison, 
59x43, 850 guineas; the Wanderers, 31x25, 
605 guineas ; Last Honours to Egmont and Horn, 
2 7 X 39> MOO guineas, and Vargas taking the 
Oath, 44x60, 2,550 guineas; J. L. Gerome, 
Italian Woman and Child, 23 x 17, 300 guineas; 
Baron H. Leys, Going to Church at Antwerp in 
the Sixteenth Century a winter scene, 830 
guineas; C. Troyon, cattle piece, 31x45, 960 

In some respects the sale on April 8, 9, and 10, 
of the collection of drawings formed by Mr. 
William Quilter was the most interesting event of 
this annus mirabilis of art sales. The collection 
comprised 417 lots (of which over one hundred 
were the work of David Cox), -and produced the 
splendid total of ,41,517. The prices realized 
were in nearly every respect record ones ; and The 
Times, in a final note on this remarkable sale, 
stated that Mr. Quilter realized a profit of some- 
thing like 260 per cent, on the whole collection. 
This sale comprised 114 pen and ink etchings, 
sepia and water-colour drawings, by David Cox ; 
2 1 by Cattermole ; 7 by Prout ; 1 1 by G. Barrett ; 
40 by W. Hunt ; 18 by Turner; 13 by W. M tiller ; 
7 by C. Haag; and 15 by Tayler. A number of 
the drawings were bought in for Mr. Quilter, and 
were again offered for sale on May i8th, 1889, after 
the owner's death. This post mortem sale com- 


prised 147 lots, which showed a total of 2 1 ,802 2s. 
We have here combined the two sales, and in- 
clude only the prices from ^200 and upwards. 
G. Barret, Landscape, sunset effect, with figure, 
dog and sheep, 300 guineas ; Sir F. W. Burton, 
La Marchesa, 320 guineas (1889, 200 guineas) ; 
La Romanina, 570 guineas, and A.D. 1660, a Rem- 
nant of the Ironsides, 400 guineas ; G. Cattermole, 
Trying the Sword, 250 guineas ; Benvenuto Cellini 
Valuing oneof his own Productions to the Brigands, 
from the Haines collection, exhibited at Manchester 
( 1 854, and the Loan Collection, 1 87 1 ), 2 70 guineas ; 
Macbeth instructing the Murderers, 240 guineas ; 
Shakespeare reciting to Sir Thomas Lucy, 36 x 24, 
340 guineas (in 1889, 1 60 guineas) ; Salvator Rosa 
and the Brigands, 390 guineas(in 1 889, 23<Dguineas), 
and Old English Hospitality, 410 guineas. David 
Cox, Old Oak, Sherwood Forest, 210 guineas; 
Powis Terrace, with figures, 1840, 260 guineas; 
Crossing a Moor, man on horseback, 240 guineas ; 
Calais Pier, 245 guineas; Hay-making, 210 guineas; 
Bolton Park, the Wharfe, 210 guineas; Welsh Land- 
scape, with shepherds driving sheep, 350 guineas ; 
A Hop Garden, 14^ x 10, 210 guineas; Old Mill 
and moor, 21 x i2f, 450 guineas; Kenilworth, a 
selected Art Union prize, 14^ x lof, 390 guineas; 
Fors Novin,3ioguineas(i889, 1 60 guineas); Corn- 
field, horse and cart going through a gate, 300 
guineas (1889, 205 guineas) ; Cottage, with man 
ploughing, 14^ x iof, 285 guineas; Gipsies cross- 
ing a Common, 19 x 12^, 300 guineas ; Beaumaris, 
engraved in Roscoe's " North Wales," and for the 


Art Union, 1869, 420 guineas; Golden Vale, Caer- 
marthen, where Jeremy Taylor lived and wrote, 
14!- x 10^, 305 guineas; Haddon Hall, from the 
Mendel collection, 4 1 o guineas ( 1 889, 1 95 guineas) ; 
Carthage, 450 guineas (1889, 165 guineas) ; Water 
Tower, Kenilworth, 7 2Oguineas (1889, 305 guineas) ; 
The Night Train, 29^5 x 29^, 610 guineas (1889, 
350 guineas) ; Deerstalking, Bolton Park, from the 
H. W. Birch collection, 34 x 22, 950 guineas (cost 
Mr. Quilter ^250); Hardwick Castle, windy day, 
from W. M. Bigg's collection, 34 x 24, 960 guineas 
(this cost Mr. Quilter ^150); Storm on the Llugwy, 
from Pont-y-Kyfin, near Capel Curig, exhibited 
October, 1871, 26^x31, 660 guineas (1889, 350 
guineas) ; Green Lanes, 30x25, with autograph 
letter of the artist to Mr. Joseph Parrington, who 
purchased the drawing at the Water Colour Ex- 
hibition, 1845, 1400 guineas (1889, 850 guineas) ; 
Valeof Clwyd, 27 x 21, 1,550 guineas (1889, 2,300 
guineas) the last two pictures cost Mr. Quilter, 
600 each ; The Hay field, exhibited at the Water 
Colour Society, 1850, at Leeds, 1868, in October, 
1871, at Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1871, and at 
Burlington House, 1873, 33 x 22 > 2 >8io guineas 
(cost ^500), and Peace and War, 34 x 23, 950 
guineas (1889, 700 guineas). P. de Wint, 1 Kirk- 
stall Abbey, Yorkshire, 200 guineas ; Farmyard 
and buildings, 480 guineas ; Lancaster, 905 guineas 
(1889, i, 100 guineas) ; and Southall, Notts., 1,650 
guineas ; Copley Fielding, Rivaulx Abbey, 950 

1 The 1889 sale included one other important De Wint 
drawing, Lincoln, which fetched 1,670 guineas. 


guineas ; Loch Awe, Ben Cruachan, 850 guineas, 
and The Mull of Galloway, 1,650 guineas ; the first 
of these three came from the Bicknell collection, all 
were exhibited at the Water Colour Gallery, and 
at the Royal Academy, 1873; Sir John Gilbert, 
Duke of Gloucester and his Murders, 400 guineas 
(1889, 160 guineas), and " To Be, or Not to Be," 
410 guineas (1889, 140 guineas) ; Carl Haag, Tyro- 
lese Hunter and Mountain Girl, 500 guineas ; En- 
camping at Palmyra, 400 guineas, and Leaving 
Palmyra, 395 guineas the three exhibited at the 
Loan Collection, 1871 ; James Holland, Roses, 275 
guineas ; W. Hunt, Plums, mossy ground, oval, 
212 guineas ; Plums and Primroses and Bird's nest, 
a companion pair of ovals, from the J. Harris col- 
lection, 450 guineas ; Pineapple, grapes and pome- 
granate, from the Bigg collection, 210 guineas; 
Hut, with gipsies, 315 guineas (1889, 1 80 guineas); 
Devotion, 420 guineas (1889, 3 2 guineas); Prim- 
roses on mossy bank, 245 guineas ; Cymon and 
Iphigenia, from the Mendel collection, 440 guineas ; 
" Too Hot," from the John Leigh Clare collection, 
exhibited at Manchester, 1857, Royal Academy, 
1873, 750 guineas ; and The Eaves Dropper, from 
the J. James collection, 750 guineas (1889, 460 
guineas); J. F. Lewis, Caged Birds, 200 guineas ; 
School at Cairo, i , 1 80 guineas ( 1 889, 620 guineas) ; 
Lilium Auratum, i ,o i oguineas ( 1 889, i ,oooguineas) ; 
and The Prayer of Faith, 1,120 guineas (1889, 720 
guineas) the last two were the drawings for the 
well known pictures which were exhibited at the 
Royal Academy; P. F. Poole, Peasant Girls, 550 


guineas (1889, 340 guineas), and Rustic Mother 
and Child, 500 guineas ; Samuel Prout, Church of 
St. Pierre, Caen, exhibited at the Royal Academy, 
1873, 800 guineas ; E. Tayler, The Evening Stroll, 
325 guineas ; F. W. Topham, the Holy Well, 230 
guineas (1889, 105 guineas) ; Little Nell in the 
Churchyard, 310 guineas (1889, 100 guineas), and 
Oliver Goldsmith, when at Trinity College, Dublin, 
hearing his ballad sung, gives his last farthing, 
250 guineas ; J. M. W. Turner, 1 Plymouth, 390 
guineas (1889, 305 guineas) ; Cassiobury, 415 
guineas ; Tomb of Cecilia Metella, 1827, from the 
Munro collection, 320 guineas (1889, 220 guineas) 
these two were at the Royal Academy, 1873 ; Mal- 
vern, 800 guineas; Heidelberg, 1,450 guineas (1889, 
1,1 10 guineas) ; Oberwesel, Royal Academy, 1873, 
and from the collection of Oldham Whitaker and 
J. Leigh Ford, 1,5 50 guineas (1889, 1,020 guineas); 
Reichenbach on the Rhine, 240 guineas ; Geneva, 
285 guineas (1889, 22 guineas); and Thun, 280 
guineas (1889, 240 guineas) the last two were ex- 
hibited at Burlington House, 1873, at Leeds in 
1 868, and are from General Rawdon's collection ; F. 
Walker, The New Boy, 200 guineas ; Fortuny, In- 
teriorofa Morocco carpet warehouse, 1,400 guineas. 
The dispersal of the collection of pictures by the 
Dutch and Flemish masters formed by Charles 
Bredel (who died in 185 1), and of that of the Rev. 
John Lucy, of Hampton Lucy, together consti- 
tuted the third great art sale event of 1875. The 

1 The second sale included Turner's Hardraw Fall, n x 16, 
605 guineas. 


sale took place on May ist, and the 43 lots, which 
comprised the Bredel property, included the fol- 
lowing works : Le Nain, Interior, with two lads 
and a girl playing musical instruments, bird cage 
on a trunk on the right, signed, and dated 1629, 

26 x 33, 470 guineas ; A. Watteau, Two Peasants 
dancing before a Cabaret, violin player and other 
figures, 9x6, 250 guineas, and a Danse Cham- 
petre, a composition of 25 figures, 25 x 32, 500 
guineas ; N. Berghem, Woman with a Distaff, 
landscape with hilly and broken foreground, 
17x15, from the Edward Solly collection, 900 
guineas; J. Both, Landscape, with two large 
trees in centre of the foreground, peasant driving 
mule laden with panniers, with two men on horse- 
back in the distance, man and two dogs crossing 
a ford, 19 x 25, 1,650 guineas ; A. Cuyp, View on 
a Dutch river, church and six windmills in dis- 
tance, 14 x 20, 310 guineas, and View on the banks 
of the Maas, youth and three cows and sheep, 
tower of " Het huis te Mewer" in distance, 
1 8 x 29, 1,050 guineas ; C. Dusart, Farmyard, with 
peasants and children, signed, and dated 1687, 

27 x 24, 310 guineas ; M. Hobbema, River scene, 
with trees, boat with two figures, signed, and 
dated 1650, 18x25, 3,100 guineas; N. Maas, 
Interior, with girl seated making lace, calendar 
for 1655 on wall, 22x17, I >7 guineas; F. 
Mieris, Young Lady holding palette, on copper, 
5x3, 250 guineas, and The Enamoured Cavalier, 
an interior with cavalier looking at a pretty girl 
who is filling his glass from a silver tankard, with 


couple embracing in a doorway, dated 1658, 
1 6 x 13, 4,100 guineas; W. Mieris, An owl on stand, 
two figures with a birdcage in landscape back- 
ground, signed, and dated 1686, 5 x 4, on copper, 
260 guineas ; A. Ostade, the " Tric-trac Players," 
interior with five boors round a table, and other 
figures, 12 x 10, signed, and dated 1670, from the 
Clarke- Hibbert collection of 1802, 670 guineas; 
Rubens, Christ Triumphant over Sin and Death, 
28 x 19, a sketch, 410 guineas; J. Ruysdael, The 
Ruin, landscape, with ruin and figures, 18x25, 
2,200 guineas this celebrated picture was for- 
merly in the collections of M. Morelli, 1776, 
M. de Calonne, 1788, M. Coders, 1789, Mr. W. 
Smith, M.P., and Lord Radstock, 1826; Jan 
Steen, Interior, with large projecting chimney, two 
women seated and man bowing obsequiously 
before them, and other figures, 17x13, 630 
guineas ; D. Teniers, Villagers merrymaking, 
1 6 x 14, signed, 370 guineas (from the Heathcote 
collection, 1802) ; A. Van der Neer, Winter Scene 
in Holland, frozen river, with church and other 
buildings, and skaters, 530 guineas; E. Van der 
Neer, Interior, with a young lady wearing a white 
cap, black kerchief and white satin robe, signed, 
and dated 1665, 13x10, 500 guineas; D. Van 
Tol, Two children at an arched open window 
blowing bubbles, 10 x 8, 260 guineas ; W. Van de 
Velde, Calm on Dutch coast, 13x16, 750 guineas ; 
A. Van de Velde, Pastoral scene, woody land- 
scape, with sloping meadow in front, cows, horse, 
sheep, and woman milking a goat, 13 x 12, dated 


1662, " in every respect one of the finest pictures 
by this great master " (Waagen), respectively in 
the collections of the Countess of Holderness, 
1802, John Ewer, 1832 (430 guineas), Brooke 
Greville, 1836 (565 guineas), and was purchased 
by Mr. Bredel for about ^700 it now realized 
4,300 guineas ; P. Wouverman, Winter scene on 
Dutch canal, with figures, 12 x 14, 1,220 guineas, 
River Scene, with picturesque bridge and other 
buildings on bank, with figures, 13 x 19, 600 
guineas, and Departure of a Hawking party, 
chateau with gentleman escorting a lady to her 
piebald horse, and other figures, 19 x 25, 580 
guineas; J. Wynants, Landscape, with herdsman 
and cattle, by A. Van de Velde, 15 x 19, 350 
guineas, and Boy angling, cottages, and distant 
landscape, 14 x 19, i, 800 guineas. 

A few unimportant pctures belonging to the 
Hon. Baroness Dimsdale followed the Bredel col- 
lection. The Rev. John Lucy's collection of 91 
drawings and pictures included : T. Gainsborough, 
A Landscape, with rustics on a road, church in the 
distance, 40 x 50, 3,300 guineas ; Van de Capella, 
River Scene, boats at anchor in a calm, figures on 
a jetty, signed and dated 1561, 22 x 28, 390 guineas; 
W. Mieris, The Grocer's Shop, woman with scales 
in her hand, and boy at open window, and a shop 
over which a vine is trained, 15 x 13, purchased 
in 1855 for 300 guineas, and now sold for 750 
guineas ; J. Wynants and A. Van de Velde, Woody 
Landscape with two decayed trees, figures, and 
woman carrying a bundle on her head, signed, 


and dated 1683, 20 x 25, 3ioguineas; A. Watteau, 
Danse Champetre, a composition of seven figures, 
and the companion, a Musical Conversation, five 
figures, circular, 8 inches, together 510 guineas this 
pair was sold in Lord Carysfoot's collection in 1828 
for 60 guineas to Samuel Rogers, and at the latter's 
sale in 1856 for 320 guineas; J. and A. Both, 
Abraham with Hagar and Ishmael, a sunny Italian 
landscape, with figures on a road, group of trees, 
and a castle with round tower and arch in the 
distance, 41 x 49, 4,500 guineas this celebrated 
picture was in the collections of C. H. Wade, 1827, 
Major Dunn, 1828, and the late H. J. Munro re- 
spectively ; and W. Van de Velde, a Fresh Breeze, 
with Dutch man-of-war in front and six others in 
the distance, fishing boats, 16 x 24, 650 guineas 
from the Earl of Lichfield's collection at Shug- 
borough, when it was known as " The Arrival of 
William III." From another source, " the property 
of a nobleman," otherwise from the collection of 
the late Marquis of Hertford, K.G., at Ragley 
Castle, came two works of G. Romney, viz., Lady 
Hamilton as the Tragic Muse, 48 x 62, 240 
guineas, and Lady Hamilton as the Comic Muse, 
the companion, 310 guineas. 

The sale of the collection of modern pictures 
belonging to Mr. Thomas Woolner, R.A., 141 
examples in all, formed the chief event of June, 1875 
(i2th), the total realized being ^8,210. The pic- 
tures by J. M. W. Turner were the chief attraction 
of this sale, and were : Worcester Cathedral, from 
the banks of the Severn, 27x36, engraved, 400 


guineas; Kirkstall Abbey on the Aire, 24 x 36, 
engraved by Burnley for " The Rivers of Eng- 
land/' 260 guineas; Crichton Castle, engraved 
by G. Cooke for " Antiquities of Scotland," 480 
guineas; Whalers, 18 x 24, 310 guineas; Nea- 
politan Fisher Girls surprised while Bathing, 
moonlight effect, 24 x 30, 500 guineas ; and a num- 
ber of other works by Turner which realized under 
,100 each ; R. P. Bonington, Old French Water 
Mill, 300 guineas ; Palace of Prince Maffei, Verona, 
190 guineas; Francis I. and his Sister, " Souvent 
femme varie. Bien fol est qui s'y fie," engraved 
by Heath, 220 guineas, and others; William 
Collins, The Ferry, 27 x 36, 276 guineas; John 
Crome, Bruges on the Ostend river, moonlight 
effect, 280 guineas ; and Landscape near Thorpe, 
290 guineas ; J. S. Cotman, Chateau, in Normandy, 
18x24, 275 guineas; and Boscastle Cove, 550 
guineas; J. Linnell, Hanson Foot, Dovedale, 1846, 
45 guineas ; and The Last Gleam before the 
Storm, 54 x 30, 1847, 2,500 guineas (from the 
Eden sale of 1874, when it realized the same 
amount : it was purchased of the artist for ^300) ; 
Sir J. E. Millais, Lorenzo and Isabella ("the 
Kick"), 850 guineas this early picture appeared in 
the Royal Academy of 1 849 ; at the Windus sale in 
1868 it sold for 400 guineas, and in 1883 it again 
changed hands for 1,050 guineas, and is now in the 
Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool ; and Ferdinand 
lured by Ariel, a scene from the " Tempest," 300 
guineas, which in the Elliston sale of 1874 brought 
220 guineas. 

I. R 


The last important sale of the year took place 
on July 3rd, and, like several of the others, it was 
made up of various properties. At the head of 
these came the collection of pictures formed by the 
late Jesse Watts Russell,of Ham Hall, Staffordshire. 
The most important items in this collection, which 
produced the total of 18,771 iSs. 6d., for fifty 
lots, were as follows : T. Gainsborough, a Wood 
scene, with figures, a view near the village of 
Conard, Suffolk, said to have been painted for 
Alderman Boydell, 72 x 54, 1,150 guineas (National 
Gallery) ; R. Wilson, View on the Arno, 54 x 81, 
from the Lord de Tabley sale, 1827 (where it 
realized 470 guineas), 1,800 guineas (Lord Over- 
stone) ; W.Collins, The Fisherman's Return, 2, 2 50 
guineas; Sir E. Landseer, St. Bernard Dogs, 
96 x 72, 2,150 guineas ; Sir A. W. Callcott, Dutch 
Fishing Boats running foul, 1,600 guineas; J. M. 
W. Turner, High Street, Oxford, 36 x 24, 1000 
guineas, and Oxford, from the Abingdon Road, 
36 x 24, 1,220 guineas both these pictures were 
painted for Alderman James Wyatt, of Oxford ; 
H. Howard, the Pleiades, 140 guineas; W. Owen, 
The Fortune Teller, 280 guineas ; H.Thompson, 
girl crossing a brook leading a child, life-size 
figures, 820 guineas ; G. Romney, Titania, Puck, 
and the Changeling (from the De Tabley collec- 
tion, where it sold for 155 guineas), 230 guineas; 
J. Opie, the Schoolmistress, from the Watson 
Taylor collection, 750 guineas (Lord Overstone) ; 
W. Hilton, Una, 360 guineas ; J. Constable, Har- 
wich Lighthouse, 18 x 12, 360 guineas; Samuel 

MINOR SALES, 1875. 243 

Prout, Market Day at Malines, cathedral and 
figures, 36 x 30, water-colour drawing, 290 guineas ; 
A. Cuyp, River Scene, with cattle, 54 x 30, 750 
guineas; Van de Capella, Castle of Dordrecht, 
with shipping, 54x30, 720 guineas; Ruysdael, 
River Scene in Norway, 650 guineas ; and Claude, 
Landscape, with figures, 40 x 26, 210 guineas the 
last four pictures were formerly in Lord Radstock's 

The other important pictures sold on the same 
day as the foregoing were the following: Sir J. 
Reynolds, two full-length Portraits of the Earl and 
Countess of Bellamont, respectively 530 guineas 
and 2,400 guineas ; G. Romney, Lady Hamilton 
at the Spinning-wheel, 770 guineas (Lord Nor- 
manton), Lady Hamilton as a Bacchante, 200 
guineas, and Portrait of Mrs. Burton, 260 guineas ; 
T. Gainsborough, Portrait of Bach, the musical 
composer, 600 guineas ; J. Weenix, Grand upright 
landscape, with figures and dead game, signed, and 
dated 1 700, 540 guineas ; David Cox, Morecambe 
Bay, a water-colour drawing, 430 guineas ; P. de 
Wint, Bolton Abbey, also water-colour drawing, 
450 guineas ; and Sir J. Reynolds, Portrait of Lady 
Gordon with her son, 320 guineas. 

We can only briefly refer to a few of the less 
important collections which were dispersed during 
the 1875 season. Mr. William Leafs collection 
of water-colour drawings, pictures, and statuary, 
538 lots, was sold on May 6th, 7th, and 8th. 
Mr. Gladstone's collection of works of art, June 
23-26, was chiefly remarkable for the numerous 


fine examples of Wedgwood ; there were 68 1 lots, 
which realized the total of 9,19 3- The only 
pictures which call for special notice were W. 
Dyce, Lady with coronet of jasmine, 400 guineas, 
and Bonifazio, Virgin and Child in a landscape, 
from the Fonthill collection, 460 guineas. Two 
portions of the Bohn collection of porcelain were 
sold in March and June of this year ; and the in- 
teresting collection of old English and foreign 
plate formed by Dr. Dasent realized close on 
^4,000 in June. 

The great picture sale of 1876 was that of the 
collection formed by the late Wynn Ellis. This 
distinguished collector was born at Oundle, in 
Northamptonshire, in July, 1790, and in 1812 
started as a haberdasher, hosier, and mercer at 1 6, 
Ludgate Street, London, where he gradually 
created the largest silk business in London, adding 
house to house as opportunity "occurred of pur- 
chasing the property around him, and passing from 
the retail to the wholesale business in 1830 (" Dic- 
tionary of National Biography," infra Ellis). He 
sat in the House of Commons as an advanced 
Liberal from May, 1831, to December, 1834, 
and again from March, 1839, to July, 1847. He 
owned the manor of Ponsborne Park, Hertford- 
shire (which he sold a few months before his 
death), and Tankerton Tower, near Canterbury. 
He died at 30, Cadogan Place, Sloane Street, 
London, Nov. 2oth, 1875, and was buried at Whit- 
stable. By his will he left numerous legacies to 
gharitable and religious institutions, and his per- 


sonalty was proved under ,600,000 on January 
8th, 1876. He had retired from active business in 
1871, when the firm which he established was (and 
is still) continued under the name of John Howell 
and Co. His great hobby was picture collecting, 
and at the time of his death he had formed an ex- 
ceedingly extensive gallery. His ancient pictures, 
402 in number, he left to the English nation ; but 
of these the Trustees of the National Gallery 
selected only forty-four, which are now placed in 
a separate room as the Wynn Ellis bequest. The 
following analysis of the sale will at once show the 
comparative values of each day's dispersal : 

LOTS. S. d. 

May 5. Objects of art 146 4,600 o o 

6. Modern pictures .... 135 32,208 18 o 

27. Dutch and Flemish pictures . 156 10,387 13 o 
June 17. French, Spanish and Italian 

pictures 159 6,703 4 6 

July 15. Remaining pictures and 

water-colour drawings . . 145 2,586 3 o 

TOTAL ,56,485 18 6 

" The sale of the modern pictures belonging to 
the Wynn Ellis collection on Saturday last," wrote 
The Times correspondent, Monday, May 8th, 
" created such a sensation as has never been ex- 
perienced in the picture world of London. Through- 
out the week the pictures had attracted consider- 
able numbers of visitors, but on the day preced- 
ing the sale the interest came to a climax, and 
crowds filled the rooms of Messrs. Christie, Man- 
son and Woods all day. Anyone passing the 


neighbourhood of St. James's Square might well 
have supposed that some great lady was holding a 
reception, and this, in fact, was pretty much what 
was going on within the gallery in King Street. 
All the world had come to see a beautiful duchess 
created by Gainsborough, and, so far as we could 
observe, they all came, saw, and were conquered 
by her fascinating beauty. Even those who were 
prepared by Walpole's glowing description of 
Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire that her 
' lively modesty and modest familiarity made her 
a phenomenon ' were not disappointed, though 
there were some few who, equally charmed with 
the picture, failed to recognize the lovely senti- 
ment and refinement of the portraits of her by 
Sir Joshua at Chatsworth and at Althorp .... 
When the portrait was placed before the crowded 
audience, a burst of applause showed the universal 
admiration of the picture ; and after this Mr. 
Woods proceeded to give the history of the work, 
as far as he knew it. It was exhibited as a whole- 
length at the Royal Academy in 1783, the year in 
which also was exhibited the portrait of Mrs. 
Sheridan, now belonging to Baron Rothschild. It 
was purchased for 60 guineas by Mr. Wynn 
Ellis of the late Mr. Bentley, the picture re- 
storer, who had it in 1^39 for ^50 from a Mrs. 
Magennis, and it had been for many years in Mr. 
Ellis's collection." The biddings commenced at 
1,000 guineas, and rapidly advanced to 10,000 
guineas, which was the offer of the auctioneers on 
behalf of the then Earl of Dudley ; on an advance 


of 100 guineas on this the picture became Mr. 
Agnew's property for 10,100 guineas the highest 
amount up to that time paid for a picture at 
Christie's. The picture measured 59^- x 45, and 
the duchess is wearing a white dress and blue silk 
petticoat and sash, and a large black hat and 
feathers ; the head is turned three-quarters to the 
right, the eyes directed towards the spectator, the 
hair profusely curled, powdered, and falling on the 
shoulders ; the complexion very brilliant, with very 
red lips ; and the left hand, which is very slightly 
painted in, seen upon the dress ; the background 
is sky, with foliage at each side. We cannot here 
enter into even a summarized account of the dis- 
cussion which raged furiously in the papers at the 
time as to the authenticity of this picture : it may 
or may not have been a genuine work of Gains- 
borough, but the general opinion seems to have 
been that the picture was beautiful enough to have 
been the work of the great English master. Its 
subsequent history is briefly told : it was exhibited 
at Messrs. Thomas Agnew and Sons' gallery at 
39B, Old Bond Street, where on the night of May 
26th it was cut away from the stretching frame and 
stolen. This calamity gave the picture a world- 
wide fame which totally eclipsed the sensation pro- 
duced by the record price at which it had been 
sold on May 6th previously. It has never been 
recovered, although the mystery surrounding its 
disappearance has upon several occasions been 
" explained," notably in the Pall Mall Gazelle 
of July 24th, 1893, where the " Confession of the 


theft of the vanished Gainsborough " forms a sen- 
sational article of one and a half columns. The 
mystery, nevertheless, is still unsolved. 

This sale included several other works cata- 
logued as by Gainsborough, but the only one which 
we need mention is Gad's Hill Oak, with group of 
peasant children and donkeys, 49 x 39, 3 10 guineas. 
The best of the other pictures were the following : 
G. Morland, a Farmyard, 125 guineas, and The 
Gun Inn, 150 guineas; P. Nasmyth, View on the 
Essex Coast, 20 x 43, 200 guineas ; Woody Land- 
scape, 12^ x 17, 530 guineas; View in North- 
amptonshire, with cottages and figures sitting on a 
felled tree, 27 x 39, 650 guineas; and a Woody 
Landscape with figures, 12x16, 400 guineas ; Sir 
Joshua Reynolds, whole length Portrait of Mrs. 
Mathew, with a spaniel, in a landscape, 900 guineas ; 
Nelly O'Brien, in white dress, leaning on a crimson 
cushion, 30 x 24, 525 guineas-; Babes in the 
Wood, 28 x 24, 330 guineas ; and several others 
which realized small amounts and were probably 
replicas or copies ; Sir D. Wilkie, The Rabbit on 
the Wall, 23 x 30, 1,000 guineas; J. M. W. Turner, 
Waterfall, with figures, 15 x 2, 140 guineas; View on 
the Tyne, 28 x 38, 230 guineas ; Kilgarran Castle, 
Evening effect, 22 x 28, 450 guineas, Whalley 
Bridge, 24 x 34, 900 guineas ; Conway Castle, 
41 x 54, 2,800 guineas (Duke of Westminster) ; 
and the Temple of Jupiter at ^Egina, 46 x 70, of 
which the authenticity was at the time of the sale 
questioned, 1 2,000 guineas ; R. Wilson, Niobe, 430 
See The Times, May 9th and loth, 1879. 


guineas; J. Constable, Glebe Farm, Suffolk, 
1 8 x 23, 370 guineas; John Crome, View of 
Yarmouth Harbour, 15^ x 26, 400 guineas ; and 
The Oak, 35 x 42, 330 guineas ; W. Etty, 
Cymocles and Imogen, 310 guineas. 

The sale of May 27th included the Dutch and 
Flemish pictures, of which the important examples 
were as follows : C. de Jonghe, Old London 
Bridge, 36 x 18, 500 guineas; A. Diirer, Portrait 
of Katherine Furleyer, painted in tempera on linen, 
322 guineas; Rembrandt, Portrait of a gentleman in 
black dress and hat, with ruff, an oval, 610 guineas, 
and The Tribute Money, 27 x 36, (from the collec- 
tion of Sir Simon Clarke, 600 guineas,) 360 guineas ; 
and Cuyp, Landscape, with shepherds and shep- 
herdesses, known as the "Coventry House Cuyp/' 
1,140 guineas. On June i7th, the pictures of the 
French, Spanish, and Italian schools comprised 
159 lots, probably not one of which was a genuine 
work by the artist to whom it was attributed, 
very few of these realized over ^100. The final 
portion of this collection was sold on July i5th, 
and the only work which realized an " old master " 
price was Murillo, The Immaculate Conception, 
painted for an archbishop of Lima, 1681, 410 

Another great sale of the year was that of the 
modern pictures and drawings of Mr. Albert Levy, 
sold on March 31 st, April ist and April 6th, 1876. 
This sale, which comprised 386 lots and produced 
a total of ,77,756 35. 6d., is chiefly notable for the 
extraordinary number which it contained of works 


by David Cox, who was represented by 1 1 drawings 
in sepia, 77 in water colours, and 18 pictures ; and 
Turner, of whose drawings there were 16. The 
more important pictures of David Cox were the 
following : Cart Loading from a Smack, 7x9, 280 
guineas ; Driving the Flock, 8 x 1 1, 280 guineas ; 
Stepping Stones, Bettws, n x 15, 320 guineas; 
Harlech Castle, peasants reaping, 10 x 18, 300 
guineas; Haddon Hall, 14^ x 18, 380 guineas; 
View near Bettws, 15 x 20, 320 guineas; Welsh 
view, two figures, distant sea, 18 x 25, 425 guineas ; 
View in Wales, man on grey horse, 11x15, 260 
guineas ; View on the Thames below Gravesend, 
rainbow effect, 17x27, 430 guineas ; Wind, Rain, 
and Sunshine, 1845, l % x 2 5' MOO guineas (in 
1863 this picture was sold for ^250) ; Solitude, 1 853, 
36x31, 700 guineas; Counting the Flock, 1852, 
24 x 34, 2, 300 guineas; The Hayfield, 1852,18 x 28, 
1,200 guineas ; Rhyl Sands, 18-54, 30 x 54, 1,900 
guineas, Bettws-y-Coed Church, 1857, 31 x 43, 
2,100 guineas; and Caer Cennen Castle, Caer- 
marthenshire, 38 x 28, 2,500 guineas. The more 
important of the drawings by David Cox were 
as follows: Golden Vale, Caermarthen, 10x14, 
310 guineas; The Missing Flock, 25x30, 310 
guineas; Noon, Going to the Cornfield, 14 x 20, 330 
guineas; A Forest Scene, JoJ-x 14^-, 290 guineas; 
Gossips on the Bridge, 17 x 24, 405 guineas ; Caer- 
narvon Castle, loj x 17!-, 305 guineas; Old Mill 
and Moor, 12x19, 360 guineas ; Lancaster Castle, 
morning, 11x19, 52Oguineas; Cross Roads, 23 x 34, 
800 guineas; Ulverston Sands, 23 x 33, 1,650 


guineas; Changing Pastures, 23 x 33, 1,270 guineas; 
TheSkylarks, Anthurst Hill, 24 x 34, 1,300 guineas ; 
and Junction of the Severn and the Wye, 30 x 41, 
350 guineas. 

The Turner drawings included Suez, 5^ x 8, 250 
guineas; Joppa, 5x8, 260 guineas; the Glacier des 
Boissons, 9x13, 290 guineas ; Plymouth, 7 x 1 1, 
265 guineas; Le Havre, 7 x 10, 250 guineas; 
Meyrick Abbey, n x 16, 710 guineas; Exeter, 
njx 16, 710 guineas; and Patterdale, lojx 15^, 
650 guineas (in the Gillott sale this realized 800 
guineas), all of which excepting the third in the 
list have been engraved. W. J. M tiller, The 
Slave Market, 24 x 41, 2,760 guineas ; Gillingham 
Church, 1 4^x24, 530 guineas; Good Samaritan, 
560 guineas ; Whitchurch, with two children near a 
stream, 31x56, 1,250 guineas; Street in Cairo, 
with figures, 12 x 15, 1,040 guineas (in 1865 this 
picture sold for 305 guineas) ; and The Pyramids, 
440 guineas ; John Phillip, The Pride of Seville, 
1,000 guineas (at the Guest sale of 1863 this sold 
for 250 guineas). 

The Levy pictures sold on April 6th included 
the following : J. Crome, sen., Hautbois Common, 
385 guineas ; T. Gainsborough, Portrait of Ten- 
ducci, 250 guineas ; G. Morland, View at Enderby, 
2 50 guineas ; Landscape with a gipsy encampment, 
1 790,420 guineas (this sold for 145 guineas in 1863); 
and Evening, or the Postboy's Return, 600 guineas; 
P. Nasmyth, Landscape with figures, 12 x 16, 
320 guineas ; and Landscape near Godstone 
10 x 15, 310 guineas ; Cima il Conegliano, Virgin 


seated with infant Christ, from Prince Napoleon's 
collection, 23 x 19, 360 guineas (Lord Overstone) ; 
Gerard Dow, an Astrologer, at a window, 12x8, 
680 guineas (at the Earl of Clare's sale in 1864 
this sold for 670 guineas, and at the Delafield sale 
in 1870 it brought 760 guineas) ; F. Hals, the 
Singer, 23 x 19, 250 guineas; and Portrait of the 
Artist, 27 x 24, 250 guineas ; M. Hobbema, Land- 
scape, richly wooded, 16x34, 950 guineas; F. 
Mieris,The Enamoured Cavalier, from the Bredel 
collection, 3,500 guineas (Lord Dudley) ; W. 
Mieris, The Guitar Player, 12 x 10, 460 guineas 
(this picture was again sold in 1879 and realized 
490 guineas) ; Adrian Ostade, The Card-players, 
270 guineas ; J. Ruysdael, View in the environs of 
a forest, 680 guineas (Salting) ; View in a grove of 
trees, 370 guineas; and a View in the Hollands 
Deep, 290 guineas; Solomon Ruysdael, Landscape, 
484 guineas; and a River Scene with cattle, 400 
guineas ; Jan Steen, Bad Company, an interior 
14 x 16, 950 guineas (at the Townsend sale in 1873 
this realized 1,020 guineas) ; A. Van de Velde, 
View in a woody park, 900 guineas ; and P. Wou- 
verman, a Hawking Party, 12 x 16, 880 guineas 
(from the Cope collection, 1872, 920 guineas), 
and View on a Canal in Holland, winter scene, 
12^-x i4j, 1,050 guineas (from the Bredel collec- 

After Mr. Levy's death the remainder of his 
collection (including a few which did not reach 
the reserved figures in 1876), was sold at Christie's 
on May 3rd, 1884. There were in all fifty-nine 


pictures and drawings, which realized the total of 
,9,099 i6s. 6d. The following list includes the 
more important works in this sale : G. Romney, 
Portrait of Mrs. Robinson (?) as " Perdita," from the 
Anderdon sale of 1879 (250 guineas), 490 guineas ; 
J. Crome, Hautbois Common, known also as " The 
Clump of Trees," 25 x 35 (bought in in 1876 for 
385 guineas), 395 guineas ; Rubens, the Meeting 
of Jacob and Esau, a sketch, 19 x 16, 295 guineas ; 
N. Maes, Interior, with woman dressing a child's 
hair, and two other children, 24 x 18, 305 guineas ; 
A. Cuyp, Sunny Landscape with miller's waggon, 
13 x 19, 360 guineas the last three were from the 
Novar collection ; J. Ruysdael, Landscape with 
waterfall and bridge, 340 guineas ; Jan Steen, 
Doctor's Visit to the Sick Lady, 17 x 14, 315 
guineas (bought in, 1876, for 195 guineas); and The 
Proposal, 290 guineas, at which price it was bought 
in at the 1876 sale; and Rembrandt, Portrait of 
himself as the Calvinist, in black dress and cap, 
with gold chain, 24 x 19, signed and dated 1635, 
i, 800 guineas. 

The last sensational picture sale of 1876 was 
that of the Clewer Manor collection, which had 
been formed by three generations of the Foster 
family. Of the nineteen choice pictures in this 
collection, three were withdrawn during the sale, 
and the remaining sixteen realized the record 
total of ,34,465, or an average of over 2,000 
guineas each. Jan Steen, The Guitar Lesson, 
24 x 20, 300 guineas, and the Tric-Trac Players, 
interior of an estaminet, with a group of four men 


and other figures, 24 x 27, 720 guineas (this picture 
was again put up at Christie's in 1884, when it 
declined to 400 guineas) ; A. Van de Velde, Sea 
Piece, fresh breeze, numerous ships and other 
vessels with gilded yacht, 17 x 24, 700 guineas 
(National Gallery of Ireland), and a Calm with 
fishing boats near a jetty drying their sails and a 
man-of-war at anchor, 25 x 30, 2,250 guineas ; A. 
Cuyp, view on the Rhine, 22 x 30, 3,000 guineas, 
and a hilly Landscape, fine early morning effect, 
cavalier in a red cloak on a grey horse, and other 
figures, 26x32, 4,800 guineas; J. Both, a Rocky 
Pass, tall trees and rich landscape in the distance, 
42 x 40, ,1,600 ; P. Wouverman, Hilly Sandbank, 
with river in distance and figures of men and 
horses, 7^ x 10, 280 guineas; and Le Port Drapeau, 
three cavaliers, with other figures, horses, and 
bridge over a stream, 22 x 26, 1,250 guineas; N. 
Berghem, Two Herdsmen and cattle passing a ford, 
1,150 guineas; Rachael Ruysch, Vase of flowers 
with insects in a vase on a slab, 42 x 34, 400 
guineas (at the Earl of Shrewsbury's sale in 1857 
this sold for 145 guineas) ; Karel du Jardin, La 
Fratche Matinee, 20 x 18, 700 guineas ; J. Ruys- 
dael, the Mill, with house beneath the trees, and 
miller raising sluice, from the Casimir Perier collec- 
tion, 22x39, 1,750 guineas; A. Ostade, Interior 
of a village ale-house, with man and woman danc- 
ing, fiddler on a bench, and numerous other figures, 
1 8 x 15, 3,600 guineas; Rubens, The Virgin in 
scarlet robe with pale purple mantle and lighter 
drapery, with infant Saviour. 52 x 36, bought in at 


the Hart Davis sale, 1814, for 1,000 guineas, after- 
wards sold for i, 100 guineas to Sir M. M. Sykes, at 
whose sale, in 1 848, it brought ^170; it now passed 
into Baron Rothschild's collection for 4,000 guineas. 
The last of the Clewer Manor property was the 
celebrated Greuze, a Portrait of a little girl of five 
or six years old seated on a rush-bottomed chair, 
holding her spaniel puppy close to her bosom, 
and looking aside to the spectator, 24 x 20, from the 
Watson Taylor collection, 1832 (670 guineas), 
6,400 guineas (Lord Dudley). 

The three pictures which were withdrawn from 
the 1876 sale were sold on July i3th, 1895, after 
Mr. Richard Foster's death. These three pro- 
duced a total of 8,880 guineas, which, added to 
the former amount, shows the extraordinary amount 
of ,43,789 for nineteen pictures. The three pic- 
tures in question were Murillo, The Holy Family 
with the child St. John and St. Joseph, formerly 
in the collection of Lord Nugent, and afterwards 
of Sir W. Eustace, from whom Mr. Foster bought 
it, 46 x 43, 4,000 guineas ; J. Weenix, Dead hare, 
two partridges and other birds, with gun and other 
accessories of the chase, 51 x 41, 680 guineas; 
and J. Ruysdael, A Sea view : the entrance to the 
Y, man-of-war lying at anchor, with fishing smacks, 
42 x 46, 4,200 guineas. 

Following the Clewer Manor pictures, in 1876, 
came a number from various sources, including 
some from Mr. Dunn Gardner's collection. We 
need only mention the following : W. Van de 
Velde, a Calm, with many vessels, i6x 18, 550 

256 MINOR SALES, 1876. 

guineas ; from the Casimir Perier collection (at the 
dispersal of which, in 1848, this work was pur- 
chased by Mr. Dunn Gardner for an identical sum) ; 
Rubens, Landscape, woman and cows, 490 guineas ; 
H. van der Goes, The Stem of Jesse, 30 x 24, 270 
guineas, this extremely beautiful picture was for- 
merly in the Belvedere collection of the late Sir 
Culling Eardley, Bart., and it was again sold on July 
1 3th, 1895, for the much enhanced price of 610 
guineas ; Greuze, three-quarter length Portrait of a 
lady, said to be Madame Westrenen, 750 guineas 
(Holloway) ; Murillo, the Madonna de la Faja, a 
repetition of the celebrated picture (see p. 164) in 
the Montpensier collection, Seville, 1,250 guineas ; 
W. Collins, Landscape, with Chichester Cathedral 
in the distance, 750 guineas ; and Sir J. Reynolds, 
Kitty Fisher as Cleopatra, grey tunic over white, 
cup in her left hand, 29 x 24, 2,350 guineas. 

In addition to the foregoing sales of 1876, we 
may briefly mention a few of the minor auctions of 
art property held during the same year : Mr. W. 
Kershaw's engravings, drawings and pictures, six 
days, February. Mr. Sigismund Rucker's water- 
colour drawings, March nth, among which were: 
Sir F. W. Burton, An apple-girl, 15x12, 205 
guineas ; The Virgin's Day, girl with lily, 12 x 10, 
410 guineas ; Tyrolese boys bird trapping, 250 
guineas ; and Faust's first sight of Marguerite, 600 
guineas. This collection included a picture in oils 
by J. L. Dyckmans, of Antwerp, The Lace maker, 
650 guineas ; and the pictures from another source 
in the same day's sale included another by the 


same artist, The Startling Account, 350 guineas, 
and also W. Collins, A Landscape, with girl on grey 
pony and Chichester Cathedral in the distance, 
38 x 24, 790 guineas (in the following year this 
work was again sold for 565 guineas). Sir Abraham 
H ume's collection of more than 200 Rembrandt etch- 
ings realized over ^4, 2 90 on June ist ; a few of the 
more important examples were as follows : Christ 
Healing the Sick, best known as " The Hundred- 
Guilder Piece," from Rembrandt's having once 
sold it for this price (about ;8), second impression 
on India paper, with i J inches margin, 205 guineas ; 
The Shell, first state, white background, ^200 
" this was the well-known work, being nothing 
more than a simple conical spotted shell of the 
natural size, about 3 inches long, but so exquisitely 
drawn as to be quite a marvel among etchings " ; 
Landscape, with a ruined tower and a clear 
foreground, second state, ^230; Portrait of Old 
Haaring, third state, ^255; George Lutma, second 
state, before the window, ^155 ; Portrait of Van 
Tolling, from Lord Aylesford's collection, fine and 
rare, ^500 (cost Sir A. Hume 90) ; The Burgo- 
master Six, third state, with name and age, ^270 ; 
and The Three Trees, a fine impression, ^120. 
Lord Malmesbury's pictures were sold on July 
2nd, but of these we need only mention Hobbema, 
A Wood and Cottages, 42 x 54, 1,050 guineas, and 
Giorgione, The Duke of Ferrara and His Mistress, 
from the Fesch collection, 35 x 29, 350 guineas. 











HERE was, for some years, a com- 
parative lull in great art sales after 
the wonderful season of 1 8 76. Never- 
theless several highly important 
events occurred during the six years 
covered by this chapter. The first of these in point 
of date was that of the collection of drawings 
and sketches by David Cox formed by the late 
W. Stone Ellis, of Streatham (a pupil and intimate 
friend of Cox), sold on Friday and Saturday, 
March Qth and loth, 1877. The 364 lots realized 
,17,911 18,. and nearly all the drawings were in 


the finest condition, having been preserved in 
portfolios from the action of light. Of upwards of 
300 drawings by David Cox, all of which varied 
from about icx 12 up to the largest of all, Cader 
Idris, 303- x 42, were as follows : A Bridge, 
Warwickshire, 140 guineas, Going to the Hay- 
field, 135 guineas; Market Carts, Lancaster, 180 
guineas; near Ludlow, no guineas; Haddon 
Hall garden, 185 guineas; Returning from Market, 
Lancaster Sands, 335 guineas ; A Passing Shower, 
1854, 131 guineas; Rhiwaedoz, Near Bala, grey 
daylight effect, 195 guineas ; Mill, Staffordshire, 216 
guineas ; and a larger drawing of the same subject, 
200 guineas; Outskirts of Pakenham Park, 1854, 
175 guineas ; On the Kentish Coast, 145 guineas ; 
Boys Angling, 205 guineas ; Gipsy Camp, an early 
work, 190 guineas; Hay field, watering horses, on 
sandpaper, 15 x 20, 350 guineas; OffSheerness, on 
sugar paper, 15 x 20, 280 guineas ; A Breezy Day, 
10 x I2,225guineas; Plumstead Marsh, 185 guineas; 
Haymaking, 1853, icx 12, 270 guineas; Children 
Fly ing the Kite, lox 12, 315 guineas ; Lane Scene, 
Cheshire, 1 10 guineas; Cutting Ling, 155 guineas; 
Boy openinggate for Sheep, 125 guineas; Ulverston 
Sands, 1 60 guineas ; Going to the Hayfield, man in 
smock frock on a gray horse, and a hay-wain in the 
distance, 14 x 18, 250 guineas ; Water Lane, Har- 
bourne, 175 guineas; Changing Pastures, 155 
guineas; Bettws Churchyard, 145 guineas; Stokesay 
Castle, cloudy day, on sugar paper, lox 13, 235 
guineas; Colwyn Bay, 1845, X 45 guineas; Sandy 
Lane, with trees and a timber waggon, 2 10 guineas ; 


Dinas Mountain, man leading horse over the rocks 
in the river bed, i TO guineas; Meeting of the Conway 
and Llugwy, 16 x 28, 115 guineas ; Tooting Com- 
mon, 1851, 150 guineas; Mischief, boy driving 
geese about, 1852, 5ioguineas; and Cader Idris, 
1828, evening effect, with the storm clearing off 
described in Ruskin's " Modern Painters," 365 
guineas. There were also three oil paintings by 
David Cox, namely, a Road Scene, effects of 
wind and shower, icx 12, 310 guineas; Lane at 
Harbourne, from the gate of the artist's house, 100 
guineas ; and Market Women crossing a heath, 
signed and dated 1854, 350 guineas. This collec- 
tion contained also a few unimportant drawings by 
other artists, e.g., G. Cattermole, Visit to the 
Armourer, 101 guineas ; J. M. W. Turner, View 
in Italy, castle on a hill, and figures, 140 guineas. 
The dispersal of the extensive collection of 
objects of art formed by Mr. Robert Napier, and 
of which an admirable catalogue was compiled by 
Mr. (now Sir) J. C. Robinson, and privately 
printed at the Chiswick Press in 1865 ; it was 
illustrated with a view of West Shandon House, 
and with a general view of West Shandon from the 
Garelock. Mr. Napier (who was born in 1791 and 
who died in 1876), was President of the Institute of 
Mechanical Engineers, a J.P. and D.L., and a 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, and the son of 
a blacksmith. In 1823 he made his first marine 
engine, for a steamer plying between Dumbarton 
and Glasgow ; he was one of the originators of the 
Cunard Steamship Company. The Times of April 


9, 1877, contained the following excellent pre- 
liminary account of Mr. Napier's accumulations : 

" The Shandon collection, belonging to the 
late Mr. Robert Napier, the great iron ship- 
builder of Glasgow, so called from the name of 
the mansion which he built upon the banks of 
the Gaerlock, is now displayed at the rooms of 
Messrs. Christie, Manson and Woods, completely 
filling the three large galleries. This, however, is 
only the first portion of the enormous gathering 
of works of art of every kind which will be sold 
from time to time during the season until the 
middle of June. The pictures are numerous 
enough to cover the whole of the wall space of the 
galleries, some being of large size, and good ex- 
amples of the sort of decorative works that form a 
good background for objects of ornamental art, 
in which the collection is rich. All the schools 
seem to be pretty fully represented by names of 
masters, though the cognoscenti will probably find 
abundant material for discussion as to the attribu- 
tion of many of the examples, while there are some 
which may be accepted as true works of fair 
average quality. The catalogue informs us in 
several instances that the pictures have been in 
well-known collections, such as Lord Northwick's, 
Count Schoenbrun's, the Due de Bern's, and that 
of Cardinal Fesch. Those which were selected 
from the Art Treasures Exhibition at Manchester 
in 1857 are No. 648, a triptych, by Jande Mabuse, 
which came from the gallery of Count Palante, of 
Lisbon ; and No. 649, Virgin and Child, with 


window showing a wide landscape, which was also 
once attributed to Mabuse, but is now more rightly 
named as a work of Van Orley, according to Mr. 
G. Scharf s suggestion in his Art Treasures Cata- 
logue. There is also a masterpiece of its kind in 
the large water-colour drawing by Mr. Louis 
Haghe, the interior of the Audience Chamber in 
the Hotel de Ville at Bruges, with Margaret, 
Governess of the Netherlands, receiving the 
burghers of the city, which was exhibited with the 
Art Treasures of 1857. The Sevres, Dresden, and 
Oriental porcelain included in the first and second 
days' sale, is most of it good, and some examples 
are of unusually fine quality. Pieces which may be 
pointed out are the two Sevres plates belonging to 
a famous dinner service made for the Empress 
Catherine of Russia. These have a turquoise 
ground with border of cameo subjects, the centre 
painted with the cipher of the -Empress in floral 
design. These fine plates were exhibited by Mr. 
Napier in the Art Treasures Exhibition of 1857, 
and are believed to be the only pieces of the kind 
out of the Imperial cabinet. Five other very 
beautiful specimens of Sevres are similar to those 
belonging to the Queen's splendid service at 
Windsor Castle, which were originally acquired by 
George IV. These will be found in the corner 
cases of the entrance-room. There are some fine 
Chinese and Japanese vases and bottles, some of 
which are of the rare old " egg-shell " porcelain, 
and a pair of large flat-shaped vases, painted with 
hunting scenes and other subjects, with Kylins on 


the covers 27 inches high, may be noticed among 
the best pieces. The jade and other carvings in 
agate and crystal are remarkable for large size, 
good quality, and excellent work in this extremely 
hard material. The Wedgwood consists of several 
vases, with one of the Barberini vases in black and 
white, many medallions, and a tea and coffee-ser- 
vice of thirty-one pieces, ornamented with classical 
figures in relief, and borders of the acanthus and 
olive leaf." 

The following is a synopsis of the twenty days' 


s- d. 

April 11-20. Porcelain; French, Spanish, Italian, 
and Dutch pictures ; silver and silver-gilt ; 
enamels; bronzes; French decorative fur- 
niture; jade, and crystal . . 1,500 lots 34,340 9 o 


May 11-18. Miniatures; bijouterie; watches; 
snuffboxes; carvings in ivory and wood; 
gems; knives, forks, and spoons, with 
carved handles; oriental curiosities and 
bronzes, etc lots 1,501 2,321 9,473 10 o 


June 4-7. Venetian and other glass; Limoges 
enamel ; Hispano-Mauro, Palissy, Delia 
Robida, Cyprus, and other ware ; metal 
work and arms . . . lots 2,322 3,003 4,625 2 6 


June 1 1 -i 2. Ancient locks, keys, metal work, 
arms and accoutrements, and illuminated 
mi ssals 10153,0043,451 1,304 3 o 

^49,744 4 6 


The sale catalogue extends to 222 pages, and 
the following list, arranged in the order of dispersal, 
will be found to contain the more important items. 
Porcelain : A Capo di Monte bottle, painted with 
classical subjects, 6J- inches high, 50 guineas ; a 
fluted bowl of old Dresden, painted with battle 
subjects, 1 64 guineas; a pair of old Sevres square 
white jardinieres, painted with cupids in pink, by 
Michel, 1785,325 guineas ; a large cup and saucer 
of the same, green ground, painted with Cupid, 
1758, 105 guineas ; and five pieces of Sevres similar 
to Her Majesty's service at Windsor Castle, a tazza 
painted with subjects from Homer and Ovid, two 
circular dishes, and two seaux (one of the largest 
model), brought a total of 831 guineas. 

PICTURES : Palma Vecchio, Adoration of the 
Shepherds, 160 guineas ; S. Cantarini, the Saviour 
as a child of about eight years old, standing on a 
globe, 100 guineas; J. Van Huysum, Vase, with a 
bouquet of flowers on a marble slab, upon which is 
lying a group of fruit, 30 x 34, 320 guineas ; Rem- 
brandt, Portrait of the Burgomaster Six, in black 
dress, 24 x 20, 101 guineas, and Portrait of a lady, 
the companion picture, 105 guineas, both from Lord 
Northwick's collection ; A. Pynacker, River scene, 
with travellers and mules crossing a bridge, 
peasant carrying a woman through a pool of 
water, 20x20, 165 guineas; Ruysdael, Bleaching 
grounds near Haarlem, a cavalier and dogs on a 
road, 29 x 20, Smith's " Catalogue," Supplement 
No. 16, 125 guineas; D. Teniers, A Flemish 
Farmyard, with figures, animals, and buildings, on 


copper, 38 x 27, Smith's "Catalogue," Supplement 
No. 8, 80 guineas ; and G. Van der Eeckhout, 
Group of four portraits of children playing with a 
goat, signed, and dated 1667, 140 guineas; 
B. C. Koekkoek, A Forest Scene, morning effect, 
1 858, 36 x 25, 530 guineas, and a woody landscape, 
sunset effect, 600 guineas ; P. Van Schendel, 
Market Scene in Rotterdam, woman selling 
vegetables by candlelight, 205 guineas, and the 
companion picture, with a poultry-seller, 200 
guineas ; E. Verboeckhoven, Scotch sheep and 
collie dogs, view taken from the top of Ben 
Lomond looking down upon Loch Lomond, 365 
guineas ; Louis Haghe, Audience chamber in the 
Hotel de Ville at Bruges, with Margaret, Go- 
verness of the Netherlands, receiving the burghers 
of the city, in water colours, 1852, 66x46, 740 
guineas ; W. Mieris, Interior of a Kitchen, with a 
man giving a basket of fish, fowl and cabbage to a 
cook, 1736, 16x13, 75 guineas; Interior of a 
Grocer's Shop, the companion, 90 guineas, and 
Interior of an Eating House, 205 guineas; G. Van 
Aelst, Group of Fruit and a glass beaker, on a 
slab covered with red table cloth, 1659, 32 x 26, 
from the collection of Francois Zavier de Burtin, 
and described at length in his well-known work, 
210 guineas ; Paul Potter, Landscape, with cattle, 
sheep, and a horse, man in conversation with 
woman milking a cow, from the Willett Collection, 
but doubtfully genuine, 300 guineas ; Ruysdael, 
Mountainous landscape, with waterfall, cottage and 
figures, 49 x 38, signed, brought to England about 


1745 by Colonel Knight of Tiverton, and was 
purchased from the Knight family in 1845, 2 4 
guineas ; D. Teniers, The Smoker, interior of a 
Dutch cabaret, 13x9, 1 18 guineas, and The Card 
Players, group of four peasants playing cards in an 
alehouse, and two others at a fireplace, from the 
collection of Count Schoenbrun ; Jan de Mabuse, 
Triptych, centre with the Adoration of the Magi, 
and the two wings with the Virgin crowned and 
carrying Infant Christ, and the Pentecost (see 
p. 261), 495 guineas. 

DECORATIVE FURNITURE: A clock, in lyre-shaped 
case of old bleu-du-roi Sevres and ormolu, of the 
largest model, the pendulum surrounded by large 
pastes, 2,000 guineas; a pair of beautiful Louis XV. 
candelabra, formed as draped figures of nymphs 
supporting vases, with branches for three lights, 2 
feet high, 600 guineas; a Florentine mosaic casket of 
ebony, with five plaques of fruit and flowers in pietra 
dura, ^95 ; an old oak hall-bench, the back richly 
carved, Flemish work of the seventeenth century, 
155 guineas. A Wedgwood tea and coffee-service, 
thirty-one pieces, %2 ijs. 6d. OLD CHELSEA: 
a pair of large bell-shaped cups, painted with 
flowers on gold ground, 4 inches high ; a tall bulb- 
shaped bottle, pale blue, with vertical white stripes, 
12 inches high, ^27 ; a pair of flat-shaped bottles, 
painted with amorini and richly mounted with or- 
molu, 8f inches high, 85 guineas ; a beaker and 
cover, of rococo design, painted with bouquets of 
flowers on gold ground, ,107 ; an oviform vase, 
with rococo handles, crimson and white ground, 


painted with peacocks and foliage on gold ground, 
14 inches high, 130 guineas; a pair of oviform 
vases and covers, maroon and white, upon three 
terminal figures, 130 guineas, and a large vase 
with perforated cover, painted with the seasons on 
maroon and white ground, scroll work in high 
relief, 15!- inches high, ^200. ORIENTAL PORCE- 
LAIN : A pair of hexagonal eggshell vases, painted 
with landscapes and figures on pencilled gold 
ground, 23 inches high, ^100 ; a pair of large flat- 
shaped vases and covers, painted with landscapes, 
hunting, and other subjects, 27 inches high, ^125. 
JADE : A flat vase and cover, pale green, with 
mask and ring handles, birds, deer, and foliage, in 
high relief, ^"56 ; an octagonal vase and cover, 
with similar handles, carved with ornaments in 
high relief, 6\ ; a circular incense-burner and 
cover, ^44, and a large pear-shaped flat bottle, 
carved with foliage, ioj inches high, ^43. 
CRYSTALS : A large oval cup of rock crystal, on 
tall stem, mounted with silver and gold, and 
decorated with enamels, 175 guineas ; a ewer and 
salver of engraved rock-crystal, mounted with 
silver-gilt and enamel, ^132;, a chronometer, in 
silver case, by J. Harrison, 1770, being the dupli- 
cate of one for which the inventor received a 
reward of ,20,000 from the Board of Longitude, 
acquired from the granddaughter of the inventor by 
Mr. Napier, in 1869, with all the papers and 
drawings for its construction, 160 guineas ; a vase 
of old Oriental celadon porcelain, formed as two 
lotus flowers, with Louis XV. ormolu mounts, and 


lion's head and ring handles, 300 guineas. UR- 
BINO WARE: A large Faenza-ware dish, painted 
in the centre with the Judgment of Paris, dated 
1527, 18 inches diameter, 94 guineas; a lustred 
plate by Maestro Giorgio, painted with Vulcan 
forging arrows for Cupid, roj inches diameter, 
signed, and dated 1527, 40 guineas; and a ruby- 
lustred Gubbio-ware dish by the same, painted in 
the centre with the Infant John the Baptist, 
i2j inches diameter, ^25, and another by the 
same, painted with the Judgment of Solomon, 
ioj inches diameter, 60 guineas. MAJOLICA : An 
oblong plaque, painted with the Temptation, after 
the print by Marc Antonio, after Raffaelle, date 
1523, 10 x 7^-, 106 ; a small deep Gubbio-ware 
lustred plate by Maestro Giorgio, painted with the 
Prodigal Son, in the style of Diirer, 8f inches 
diameter, signed, and dated 1528, ^40 ; a Gubbio- 
ware plate by the same, painted with Apollo and 
Daphne, lof inches diameter, 1529, 60. UR- 
BINO WARE : A lustred plate by Fra Xanto, 
painted with /Eneas bearing Anchises from Troy, 
signed, and inscribed, dated 1532, loj- inches 
diameter, 55 guineas ; a plaque with the Infant 
Christ and Virgin in Glory, surrounded by angels, 
IQX 8, 60 ; a large plateau, by Fra Xanto, with 
the battle of Darius against Gobrius, dated 1536, 
1 7 J inches, 60 guineas ; and a triangular salver, 
with raised masks and ornaments, painted with a 
mythological subject, 180 guineas. 

Mr. Robert Vernon's collection of historical 
portraits, removed from Harley Park, Cambridge- 


shire, and sold on April 2ist, 1877, possesses an 
interest apart from the sale, inasmuch as Mr. 
Vernon was the generous donor to the National 
Gallery of the magnificent collection of the works 
of modern artists which bears his name, and on 
which he is said to have spent ^150,000. Mr. 
Vernon, who was born in 1775, and who died in 
1849, was a successful breeder of horses, and is 
perhaps the only instance on record in which a 
man of this calling has so generously patronized 
art. The sale in 1877 contained 100 portraits and 
about twenty miniatures, and as the whole only 
realized the total of ,6,575 los. 6d., the collection 
was not of a very sensational character. The fol- 
lowing were the more important: Janet, Gaston 
de Foix, in black cap with feathers, crimson vest 
and green cloak, 225 guineas ; Sir Peter Lely, 
Catherine of Braganza, wife of Charles II., 67 
guineas ; Lord Grandison in crimson dress and 
scarf, with lace collar and sleeves, 100 guineas; 
and the Marquis of Spinola, in rich armour, 101 
guineas ; Zucchero, Robert Dudley, Earl of Lei- 
cester, in rich crimson dress with the order of 
St. Esprit, 190 guineas ; Vandyck, Count Tully, 
commander of the Imperialists at the storming 
of Prague, in armour with the Golden Fleece, 1 50 
guineas ; W. Van de Velde, a Sea Piece, with 
men-of-war and boats, 155 guineas ; Van der Meer 
of Delft (catalogued as by Metzu) Interior, lady 
opening window, 385 guineas ; A. Watteau, Fete 
Champetre, a composition of seven figures, 100 
guineas ; M. Hondekoeter, water-fowl and other 


birds, in a landscape, 190 guineas; Jordaens, 
Portrait of a Burgomaster, in black dress and ruff, 
190 guineas, and the portrait of the Burgomaster's 
wife, 170 guineas; Sir Edwin Landseer, Lady 
Catherine Douglas, hawking, 355 guineas ; P. 
Nasmyth, Carisbrook Castle, signed and dated 
1826, 530 guineas ; J. P. de Loutherbourg, View 
in Wales, with Castle on the banks of a stream, 
125 guineas ; F. R. Lee, Mill in Devonshire, 115 
guineas ; C. Stanfield, Mouth of the Tees, signed 
and dated 580 guineas ; and W. Collins, the 
Mariner's Widow, 1835, 305 guineas. 

Unquestionably the great picture sale of 1877 was 
that of the Kensington House Gallery formed by 
Baron Albert Grant, the well-known financier, at 
one time M.P. for Kidderminster, who purchased 
and presented Leicester Square to the public. 
The sale took place on April 27th and 28th. 
There were in all 205 pictures and drawings, which 
produced the handsome total of ,98,477 8s. Baron 
Grant had in 1868 (June 2Oth) offered a number of 
modern pictures for sale, but a good many of them 
were bought in. 

The more important works now sold were the 
following : R. Ansdell, The Wounded Ram, 
59 x 42, 515 guineas ; Scotch Sheep, 47 x 73, 525 
guineas ; The Road to Seville, 31 x 100, 660 
guineas ; The Favourite Calf, 26 x 47, 420 guineas ; 
Outside the Cover, 59x41, 540 guineas; Goat- 
herds, Gibraltar, 48 x 74, 720 guineas ; and a work, 
the joint production of Ansdell and Frith, My 
Lady's Pets, 30 x 24, 240 guineas ; T. Brooks, 


The Lifeboat, 38 x 63, 155 guineas; Pleasing 
Reflections, 37 x 59, 273 guineas; J. Burr, A 
Toyseller, 28 x 22, 125 guineas; Lady Butler 
(Miss Thompson), Tito Melema, 34 x 24, 370 
guineas; P. H. Calderon, Young Lord Hamlet, 
34 x 54, 330 guineas; The Virgin's Bower, 72 x 
46, 670 guineas ; Lovers on a Garden Seat, 27 x 
35, 270 guineas, and the Queen of the Tournament, 
55 x 42, 610 guineas; Sir A. W. Callcott, a 
classical Landscape, 27 x 42, 610 guineas (from the 
Wells and Hargreaves collections, in the latter of 
which, 1873, it realized 620 guineas) ; W. Collins, 
Le Bon Cure, 27 x 35, 470 guineas (from the Knott 
sale of 1 845, when it was known as The Peacemaker 
and realized 260 guineas : it is said to have cost 
^700) ; and The Venturesome Robin, 27 x 36, 800 
guineas (the price at which it was sold in the Farn- 
worth collection, 1874) ; E.W.Cooke, Dutch Pinks: 
Scheveningen Beach, 31x48, 460 guineas, and 
Dream of Venice, 200 guineas ; T. S. Cooper, 
November, 47 x 72, 1873, 650 guineas; Children 
of the Mist, 47 x 78, 510 guineas (cost 750 guineas), 
and Guardian of the Herd, 47 x 71, 620 guineas ; 
David Cox, Haddon Hall : Rook Shooting, from 
the Dawes collection, i7f x iif, 380 guineas ; T. 
Creswick, First Glimpse of Sea, windmill by the 
shore, the sheep by Ansdell, and figures by Phillip, 
exhibited in 1852, from the Manley Hall collec- 
tion, 36 x 59, 1,050 guineas, in 1883, when 
again sold, this picture realized 1,250 guineas, 
the purchaser being Mr. Martin Holloway ; 
and St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall, 44 x 71, 


with figures by Ansdell, from the same collec- 
tion (2,000 guineas), 1,350 guineas ; H. W. B. 
Davis, a Brittany Lane, 59 x 47, 540 guineas; 
W. C. T. Dobson, The Nativity, 32 x 48, 250 
guineas ; Tobias and Raphael, and angel journey- 
ing to Media, 38 x 40, 250 guineas ; Abraham and 
Hagar, from Manley Hall, 41 x 34, 350 guineas, 
and Flower Girl, Dresden, 24 x 20, 410 guineas ; 
W. Dyce, George Herbert at Bemerton, 34 x 44, 
1,040 guineas this was purchased in 1861 by Sam 
Mendel for 710 guineas ; and The Garden of Geth- 
semane, from the Farnworth sale, 370 guineas ; A. 
Elmore, Life in Algiers, 35 x 27, 510 guineas, and 
Charles V. at the Convent of Yuste,from the Mendel 
collection, 65 x 47, 1,200 guineas; William Etty, 
Pluto carrying off Prosperine, 50 x 78, 710 guineas 
(Gillott sale, 1,000 guineas); W. P. Frith, "I Know 
a Maiden Fair to See," 30 x 25, 250 guineas ; The 
Miniature, 47 x 39, 360 guineas ; Sterne's Maria, 
from Manley Hall, 44 x 30, 500 guineas ; Hope and 
Fear, a companion pair, 32 x 29, 610 guineas ; The 
Crossing Sweeper, 1 7 x 13, 300 guineas; My Lady's 
Pets, the animals by Ansdell, 240 guineas (cost 700 
guineas), and Before Dinner at Boswell's Lodgings 
in Bond Street, 38 x 59, 3,050 guineas, at the 
Manley Hall sale three years previously this picture, 
for which the artist received ,1,200, sold for 4,350 
guineas ; W. E. Frost, The Sea Cave, 16 x 18, 220 
guineas; Sir John Gilbert, Charles I. leaving West- 
minster Hall after the sentence of death, 4 7 x 72,640 
guineas ; F. Goodall, Head of the House at Prayer, 
34 x 95, 1,150 guineas, and Hunt the Slipper, 530 


guineas ; Peter Graham, On the Sutherland Coast, 
12 x 17, 210 guineas; A Rainy Day, horses and 
boy at an Inn door in a Scotch mist, 47 x 72, 760 
guineas ; and a Highland Croft, landscape and 
cattle, 47 x 72, 610 guineas (cost Mr. Grant 1,100 
guineas) ; Keeley Halswelle, Lo Sposalizio, 62 x 98, 
800 guineas; F. D. Hardy, A Wedding Breakfast, 

34 x 38, 760 guineas, and A Quartette Party, 
29 x 40, 760 guineas; J. R. Herbert, The Holy 
Family, 40 x 62, 450 guineas ; J. E. Hodgson, 
Army Organization, Morocco The Awkward 
Squad, 32 x 59, 380 guineas; J. C. Hook, Are 
Chimney Sweeps always Black? 28 x 43, 1,120 
guineas ; A Dream of Venice, 18 x 1 1, 200 guineas, 
and Sea Earnings, 30x55, 1,060 guineas; J. C. 
Horsley, Stolen Glances, 39x31, 400 guineas; 
W. Holman Hunt, The Saviour in the Temple, 
17 x 27, study for the large picture, 1,350 guineas ; 
Sir E. Landseer, Portrait of Sir Walter Scott, 
32jxi9|-, 510 guineas this portrait, for which 
Mr. Grant paid 160 guineas, was one of two 
purchased by him at the artist's sale in 1874, the 
second portrait Mr. Grant presented to the 
National Portrait Gallery; A Highland Lassie, 

35 x 27, 590 guineas ; The Otter Hunt, engraved 
by C. G. Lewis, 76 x 60, 5,650 guineas Mr. Grant 
is said to have given ,10,000 for this celebrated 
masterpiece, which was painted for Lord Aber- 
deen; and The Lady's Horse (Prosperity, 27 x 35), 
and the Cabman's Horse (Adversity), 1,410 guineas, 
and 1,430 guineas respectively. B. W. Leader, A 
Bright Night: Goring-on-Thames, 1873, 36x50, 

I. T 


420 guineas, and English Cottage Houses, 35 x 53, 
430 guineas ; Sir F.Leighton,Lady and Pomegran- 
ate, 34 x 25, 765 guineas ; C. R. Leslie, Hermione, 
30 x 19, 350 guineas; and Falstaff Personating 
the King, 46 x 54, 1,450 guineas; J. Linnell, 
Collecting the Flock, 28 x 39, 550 guineas ; Milk- 
ing Time, 35 x 55, 1866, 1,330 guineas (Eden 
sale, 1874, 1,105 guineas); Grand Welsh Land- 
scape, 1863, 38 x 53, 1,450 guineas, from the Man- 
ley Hall collection, said to have cost Mr. Grant 
^2,oco ; and Balaam and the Angel, 19 x 27, 450 
guineas at the Farn worth sale in 1874 this fetched 
500 guineas ; J. T. Linnell, Opening the Gate, 
29 x 45, 630 guineas ; E. Long, Madrid, or Liberty 
of Creed, priests discussing with the people in the 
streets, 55 x 84, 600 guineas ; D. Maclise, Oberon 
and Titania, 50x40, 350 guineas; H. S. Marks, 
The Adjutant, stork with black wings, 53 x 26, 190 
guineas ; The Sentinel, stork with red wings and 
legs, same size, 230 guineas ; St. Francis preaching 
to the Birds, 58x48, i,ico guineas for this Mr. 
Grant paid 1,500 guineas ; and Doctors Differ, 
36 x 28, 230 guineas; Sir J. E. Millais, Winter 
Fuel, 76 x 57, 1,700 guineas; Scotch Firs, 73 x 55, 
1,750 guineas ; Knight Errant and Lady, 72 x 53, 
1,450 guineas; and Victory O Lord! Exodus 
xvii. 10-12, Royal Academy, 1871, 75 x 54, 1,950 
guineas ; W. J. M tiller, The Opium Dealer, 
34 x 26, 470 guineas ; and, Entering the Temple 
of Osiris at Philae, 29 x 52, 2,200 guineas (Cope 
sale, 1872, 1,910 guineas); H. O'Neil, Last 
Moments of Raffaelle, from the Manley Hall sale, 


1,010 guineas; Sir J. Noel Paton, The " Bluidie 
Tryste," 28 x 26, 470 guineas ; J. Phillip, Spanish 
Flower Seller, 34 x 27, 1,800 guineas ; La Lotteria 
Nacional, 51 x 65, 3,000 guineas (both from the 
Manley Hall Gallery), and Scotch Baptism, 1,500 
guineas; P. F. Poole, Mother and Child, 12 x 8, 
290 guineas ; D. Roberts, View of Jerusalem, 
47 x 84, 315 guineas ; James Sant, Girl holding a 
peach in each hand, in front of a peach tree, the 
celebrated picture, 45 x 33, 500 guineas ; C. Stan- 
field, Lago di Garda, 27x42, 1,455 guineas (at 
the Bicknell sale, 1863, this sold for 820 guineas, 
and is said to have cost Mr. Grant 2,000 guineas); 
The Morning of the Wreck, the engraved picture 
painted for E. Bicknell, 2,550 guineas (this picture 
sold for 2,800 guineas in 1872) ; Battle of Rove- 
redo, 71 x 108, from Manley Hall, 2,400 guineas 
(see also p. 324) ; and Eddystone Lighthouse, 
71 x 108, 750 guineas (at the Dickens sale in 1870 
this realized 990 guineas) ; H. Wallis, Death of 
Chatterton, 7x10, study for the large picture, 150 
guineas (Mendel sale, 1875, 260 guineas) ; E. M. 
Ward, Charles II. and Lady Russell, 50 x 59, 
800 guineas ; The Last Sleep of Argyle, 57 x 65, 
900 guineas ; The Last Scene of Montrose, 56 x 64, 
800 guineas these two are from the Manley Hall 
collection, and are the pictures from which the 
well-known engravings were executed ; and Jose- 
phine Signing the act of her Divorce, 51 x 64, 950 
guineas ; Sir David Wilkie, The Penny Wedding, 
23 x 24 "a false imitation," according to Mr. 
Redford 342 guineas (from the Gillott sale) ; and 


Napoleon and the Pope: Pius VII. signing the 
Concordat which secured the religious liberties of 
France, 98 x 78, 1,800 guineas the well-known 
picture painted for the late James Marshall, of 
Leeds, subsequently in the Manley Hall collection, 
from which it was purchased privately ; Wilkie 
received 500 guineas for it. 

The few drawings to which special reference 
may be made are as follows : G. Cattermole, The 
Baron's Hall, 25 x 34, 285 guineas (at the Heugh 
sale, in 1874, it sold for 420 guineas); Louis Haghe, 
Interior of Milan Cathedral, 26 x 28, 205 guineas ; 
James Holland, Rotterdam, 105 guineas ; W. 
Hunt, Grace before Meat, 370 guineas; and 
Summer Flowers and Fruit, 380 guineas (cost Mr. 
Grant 500 guineas). 

The third art-sale event of 1877 was the dis- 
persal of the water-colour drawings collected by 
Mr. John Knowles, of Manchester. The sale 
took place on May iQth, and the 100 lots 
realized the total (excluding articles bought in) of 
,13,916 19^. 6d. A large number of the drawings 
were bought in, and were again offered in 1880, 
with the results we have indicated in parentheses. 
The more important of these were the following : 
G. Barrett, Sunset, 12 x 20, 175 guineas ; S. Bough, 
Sands at Whitchurch, sunrise, 20 x 26, 142 guineas; 
Sir F. W. Burton, The Young Scholar, i6x 12, 
330 guineas (this was bought in and offered again 
in 1 880, when it fetched only 1 20 guineas) ; and The 
Turret Stair, 37 x 24, 635 guineas ; G. Cattermole, 
Salvator sketching the banditti amongst ruins of 


an ancient temple, 21 x 30, 405 guineas ; T. S. 
Cooper, Canterbury Meadows, 20 x 28,215 guineas; 
and Sheep, 13x17, 140 guineas; David Cox, 
Windsor Castle, lox 14, 155 guineas ; The River 
Conway, 9x13, 140 guineas; Stacking Hay, 
9x13, 265 guineas ; The Junction of the Llugwy 
and Conway, 29 x 40, 790 guineas ; Bolsover 
Castle, 1 8 x 24, 410 guineas; and Shepherds 
gathering Flocks, 21 x 20, 375 guineas the last 
two works were bought in, and when sold in 1 880 
respectively fetched 160 guineas and 170 guineas ; 
P. de Wint, Lowther Castle, sheep and figures, 
27x41, 625 guineas; E. Duncan, Shrimp boats, 
Gravesend, with rainbow, 30x22, 325 guineas; 
Copley Fielding, Loch Lomond, 14x19, 255 
guineas ; Vessels in a Breeze, 14 x 19, 300 guineas ; 
Landscape with cattle and figures, 22x30, 380 
guineas ; and The Clyde and Arran, 17 x 30, 620 
guineas ; Birket Foster, Oxford from the Thames, 
13 x 28, 380 guineas; Landscape in Surrey, 12 x 29, 
325 guineas; and The Chair Mender, 16x24, 
310 guineas the last two were bought in, and 
again offered in 1880 when they respectively 
fetched 235 guineas and 180 guineas; Sir John 
Gilbert, Jean d'Arc, and the Bodies of Talbot and 
his son, 19 x 26, 259 guineas ; Scene from " Henry 
the Fifth," lox 16, no guineas; and Rubens in 
his Studio, 29 x 24, 400 guineas the two latter 
were bought in and sold in 1880 for 95 guineas 
and 285 guineas respectively ; F. Goodall, Palm 
Offering, 27 x 19, 525 guineas ; and Raising the 
Maypole, 11x18, 320 guineas bought in and 


sold in 1880 for 180 guineas ; Louis Haghe, 
Transept of the Cathedral at Tournay, 29x22, 
240 guineas ; J. D. Harding, Marseilles, 22x35, 
265 guineas ; J. R. Herbert, The Bedouin's 
Home, 13x22, 145 guineas; W. Hunt, Flower 
Girl, 14x10, no guineas; Quinces, plums, and 
blackberries, 9x11, 330 guineas; and Flowers 
and plums, 8x12, 200 guineas ; Sir E. Landseer, 
Arrest of the False Herald, the engraved vignette 
to " Quentin Durward," 8x7, 190 guineas ; J. F. 
Lewis, Greeting in the Desert, 14 x 19, 330 
guineas; Curiosity Shop, Venice, 19x25, 325 
guineas ; and the Giralda, Seville, 33 x 26, 505 
guineas the last two were bought in and sold in 
1880 for 105 guineas and 1 15 guineas respectively ; 
John Linnell, Boy herding Sheep, 9x12, 155 
guineas; and Windsor Forest, 10 x 15, 250 
guineas ; Sir J. E. Millais, The Vale of Rest, 
5x8, 1 02 guineas (at the Heugh sale in 1878 this 
sold for 200 guineas) ; W. J. Muller, The Acro- 
polis, Athens, 12x19, 4 2 guineas (1880, 160 
guineas) ; S. Prout, Wreck on the Betsy Cains, 
25x38, 112 guineas; and Nuremberg, 25x19, 
47oguineas(i88o, 250 guineas); T. M. Richardson, 
Road to Tivoli, 26 x 40, 195 guineas; D. Roberts, 
St. Bavon, 12x8, 101 guineas; and St. Pierre, 
Caen, 17x13, 230 guineas; C. Stanfield, Lago 
Maggiore, 9x13, 190 guineas ; Portsmouth, 8x12, 
the engraved work, 192 guineas; and Off Fort 
Rouge, 13x19, 370 guineas; F. Tayler, Fern 
Gatherers, 16x22, 260 guineas ; F. W. Topham, 
Spanish Gipsies, i6x 19, 205 guineas; and The 


Gipsy Toilet, 30x20, 475 guineas; J. M. W. 
Turner, Lake Nemi, 16x22, 270 guineas (from the 
Heughsale, 1 874, 2 50 guineas) ; Leeds, 12 x 17,320 
guineas (1880, 325 guineas) ; Wharfdale, 11 x 16, 
from the collection of C. Stanfield, 370 guineas 
(i88o,9Oguineas); Tintagel Castle, Cornwall, 7 x 10, 
also from the same collection, in the "England and 
Wales" series, 380 guineas ; Welsh Coast, near 
Flint Castle, 9 x 13, engraved, 420 guineas 
(1880, 295 guineas) ; Orfordness, 1 1 x 16, engraved 
in the same series, 375 guineas (1880, 355 guineas) ; 
Richmond Hill, 12 x 19, unfinished, 315 guineas; 
The First Steamer on the Thames, with view of 
the Tower of London, 12 x 17, 766 guineas; and 
Nottingham, with the double rainbow, also en- 
graved in the above-mentioned series, 12x18, 
1,100 guineas ; F. Walker, The Fish-shop, 8x12, 
215 guineas (bought in at the Knowles' sale in 
1865 for 220 guineas). In addition to the fore- 
going works of English artists, there were two 
drawings by Rosa Bonheur, Driving Cattle, 
15 x 25, 1 80 guineas, and The Forest of Fontaine- 
bleau, 14 x 25, 360 guineas. 

Two other important picture sales occurred in 
June of this year, the earlier of which, the Novar 
collection of drawings and vignettes by Turner, 
will be found grouped with the Munro sale of 
1878 ; whilst that of the following week, June 9th, 
comprised pictures from a number of sources. 
The most interesting item in this day's sale, 
Landseer's portrait of Sir Walter Scott, painted 
for the late W. Wells of Redleaf, has already been 


alluded to (see p. 158). The sale included the 
following pictures : R. Ansdell, Lost, and Found, 
a pair, 200 guineas; and The Goatherd, with 
a view of Gibraltar, 350 guineas on March i2th, 
1 88 1, the former sold for 205 guineas, and the 
latter for 310 guineas; L. Alma Tadema, A 
Flemish Interior, thirteenth century, an early work 
of the artist, 200 guineas ; Colin Hunter, With 
Stream and Tide, 260 guineas ; Peter Graham, A 
Misty Morning in the Highlands, 350 guineas ; and 
Homewards, 320 guineas; I. Israels, Waiting, 
fisherman's wife looking anxiously towards a win- 
dow, 330 guineas ; T. S. Cooper, Goatherd on 
Nivel Siabad, North Wales, 460 guineas; W. 
Collins, Landscape and figures, with grey pony, 
and Chichester Cathedral in the distance, 1821, 
565 guineas (bought in, in 1876, for 750 guineas) ; 
Edouard Frere, Washing Day, 1870, 245 guineas ; 
H. Merle, Hagar and Ishmael, 615 guineas; T. 
Webster, Summer, a hayfield with figures, 400 
guineas ; and Winter, the companion, 305 guineas ; 
W. P. Frith, La Marchande des Fleurs, Boulogne, 
375 guineas; Sir J. E. Millais, James I. of Scot- 
land, with lady in deep blue dress caressing a 
hand held over a wall, 1859, 600 guineas; C. 
Stanfield, Tintagel Castle, 870 guineas ; W. M tiller, 
Prayer in the Desert, 1843, a lunette-shaped 
picture, 530 guineas; G. Morland, The Horse 
Fair, 345 guineas ; and The Fruit of Early In- 
dustry and Economy, a family portrait-piece en- 
graved by W. Ward, 555 guineas; E. W. Cooke, 
Danish craft on the Elbe, low water, 700 guineas ; 


Rosa Bonheur, Deer in the Forest of Fontaine- 
bleau, 26 x 18, 850 guineas ; W. Van de Velde, A 
Fresh Breeze, 455 guineas (at the Lucy sale in 
1875 this sold for 650 guineas) ; and A Calm, with 
boatmen, a jetty and ships, 18x22, 1,500 guineas ; 
J. Van der Heyden, View in a Dutch town, with 
figures, 16x22, 280 guineas. The water-colour 
drawings in this sale included D. Cox, Lancaster 
Sands, 245 guineas ; and Tivoli, 345 guineas (from 
the Allnutt sale, 1867, 150 guineas) ; Copley 
Fielding, Off the Scotch Coast, 290 guineas ; W. 
Hunt, Roses and Birds' Nests, 240 guineas ; and 
J. M. W. Turner, Sidmouth, 175 guineas. 

A brief mention may be made here of the sale, 
on May 7th, of the portraits and sketches of the 
late Sir Henry Raeburn, 49 lots realizing the 
total of ,4,707 I2s. id., and included Portrait of 
Sir W. Scott, 310 guineas; a Portrait of the 
Artist, 510 guineas ; Lady Raeburn, 950 guineas ; 
Mrs. Hamilton, 225 guineas ; Portrait of the artist's 
son on a grey pony, 4 1 o gui neas ; Boy with cherries, 
240 guineas ; and Study of a Child, 285 guineas. 

A sale under similar circumstances of the sketches 
and pictures of the late J. F. Lewis took place on 
May 4th, 5th and 7th, when 530 lots brought a 
total of ,3,372, and included the following draw- 
ings : Hosh of the artist's house, Cairo, 310 
guineas ; and The Gorieh, 300 guineas. 

Several important collections of porcelain came 
under the hammer during this year, notably the 
Dresden china of the Due de Forli, which brought, 
on March ist, a total of 4,221 i^s. for 134 lots, 


among which were : a lady in a hooped petticoat 
with two pet dogs, 2 1 5 ; a pair of bulls attacked 
by dogs, 6J in. high, ^195 ; a pair of busts of 
Count Bruhl's children, richly coloured, with 
daisies, 70 guineas ; a pair of Louis XV. candle- 
sticks of scroll design, richly gilt, 100 ; a fine 
coffee-pot and cover, painted with river scene and 
figures, 100 guineas ; an oval verriere, with handles 
formed as eagle's head, festoons of flowers in high 
relief in colours, ^135 ; and a beautiful ecuelle, 
cover and stand, with dolphin handles, May-flower 
ground, painted with medallions of watteau figures 
on each side, the arms of the Dauphin of France 
in relief in each side of the lid, ^305. 

The collection of Wedgwood ware, formed by the 
late Francis Sibson, M.D., F.R.S., the physician of 
Brook Street, was one of the most complete of its 
kind ever brought together. The two days' sale of 
319 lots, March ;th and 8th, realized ,7,473 iSs. 6d. 
We can only mention a few of the higher priced 
articles : A vase, blue jasper, with Hercules 
in the garden of the Hesperides, by Flaxman, 
from an Etruscan vase, 14 in. high, 115 guineas; 
another with cupids by Lady Diana Beauclerk, 
96 guineas ; the companion vase with the Infant 
Academy of Reynolds, 100 ; a secretaire of satin 
wood, with plaques of the Marlborough gems, and 
two upright plaques of Sappho and Flora, 180 
guineas ; a small table of Coromandel wood, inlaid 
with Wedgwood plaque and eight small oval 
medallions, ^150; a pair of oviform vases, blue 
jasper, with Flaxman's 4< Blind Man's Buff," and 


Venus in her car with cupids, 11 in. high, 1 10 
guineas; and a magnificent vase in black jasper, 
with serpent handles and Medusa heads, bands of 
Greek ornament in white, the body having a relief 
of the Apotheosis of Homer, with palm trees 
on reverse side, 25 inches high, 700 guineas. 
Another portion of the Bohn porcelain came under 
the hammer in March of this year. 

The great art sale of 1878 was that of the 
famous Novar collection, formed by the late H. 
A. J. Munro, the intimate friend and executor of 
Turner, of Novar, Scotland. Mr. Munro was a 
son of Sir Alexander Munro, was born in the last 
three or four years of the last century, and died in 
1865, when Novar passed into the female line, now 
represented by the Munro-Fergusons of Raith, 
Kircaldy, Fifeshire. Mr. Munro Ferguson, M.P., 
writes : " He spent the greater part of his life in 
collecting pictures, most of which were kept in 
his house, now removed, which formed the cnl de 
sac that was opened up to make Hamilton Place, 
about twenty years ago. He had a contract with 
Turner at the rate of ^500 for his larger pictures, 
of which he possessed sixteen, besides a large 
number of drawings. Turner used to be a good 
deal at Novar, and also Landseerand other artists. 

"While most of Novar came to Colonel Fer- 
guson as heir in tail, the pictures went to Mr. H. 
Munro Butler Johnston, his nephew, by whom they 
were sold." 

The dispersal took place on Saturday, April 


But before dealing with this sale it is necessary 
to notice that of the Turner drawings and vig- 
nettes, which was held on June 2nd, 1877, when 
fifty-five lots brought ^24,486 us. Of the 
twenty-four vignettes engraved for the 1834 
edition of Scott's poetical works we may 
mention Smallholme Tower, 205 guineas ; 
Johnnie Armstrong's Tower, 380 guineas; Her- 
mitage Castle, 1 60 guineas; Caerlavroch Castle, 
200 guineas ; Fingal's Cave, 1 10 guineas ; 
and Mayborough, King Arthur's Round Table, 
100 guineas. The drawings and vignettes en- 
graved for Scott's prose works, published in 1834, 
included Dryden's Tomb in Westminster Abbey, 
46 guineas ; Dumbarton, one of the smallest, 3 x 2|-, 

285 guineas; Brussels, 180 guineas; Norham 
Castle, 385 guineas; New Abbey near Dumfries, 
1 80 guineas; Vincennes, 140 guineas; Mal- 
maison's vignette, 126 guineas ;~Dunfermline, with 
rainbow and water-wheel in the foreground, 385 
guineas ; Craigmillar Castle, ^"204 ; Killiecrankie, 
200 guineas ; Rouen, 250 guineas ; Abbeville, 265 
guineas ; Winchelsea, with soldiers and baggage- 
waggon, 5x8, 620 guineas ; Corinth from the 
Acropolis, 305 guineas, and the Temple of Minerva, 
Cape Colonna, 120 guineas, both engraved by 
Finden for Byron's poems ; Havre, engraved in 
" The Rivers of France," 121 \ the Trial of the 
Ring, 95 guineas ; The Chaplet, 66 ; and The 
Garden, 140 guineas these three vignettes en- 
graved for Moore's " Epicurean." The engrav- 
ings to Milton's poetical works included the Ex- 


pulsion from Paradise, 134 guineas ; Mustering of 
the Warrior Angels, 100 guineas; Fall of the 
Rebel Angels, 140 guineas; the Temptation on 
the Mountain, 80 guineas ; Temptation on the 
Pinnacle of the Temple, 105 guineas; St. Michael's 
Mount, scene of the shipwreck of Lycidas, 185 
guineas ; Ludlow Castle, with fairy figures from 
" Comus," 220 guineas. The larger drawings in- 
cluded Rhigi, effect of sunrise, 12 x 18,630 guineas; 
Lucerne, moonlight effect, 1 1 J x i8f, 850 guineas ; 
Nantes, with figures on the quay and bridge, 
iifxi7^, 780 guineas; St. Germain-en- Laye, 
i if x 13, 350 guineas; Marly, with trees and 
figures, 1 1 J x 1 6f, 400 guineas ; Northampton Elec- 
tion, with figures, njx 17^, 210 guineas; Bridge 
at Narni, engraved in Hakewill's " Picturesque 
Tour in Italy," 1820, signed by the artist, 5^ x 
8|-, 590 guineas. The " England and Wales" series 
included Criccieth Castle, 1 1^ x i6f, 620 guineas ; 
Kenilworth, njxi7j, 1,205 guineas; Kidwelly 
Castle, njx 17!, 6 10 guineas; Lancaster Sands, 
1 1|- x 1 6, 840 guineas ; Leicester Abbey, 1 1 x 18, 
620 guineas; Bedford, I3fxi9j, 480 guineas; 
Carnarvon Castle, with girls bathing from a boat, 
ii x i6|-, 760 guineas; Chatham, from Fort Pitt, 
nJxiS, 450 guineas; Christ Church, Oxford, 
i if x i6j, 405 guineas ; Coventry, sunlight effect 
on three churches, a storm, n^x 17!-, 1,030 
guineas; Louth Horse Fair, i ij- x i6|-, 410 guineas; 
Richmond Terrace, with view of river and figures, 
njxi7j, 410 guineas; Valle Crucis Abbey, 
1 i^ x 1 6^, 875 guineas ; and Whitehaven, sunlight 


effect on hills and stormy sea, 12^x8^, 740 
guineas. There were also the Lighthouse, Lowes- 
toft, 105 guineas; and Orford Haven, 180 guineas. 
The greater of the two Novar sales took place 
on April 6th, 1878, when 104 lots fetched 
,73,518 js. 6d. We take the liberty of quoting 
the preliminary notice of the sale which appeared 
in The Times of April 4th : " The fine pictures by 
Turner belonging to the late Mr. Munro, who was 
his intimate friend and executor, forming what has 
long been known as the Munro collection, but 
which has lately taken the name of ' Novar' 
that of Mr. Munro's place in Scotland are now 
exhibited at the rooms of Messrs. Christie, Man- 
son and Woods, previous to the sale on Saturday. 
The collection has always been at the house in 
Hamilton Place, Piccadilly, but when that was 
pulled down in making the new road they were 
removed to the Pantechnicon, where they remained 
for some years until the present time. As now 
exhibited, this extremely interesting collection, 
however, is not quite what it was during Mr. 
Munro's lifetime. Two of the most beautiful pic- 
tures were sold in i860, 1 the Ostend, and the 
Approach to Venice ; and the Modern Italy was 

1 The sale on March 24th, 1860, included three pictures by 
Turner : The Grand Canal, Venice, 2,400 guineas, which at 
the Mendel sale in 1875 realized 7,000 guineas, the purchaser 
being Mr. Agnew, who afterwards sold it to Lord Dudley at an 
advance of ten per cent. ; Ostend, stormy sea, 1,650 guineas, 
and Neapolitan Bathers Surprised, moonlight effect, 215 guineas. 
The sale also included R. Wilson's Rome from the Villa Ma- 
donna, 370 guineas, and Niobe, 155 guineas, 


parted with in 1867,' but was soon afterwards, in 
the following year, bought back again by Mr. 
Butler Johnston, and now appears among its 
fellows. It is remarkable of these sales that such 
high prices were realized that Mr. Munro actually 
gained more by the Ostend and the Venice 
which sold, the first for ,1,732 ios., and the latter 
for "2,520 than he paid Turner for all his pictures 
and water-colour drawings. But, strange to say, 
in repurchasing the Modern Italy from Mr. Fal- 
lows' sale, a profit of more than ,500 was paid, 
the picture having been sold in the Munro sale for 
3,465, and bringing only 2,961 afterwards in 
the Fallows sale. The Venice, it will be remem- 
bered, was sold at the sale of Mr. Mendel's collec- 
tion, in 1875, for 7,350, and passed into the 
gallery of Lord Dudley. The greatest interest 

' In 1867, May nth and i6th, the Turners included: Scene 
on the River Maas, with females bathing, 1,270 guineas; Cicero 
at his Villa at Tusculum, 1,470 guineas (Lord Powerscourt) 
this picture was again put up for sale in 1881, but was bought 
in at i, 800 guineas ; Loch Katrine, 555 guineas ; Modern Italy, 
3,300 guineas, which, at the 1878 sale, passed into the posses- 
sion of the late David Price, and was again sold after his death 
in 1892 for 5,200 guineas, and The Wreck Buoy, 1,500 guineas. 
This sale of 1867 also included a Gainsborough, Portrait of a 
lady in a pink dress, 555 guineas; three works by Hogarth, of 
which only one was sold, the Portrait of Miss Rae, Lord 
Sandwich's mistress, 525 guineas (which at the Addington sale 
in i885 sold for only 66 guineas); three Portraits by G. 
Romney, Fanny Reynolds (Sir Joshua's sister) in straw hat and 
pink ribbons, 135 guineas ; a Lady in ablack dress lined with pink, 
145 guineas, and Miss Liddell (Duchess of Grafton) in a black 
dress, 225 guineas (the three bought by Lord Normanton). 


and curiosity is felt as to the prices which will be 
given for the pictures now about to be sold, as 
they are considered to be quite worthy compeers 
of the splendid Venice and the Ostend. Since the 
memorable Bicknell sale, in 1863, there has been 
no such display of Turner pictures at this famous 
picture gallery. ... Here there are nine [pic- 
tures] with more than thirty water-colour drawings, 
many of which are large and important examples, 
and serve, such as the Zurich, the Knaresborough, 
and the Lowestoft, as beautiful and characteristic 
examples of the master as any of his acknowledged 
masterpieces, and all fresh and brilliant from 
having been kept so carefully from the light in 
portfolios, as were those which, with the numerous 
exquisite vignettes, were sold last year. Of the 
pictures, the Ancient Italy, with its subject, sug- 
gested by Turner's own peculiar feelings, of 
' Ovid banished from Rome,' and the Modern 
Italy, are known from the engravings ; and so is 
the St. Mark's Piazza, with the moonlight mas- 
querade, and Juliet with her Nurse on the Balcony. 
The Kilgarran Castle is tolerably well-known from 
his having painted it frequently, but perhaps never 
with more grandeur and imposing solemnity than 
in this. The two views of Rome are of his finest 
middle time, when, as Mr. Ruskin has so elo- 
quently said, * He saw there were more clouds in 
any sky than ever had been painted, more trees in 
every forest, more crags on every hill-side, and he 
set himself with all his strength to proclaim this 
great fact of quantity in the universe.' In these 


the subject is infinite, and the beauty is inex- 
haustible. Nothing could be more lovely and 
abounding in the charm of poetic treatment than 
the Campo Vaccino, with the departing glory of 
the sunlight striking over the classic ruins fading 
before the silvery light of the moon. The view of 
Rome, showing the vast city spread out from the 
foot of the Aventine, with the umbrella pine high 
in the foreground, is amazing in the grasp and 
power with which the scene in all its intricate detail 
and vast space is brought before the spectator. 
The Avalanche is one of his most tremendous 
efforts, and altogether a most striking and impres- 
sive picture. The Van Tromp's Shallop is one of 
the four Van Tromps he painted, described in the 
sale catalogue as painted in 1831 ; but, if this is 
correct, the picture is that in the Academy cata- 
logue of that year, called Van Tromp's Barge at 
the entrance of the Texel, otherwise it would be 
the one exhibited in the next year, and called Van 
Tromp's Shallop at the entrance of the Scheldt. 
A picture of great interest, as an early work of his 
youth almost, is the Venus and Adonis, an upright 
landscape with amorini hovering in the trees, and 
four hounds held in the leash by Adonis, painted 
in 1806, but not exhibited till 1849, quite in emu- 
lation of Titian. The pictures by Bonington of 
the celebrated Kitty Fisher of Sir Joshua, though 
somewhat overshadowed by the Turners, add 
great interest to this remarkable sale." 

The nine Turner pictures were as follows : 
Ancient Italy, 36x48, 5,200 guineas (K. Hodg- 

i. u 


son, M.P.); Modern Italy, 36x49, 5,000 guineas 
(David Price) ; View of Rome from Mount Aven- 
tine, painted for Mr. Munro, 36 x 49, 5,850 guineas; 
Campo Vaccino, 35 x 48, 4,45 guineas ; St. Mark's 
Place, moonlight, 35 x 47, 5, 200 guineas (K. Hodg- 
son) ; Van Tromp's Shallop at the entrance of 
the Scheldt, exhibited in 1832 (not I83I), 1 35 x 47, 
5,200 guineas (the same) ; Avalanche in the Valley 
of Aosta, Savoy,35 x 48,9ioguineas (Lord Wharn- 
cliffe) ; Departure of Adonis for the Chase, 60 x 48, 
1,850 guineas (purchased by Mr. Munro at John 
Green's sale, 1830, for 83 guineas) ; and Kilgarran 
Castle, 35 x 46, 3,400 guineas (Sir W. Armstrong). 
The drawings were as follows : Lichfield, iij x 17}, 
480 guineas; Oxford, 13^ x 20?, 500 guineas; 
the Baths of Pfeffers, Ragatz, Splungen Pass, 
ii-xi8J, 1,000 guineas; River Scene, Switzer- 
land, 9 x 1 2f , 115 guineas ; Descent of St. Gothard, 
I2f x 2oJ, 500 guineas; Lake of Lucerne, 12 x i8|-, 
590 guineas; Kussnacht, Lucerne, i2^x i8|-, 970 
guineas; Zurich, 12x18, 1,200 guineas; Ashby- 
de-la-Zouche, nf x 17^-, 500 guineas; Chain 
Bridge over the Tees, lof x i6f, 1,420 guineas; 
Blenheim, nf x i8J, 680 guineas; Knaresborough 
n-f x i6|-, 1,160 guineas; Lowestoft, n x :6f, 740 
guineas; Malmesbury Abbey, nf x 16%, 700 
guineas ; Pembroke Castle, i if x 17, 600 guineas ; 
Ulleswater, 13 x 17^, 650 guineas (the foregoing 
eight were engraved for the " England and Wales " 

1 Another picture of the same subject, 30 x 40, was sold at 
the H. Woods sale in 1883 for 3,500 guineas; it was purchased 
by Mr. Martin Holloway, and is now in the Holloway College. 


series) ; " The Sea ! the Sea! " engraved by Wil- 
man for "the Keepsake, 1837," 200 guineas; 
The Simplon, 205 guineas; Bellerophon, 185 
guineas; Hotel de Ville, Paris, 140 guineas; 
Hotel de Ville, Brussels, 130 guineas; Stirling, 
3i x 6, 340 guineas ; Kenilworth, moonlight, 
5l x 5f> 150 guineas; Edinburgh, 3^ x 5$, 410 
guineas; Inverness, 3! x 6^, 300 guineas; Glen- 
coe, 4! x 5^, 320 guineas ; Loch Katrine, 3f x 5^, 
320 guineas (the foregoing ten were engraved for 
Scott's poetical and prose works) ; Moonlight on 
the Nile, vignette for Moore's " Epicurean," 250 
guineas; Valley of the Var, 1813, 5|- x 8f , 400 
guineas; Walls of Romeand Tomb of Caius Sestius, 
5^ x 8J, 205 guineas ; Rhodes, 5^- x 9, 250 guineas ; 
and the Acropolis of Athens, 6^x9, 155 guineas 
(the last three were engraved by Finden for 
Byron's works). 

The following were the more important of the 
pictures by other artists included in this sale ; R. 
P. Bonington, Scene on the Normandy Coast, 
9^x12, 400 guineas; French coast scene, 210 
guineas; the Fish Market, Boulogne, 31x47, 
engraved by Quilley, 3,000 guineas ; and the 
Grand Canal, Venice, 40 x 50, engraved by C. G. 
Lewis, 3,000 guineas these two pictures are said 
to be the largest ever painted by Bonington ; W. 
Collins, Dominicans returning to their Monastery, 
Amalfi, 1842, 27x36, 255 guineas; J. Constable, 
Stratford St. Mary, Suffolk, 12 x 19, 310 guineas ; 
Hampstead Heath, 14x19, 460 guineas; and 
Ploughing and Windmill, lox 14, 290 guineas; 


W. Etty, the Good Samaritan, 21 x 26, 1 60 guineas 
(said to have cost Mr. Munro ^600) ; the Three 
Graces, 20 x 30, 170 guineas ; Venus and Adonis, 
after the Titian in the National Gallery, but smaller, 
220 guineas; Diana and Endymion, 31 x 27, 300 
guineas ; and Aurora and Zephyr, circular, 36 inches, 
460 guineas ; W. Hogarth, two scenes the other 
four were burnt at Fonthill from the " Harlot's 
Progress," the Quarrel with the New Lover, 520 
guineas, and the Scene in Bridewell, 300 guineas 
(this pair was bought in at the Munro sale in 1867 
for 400 guineas and 330 guineas respectively) ; 
P. F. Poole, Visitation and Surrender of Syon 
Nunnery, Isleworth, to the Commissioners of 
Henry VIII., 55x88, 510 guineas; Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, Kitty Fisher, 35 x 27, one of five or six 
replicas, 700 guineas ; Portrait of Miss Stanhope 
as " Contemplation," in white dress, seated in a 
landscape, engraved by C. Watson, 55 x 44, 3,000 
guineas from the Thomond sale of 1828, when it 
was knocked down for 145 guineas ; and Portrait 
of Dr. Hawkesworth, 28 x 24, 200 guineas; and R. 
Wilson, Lake Scene near Coast, 27 x 35, 280 
guineas ; River Scene, Italy, 16x21, 260 guineas ; 
River Scene, with Temple, 24 x 9, 160 guineas; 
and Sion House, from Kew, 36 x 53, 270 guineas. 
The pictures by the old masters came under the 
hammer on June ist, and the following list includes 
all the more important examples. The 153 lots 
realized ,44,422 17^. 6d., from which total, of 
course, the Raphael " Madonna dei Candelabri " is 
excluded. N. Berghem, Landscape, with mule- 


teers and animals, signed and dated 1644, 21x19, 
215 guineas; J. Both, View on the Tiber, sunset, 
with the Ponte Molle and figures, 31x42, 260 
guineas (from Sir H. Oxenham's sale, 1839, 210 
guineas) ; F. Boucher, The Mask, lady in slate- 
coloured jacket and red skirt, 1734, no guineas; 
Claude, Lake Scene, with sportsmen, cattle and 
goats under trees, 23x32, 300 guineas ; Phillip 
baptizing the Eunuch, wooded landscape, painted 
in 1673, f r Cardinal Spada, 800 guineas; and a 
Seaport, with classic buildings, vessels and tower, 
figures, 39 x 52, 3,000 guineas ; A. Cuyp, Portrait 
group of three girls under a tree with sheep and 
lambs, 60 x 70, 500 guineas ; and Landscape with 
miller's cart near rustic buildings, 13x19, 430 
guineas ; Sasso Ferrato, The Holy Family with 
St. Elizabeth and St. John with the Lamb, 42 x 34, 
200 guineas ; Greuze, Head of a Girl with hair 
tied with a blue ribbon, 18x14, 200 guineas; 
Guido, Europa, from the Altteri Palace and 
Altmira Gallery, Madrid, 61x44, 210 guineas; 
M. Hobbema, Wooded River Scene, with peasants 
and winding road, white cumuli and grey cloud 
in right corner, signed, 26x34, 2,100 guineas 
(Mr. Munro is said to have given 200 for this 
picture) ; and A Woody Landscape, blue sky and 
clouds, cottages, post-waggon passing a ford and 
figures, 17x20, 700 guineas; N. Maes, Interior, 
with woman arranging a child's hair, two other 
children and a dog and cat, 24 x 18, 450 guineas ; 
Murillo, three sketches for his larger pictures, 
including that of the Miracle of the Loaves and 


Fishes in the Caridad, Seville, 300 guineas ; and 
also the finished works, Group of Spanish Beggars 
at the stall of a woman selling bread, winter, 
37 x 47, 260 guineas ; and St. Anthony caressing 
the Infant, sold by Queen Christina from the 
Royal Gallery, Madrid, 73x81, 2,250 guineas; 
Perugino, St. Francis in ecstasy, 24x19, 260 
guineas ; A. Pynacker, Rocky Coast Scene, with 
vessels wrecked, crews beingsaved by boats, 3 2 x 43, 
45 guineas ; Rubens, Meeting of Jacob and Esau, 
a sketch, 19 x 15, 310 guineas; Portrait of a 
Lady, inscribed " Virgo Brabantini," 42 x 31, 1,050 
guineas ; Portrait of Old Parr, said to have been 
painted by Rubens when ambassador at the English 
Court, 24 x 1 8, 1 80 guineas; and the Holy Family 
with St. Anne, 59 x 44, 175 guineas ; J. Ruysdael, 
Grand Sea Piece, storm, with fishing vessels, from 
Lord Orford's collection, 34x47, 1,400 guineas; 
and A Sea View, with fishing boats and men-of- 
war, 27 x 36, 1,400 guineas ; Andrea del Sarto, La 
Carita, from the Ruspigliosi Palace, formerly in 
the Anderdon collection, and probably the picture 
referred to on p. 192, 330 guineas ; and The Pieta, 
Madonna and two angels mourning over the body 
of Christ, 38 x 51, 1,700 guineas ; J. Steen, Effects 
of Intemperance, from the Beckford collection, 
30 x 43, 1,250 guineas ; and After Dinner, portraits 
of the artist and his wife, two children blowing 
bubbles, 25 x 32, 230 guineas ; G. Terburg, The 
Glass of Lemonade, two ladies and gentlemen in a 
handsome apartment, from the Praslin collection 
and engraved in the Choiseul gallery, 26 x 2 1, 1,850 


guineas ; Titian, Repose of the Holy Family in 
Landscape, with castle to the right, 18x24, 35 
guineas ; Vandyck, Daedalus and Icarus, 43 x 35, 
400 guineas from the J. Knight collection, 1819, 
300 guineas ; and E. W. Lake sale of 1848, 66 ; 
A. Van de Velde, Landscape, with herdsman and 
shepherdess and animals near a pool of water, 
signed, rox 13, 505 guineas; Paul Veronese, Venus 
seated on a couch, red curtain background, from 
the Colonna Palace, and subsequently in the col- 
lections of Walsh Porter and Sir Simon Clarke, 
75 x 56, 680 guineas ; and Vision of St. Helena, 
the altarpiece of the chapel at Venice dedicated to 
that saint, formerly in the first Duke of Marl- 
borough's collection, whence it passed into that of 
Lord Treasurer Godolphin, and was purchased at 
the Duke of Leeds' sale by the Marquis of Hert- 
ford, 77 x 45, and again sold in 1860 (see p. 192), 
3, 300 guineas (National Gallery); A.Watteau, Fete 
Champetre, 1 2 x 15, 300 guineas ; Le Printemps, 
two nude figures crowning a youth with flowers, 
engraved by Desplace, 49 x 40, 620 guineas ; and 
" Les Deux Marquises," two little girls in white 
wigs and pompons of feathers and flowers, 30 x 24, 
2,500 guineas; P. Wouverman, Halt of Cavaliers 
and Ladies at a farrier's shop, 13 x 19, 300 
guineas ; and two great works of Raphael, " La 
Vierge a la Legende," or "La Vierge de Novar," 
said to have belonged to Charles I ., and ascribed 
to Giulio Romano when in Lord Gwydyr's collec- 
tion, 32 x 24, 3,000 guineas (this celebrated work, 
which has been engraved by Forster, was again 


sold with the Dudley Gallery in 1892); and the 
celebrated chef-d'oeuvre, " Madonna dei Cande- 
labri," 26 inches circle, bought from the Borghese 
Palace by Lucien Bonaparte, and sold by him 
to the Queen of Etruria ; it was purchased by 
Mr. Munro at the Due de Lucca sale in June, 
1841 for ,1,500, it was now bought in at 19,000 

Finally the remaining pictures and drawings, 
and also the books collected by Mr. Munro, and 
subsequently the property of Colonel the Hon. 
Henry Butler- Johnstone, came under the hammer 
on March i9th, 22nd and 23rd, 1880, 707 lots, 
showing a total of ,2,897 12S - The only lots in 
this sale which call for special notice are the follow- 
ing : R. P. Bonington, Francis I. and his Sister, 
the engraved picture, 14 x n, 255 guineas; and 
The Grand Canal, Venice, the sketch for the 
large picture, 100 guineas; J. M. W. Turner, 
Grand Canal, Venice, painted on the engraving, 
105 guineas ; and Sir E. Landseer, Hinds Alarmed, 
painted at Novar, 250 guineas. 

In the interval which occurred between the dis- 
persal of the modern and the ancient pictures of Mr. 
Hugh A. J. Munro, the exceedingly choice collec- 
tion of works (nearly all of which were of cabinet 
size) by modern artists, of the late Frederic Thomas 
Turner, of The Cedars, Clapham Common, was sold. 
This assemblage was not a large one, but it was 
made with great good taste, and sixty-one lots 
realized the total of ,26,628 155-. The sale took 
place on May 4th, 1878, and the principal pictures 


were as follows : J. C. Hook, Beaching the Boat, 
J 3 x 9 33 guineas, and Leaving, at Low Water, 
Scilly Isles, 26 x 41, 1,130 guineas; Sir J. E. Millais, 
"Charlie is my Darling," 16 x 9, 190 guineas; 
Joan of Arc, 34 x 23, 700 guineas, and The Romans 
Leaving Britain, 17x27, 320 guineas ; C. Stan- 
field, Ancona, 15 x 23, 420 guineas ; Boats Fouling, 
entering the harbour, Zuyder Zee, 23 x 35, 750 
guineas; On the Italian Coast, 15 x 23, 330 
guineas; The Stack Rock, Coast of Antrim, 1861, 
14x23, 630 guineas; On the River Texel, 1861, 
15 x 24, 500 guineas, and the Pic du Midi 
d'Ossau, in the Pyrenees, 1866, 29 x 22 (not to be 
confounded with the very large work on the same 
subject in the Bicknell and Coleman sales), 510 
guineas ; E. W. Cooke, Porto del Lido, 1853 : the 
entrance to the Lagunes of Venice from the 
Adriatic, 19x33, 530 guineas; T. Faed, The 
Silken Gown, 19 x 15, 710 guineas ; " Letting the 
Cows into the Corn," 29 x 22, 700 guineas ; 
Thoughts of the Absent, 29x21, 600 guineas ; On 
the Coast of Arran, 1854, 19 x 13, 640 guineas; 
W. E. Frost, The Syrens, 15 x 1 1, a small replica, 
formerly in the Bicknell collection, of the picture 
painted in 1849 for Mr. Andrews of York, and 
subsequently in the possession of Mr. Dennistown 
of Golf-hill (see letter in The Times May 28th, 
1878), 200 guineas ; John Linnell, Harvest, 
1 9 x 2 3> 5 guineas ; and View near Hampstead, 
7x11, 380 guineas ; J. Phillip, Agua Benedita : 
a church scene, 1861, 35 x 27, 1,400 guineas; El 
Picador, 1862, 19 x 25, 550 guineas; Uvas 


Maduras, Spanish Fruit Seller, 28x18, 1,190 
guineas ; El Cigarello : taking a quiet whiff, 
25 x 19, 1,520 guineas; " Oh Nanny!" 1859, 
9x7, 100 guineas, and Una Maja Bonita, 1856, 
17 x 13, 440 guineas ; W. P. Frith, Bed-Time, the 
engraved picture, 1852, 23 x 19, 380 guineas ; The 
Keeper's Daughter (with R. Ansdell), engraved by 
H. T. Ryall, 22x27, 720 guineas, and Twelfth 
Night, a study, 1862, 8xn, 175 guineas; T. 
Webster, The Impenitent, from the Collection of 
E. Bicknell, for whom it was painted, 1 7 x 15, 
390 guineas ; W. Mtiller, The Village of Gil- 
lingham, 1841, 29 x 24, from the Bicknell collec- 
tion, 900 guineas ; D. Roberts, a Street in Cairo, 
1846, painted for Mr. Bicknell, 29 x 24, 610 
guineas this picture again occurred in 1883 at the 
T. Taylor sale, when it was purchased by Mr. 
Martin Holloway for 710 guineas; F. Goodall, 
The Rising of the Nile, 29 x 53-, 650 guineas; Sir 
E. Landseer, Highland Nurses (deer and ptar- 
migan), 27x35, engraved by T. Landseer, 1,600 
guineas ; and three small works of L. Alma 
Tadema from the Royal Academy of 1873. The 
Siesta, 6 J x 18, 300 guineas ; The Dinner, 6 J x 23, 
400 guineas, and The Wine, 6 x 14, 270 guineas ; 
Rosa Bonheur, " Le Retour du Moulin," lox 13, 
570 guineas, and " Chevreuils au repos dans la 
Foret de Fontainebleau," 1867, engraved by 
C. G. Lewis, 38x31, 1,100 guineas ; E. Frere, 
" Les Preparatifs du Dejeuner," 1851, 16x12, 
340 guineas, and " La Sortie de 1'Ecole," 1866, 
34 x 28, 630 guineas. A beautiful statue by Tan- 


tardini, The Bather, life size, 1863, sold for 200 

The only other picture sales of 1878 which we 
need mention, are as follows : The collection of 
water-colour drawings of the late Thomas Green- 
wood, of Sandfield Lodge, Hampstead, April loth 
and nth, when 13 works by David Cox, and 10 
by Turner realized, for the most part, small prices, 
and the total of 52 drawings and pictures being 
,2,344 ; there were two earlier sales of Mr. 
Greenwood, the first in 1872 and the second in 
1875, several of the less important drawings on 
each occasion failed to reach the reserve placed 
upon them. Of the works in the 1875 sale we 
may mention the following by D. Cox, Market 
Woman crossing a Heath, 2ioguineas; Twilight, 
480 guineas ; Bolton Park, 420 guineas; Crossing 
Lancaster Sands, from the Ellison collection, 
375 guineas ; Pass of Killiecrankie, 335 guineas ; 
Landscape with Brigands, 650 guineas ; and 
Waiting on Lancaster Sands, 210 guineas. The 
modern pictures of W. J. Alt, previously exhibited 
at the Bethnal Green Museum, and sold on March 
2nd, brought a total of 6,500. The only two 
pictures of note in the T. Graham White collec- 
tion (40 lots), sold on March 23rd, being a Por- 
trait by Sir Joshua Reynolds of Lady Smyth and 
her children, the picture engraved by Bartolozzi, 
1,250 guineas this picture subsequently appeared 
in the Duchess of Montrose sales, 1894 and 
1895 ; and a Rembrandt, Portrait of the Artist's 
Wife in turban, rich red dress and pearl bracelet, 


36 x 27, 450 guineas (in the Wardell sale of the 
next year this picture fetched 635 guineas). Mrs. 
Edward Romilly's pictures were sold on the same 
day, and included a Teniers, The Guitar Player, 
an oval, interior, with guitar player and group of 
five men playing cards and smoking in a further 
room, 10x12, 520 guineas; Cuyp, Flight into 
Egypt, with Holy Family on the left, 18x24, 
290 guineas ; Greuze, Portrait of Madame Van 
Westrenen, painted in 1802, 290 guineas ; and 
P. de Wint, Grand View of Lincoln from the 
Brayford, 725 guineas this very fine drawing was 
again sold in March, 1883, when it fetched 655 

The porcelain sales of this year included a rose 
du Barri Sevres dessert service, the property of the 
late J. P. G. Bering, of South Street, Park Lane, 
and of Great Missenden, Bucks, and formerly in 
the possession of Lord Gwydyr, in whose sale it 
was included in 1829 ; the set comprised fifty- 
seven pieces, all painted with medallions of fruits 
and flowers, chiefly dating 1757. The set, now 
sold in portions, realized ^"4,039 14^., the principal 
objects being a pair of seaux, 1,070 guineas; a 
circular tureen, the cover being an artichoke in 
green and gold, 195 guineas; the companion, 205 
guineas ; two oval dishes with white centres and 
ends painted with flowers, each 255 guineas ; and 
twelve plates, painted with flowers, fruit, and 
exotic birds by Thevenet, 360 guineas. A pair of 
fluted lavender-coloured vases, mounted in ormulu, 
also from the Gwydyr collection, ^"410. 


The last of the six portions of the extensive col- 
lection of ceramics and other works of art formed 
by Henry G. Bohn, came under the hammer during 
the present year. The following is a list, with in- 
clusive dates, of the Bohn sales : 

LOTS. s. d. 

1875 March 15-18 646 6,528 5 6 

June 16-18 473 4,862 15 6 

1876 March 21-23 5 IQ 3> J 54 8 6 

May 29-30 258 1,226 13 o 

1877 March 19-22 638 3910 13 o 

1878 March 26-29 777 4,995 17 o 

1885 March 19-28 (9 days, Drawings 

and Pictures) 1621 19,209 5 6 

March 30-31 (Private Library) 396 749 16 o 

TOTAL ^44,637 14 o 

The water-colour drawings and pictures in oils 
collected by the late James S. Virtue, nearly all of 
which had been engraved in the Art Journal, came 
under the hammer on March ist, 1879, and the 
171 lots realized ,9,343, very few of the articles 
reaching three figures. This sale was followed by 
that of Lord Lonsdale's pictures, china, and de- 
corative furniture on March 5th and three follow- 
ing days. The china and decorative furniture 
showed a total of ,19,336 17^. 6d., and the prin- 
cipal articles were : An old Dresden dinner service, 
painted with tigers, birds, and foliage in Oriental 
style, with basket borders, 375 guineas ; a rose du 
Barri Sevres cabinet, pastoral figures in medallions, 
of eight pieces, exceedingly fine, 805 guineas ; an 
old Chelsea tea service of twenty-two pieces, 


painted with exotic birds and blue bands, sold 
separately at from ^40 to ^130 each, and brought 
the high total of 820 guineas ; a fine square-shaped 
Chelsea vase, deep blue ground, with four large 
medallions of Chinese figures and eight smaller of 
exotic birds, 21 in. high, 520 guineas; and a pair 
of tall vases and covers, with white and gold scroll 
handles, deep blue ground, with groups of exotic 
birds and flowers in gold, 2o|- in. high, unfor- 
tunately badly broken and worse mended, 420 
guineas ; a Crown Derby dessert service, with dark 
blue and gold jewelled edges, painted with land- 
scapes, in blue and gold borders, 257 guineas. An 
old French oblong casket of black buhl, ^295 ; a 
clock of buhl on pedestal, 350 guineas ; and a fine 
Louis XIV. writing-table of black buhl, 60x40, 
400 guineas. The pictures were thirteen in all, 
nine in oils and four large water colour drawings 
by De Wint. Moucheron, Italian landscape, with 
figures by A. Van de Velde, hilly ground to the 
left, peasant woman riding on a mule, dog, sheep, 
beggar woman, and other figures, and carriage with 
horseman in an avenue, 30x25, 1,000 guineas; 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, The Laughing Girl, 30 x 25, 
i, 300 guineas (Lord Chesterfield); and Robinetta, 
30 x 25, 1,000 guineas both pictures that had been 
engraved, but were now in poor condition ; T. 
Gainsborough, Horses watering at a Trough, with 
man on gray horse, with hills and a church in the 
distance, from Sir John Leicester's collection, 48 x 39, 
i, 300 guineas (bought in) ; Sir Thomas Lawrence, 
Portrait of George IV. on a sofa, engraved, 75 


guineas; J. Jackson, Portrait of the Duke of Wel- 
lington, in blue uniform, holding cocked hat, battle 
in the distance, 150 guineas. The De Wint draw- 
ings were Lancaster, with castle in the middle 
ground and wide reach of water and hills beyond, 
2 9? x 5 T T >35 guineas; Tewkesbury Abbey, 
cattle passing over a bridge, trees, 35 x 24^, 600 
guineas ; Whitehaven, view of town and harbour, 
21 x 35> 7 guineas ; and Lowther Castle, fir trees 
and figures in the foreground, 29 x 39, 645 guineas 
the last two were bought in. Another interest- 
ing sale of pictures took place in March (29th), 
namely, that of the remaining works, sketches, and 
studies of the late E. M. Ward, R.A., 1 19 lots in all. 
We need only specially mention Anne Boleyn at 
the Queen's Stairs, exhibited in 1871, 450 guineas ; 
the Ante-chamber at Whitehall, exhibited at the 
Royal Academy, 1861, 900 guineas. 

Several important pictures were included in the 
collection of Joseph Arden,of Rickmansworth Park, 
sold on April 26th. The ninety-six lots realized 
.17,172 ^s. 6d., the more notable being as follows: 
E. W. Cooke, Venice, Riva dei Schiavoni, 1853, 
15 x 26, 200 guineas ; the Port of Delfzijl on the 
Dollart, Holland, 1856, 26 x 41, 330 guineas; 
and Venice, 26x42, 810 guineas; W. S. Burton, 
The Cavalier and the Puritan, exhibited at the 
Royal Academy of 1856, 34 x 40, 430 guineas ; T. 
Creswick, Chequered Shade, an avenue of trees, 
1848, 35 x 71, 360 guineas; and The Greenwood 
Stream, 1848, 27x35, 490 guineas; W. Linton, 
Bellinzona, 48 x 72, 250 guineas; Sir J. E. Millais, 


The Order of Release, 1853, 40 x 29, 2, 700 guineas ; 
and The Rescue, the celebrated picture of a fire- 
man saving a woman from a fire, 46x33, 1,250 
guineas; D. Roberts, Santa Maria della Salute, 
Venice, 24 x 48, painted for Mr. Arden, 750 
guineas ; San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, the com- 
panion picture, 720 guineas ; a Street Scene in 
Cairo, 55 x 43, 900 guineas; A Recollection of 
Spain, interior, with the tomb of Ferdinand and 
Isabella, etc., 55 x 43, 740 guineas; and Ruins of 
the Great Temple of Karnac, painted for Mr. 
Arden, 57x93, 1845, 480 guineas ; C. Stanfield, 
II Ponte Rotto, Rome, 1846, 37 x 32, 800 guineas ; 
F. Stone, The Old, Old Story, 1854, the engraved 
picture, 42 x 34, 400 guineas (sold again in 1883 
with Mrs. Gibbon's pictures for the same amount) ; 
and E. M. Ward, Last Parting of Marie Antoin- 
ette and her son, 1856, 48 x 68, 950 guineas. 
The water colour drawings included J. F. Lewis, 
The Harem of a Memlook Bey, painted for Mr. 
Arden at Cairo, 35 x 53, 690 guineas. After the 
Arden pictures came a few others, from various 
properties, and among them were : D. Teniers, 
Interior of a Guardroom, soldiers playing cards, 
and other figures, on copper, 18 x 24, 5 20 guineas ; 
M. Hobbema, Dutch village, with peasants on a 
raft and fisherman in a boat, signed, and dated 
1663, 208 guineas ; and four works of Guardi, The 
Grand Canal, Venice, 235 guineas ; The Approach 
to Venice, the companion, 200 guineas; St. Mark's 
Place, 200 guineas; and the Piazetta of St. Mark's, 
Venice, 245 guineas. 


The May sales opened (3rd) with the collection 
of ninety-eight pictures formed by Jonathan Nield, 
of Dunster House, Rochdale, which brought a total 
of ,33,423 165-. There were R. Ansdell, Gardener's 
Daughter (with J. Phillip), 600 guineas ; the 
companion pair, Lost and Found, respectively 195 
guineas and 200 guineas ; Gossip at the Well, 365 
guineas ; Return from Deerstalking, 400 guineas ; 
and the Gamekeeper's Daughter (with W. P. 
Frith), 290 guineas ; J. Constable, Stoke-by- Way- 
land, Suffolk, 48 x 56, 740 guineas ; and The 
Thames, Westminster, 410 guineas; P. H. Cal- 
deron, Victory, 1,050 guineas; and Good Night, 
250 guineas; W. Collins, Coast Scenes, men and 
boats, 26 x 32, 420 guineas ; E. W. Cook, Venice, 
3 20 guineas; T.S. Cooper, Summer Afternoon, 250 
guineas ; David Cox, Lancaster Sands, purchased 
at the sale of David Cox, jun., May, 1873 (1,000 
guineas see p. 223), 310 guineas ; Cavalry, 7 x 10, 
205 guineas ; and a Hayfield, 10 x 13, 230 guineas ; 
T. Creswick, a Rocky Dell, 300 guineas ; and a 
Woody River scene, 240 guineas; A. Elmore, After 
the Siesta, 18 x 24, 2 70 guineas ; and Columbus at 
Porto Santo, 460 guineas ; T. Faed, A Listener 
nae hears gude o' himsel', lox 14, 350 guineas; 
In Doubt, 490 guineas; and Sunday Afternoon, 
620 guineas ; W. P. Frith, Dolly Varden with the 
Bracelet, from the Gillott collection, 24 x 18, 300 
guineas ; and Amy Robsart and Janet, 300 guineas ; 
F. Goodall, Hagar and Ishmael, 950 guineas ; Go- 
ing to School, 10 x 13, 260 guineas; and Wedding 
Dance, Brittany, 760 guineas; Peter Graham, Our 

i. x 


Northern Wall, cliffs and gulls, 400 guineas ; J. E. 
Hodgson, Warriors of Islam, 200 guineas; J. C. 
Horsley, "The Other Name?" 460 guineas; H. Le 
Jeune, The Bird's Nest, 155 guineas; J. C. Hook, 
Overtaken by the Tide, 1,020 guineas ; and Cross- 
ing the Brook, 660 guineas ; G. D. Leslie, The 
Nut-brown Maid 500 guineas ; and Lavinia, 1,000 
guineas ; Sir E. Landseer, Sport in the Highlands, 
1,450 guineas; and The King of the Forest, 
24x24, 1,000 guineas; J. Linnell, Hampstead 
Heath, figures and sheep, 530 guineas ; and The 
Woodcutters, lox 12, 410 guineas; H. S. Marks, 
Capital and Labour, 1,050 guineas ; W. J. Mliller, 
Gillingham Church, an upright, 1841, 30 x 32, 700 
guineas; and Alexandria, 1843, 760 guineas; P. 
Nasmyth, Landscape, with Turner's Hill, 230 
guineas ; Erskine Nicol, Always tell the Truth, 
450 guineas ; and The Fisher's Knot, 410 guineas ; 
H. O'Neil, Marina at the Grave of her Nurse, 
275 guineas; J. Phillip, Scotch Christening, 10 x 13, 
1 60 guineas ; D. Roberts, Piazza Navona, 490 
guineas ; C. Stanfield, Capture of Smugglers, An- 
trim, 500 guineas ; Coast Scene, with figures, 410 
guineas ; and Lake Como, 630 guineas. 

The pictures sold on May 5, of W. Fenton, of 
Button Manor, Rochester, forty-one in number, 
included T. Creswick, River Tees at Wycliffe, 
with figures by Frith, 610 guineas ; W. P. Frith 
and Creswick, River Tees at Wycliffe, from the 
Mendel collection. 610 guineas; G. D. Leslie, 
Pot Pourri, 1,180 guineas; J. Linnell, A sunny 
Landscape, 590 guineas ; G. B. O'Neil, The Little 


Trespasser, 255 guineas. The most important 
work by a continental artist in this collection was 
Josef Israels, La Fete de Jeanne, 1,600 guineas. 
The total amounted to ,6,588 4^, 6d. Those 
of Joseph Fenton, of Barnford Hall, Rochdale, 
ninety-three in all, total ,13,101 js. 6d., in- 
cluded J. Constable, Embarkation of George IV., 
60 x 80, 410 guineas ; E. W. Cooke, Amsterdam, 
290 guineas ; T. S. Cooper, Snowdon, peasants 
and sheep, 310 guineas ; T. Creswick, The Water- 
fall, 320 guineas ; W. C. T. Dobson, The Nut 
Gatherers, 150 guineas; Sir E. Landseer, Canine 
Friends, 310 guineas ; and Gipsy encampment with 
donkeys, 290 guineas ; J. Linnell, Winding the 
Skein, 300 guineas ; Harvest field, with peasants, 
sunset effect, 1862, 800 guineas ; A Harvest Dinner, 
42 x 50, 1,610 guineas; The Storm, 510 guineas ; 
and Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus, 250 
guineas ; W. J. M tiller, Athens with the Acropolis, 
500 guineas ; and the Sphinx, 230 guineas ; P. 
Nasmyth, Coast Scene, 210 guineas; Windsor 
Castle, 320 guineas ; and Landscape, with cottages 
and figures, 260 guineas ; D. Roberts, Interior of 
the Duomo, Milan, 1,400 guineas; C. Stanfield, 
Macbeth and the Witches, from the Brunei col- 
lection, 490 guineas ; T. Webster, The Young 
Fisherman, 235 guineas. 

The sale on the second Saturday in May (loth) 
1879, included pictures from several sources. 
From the collection of the late John Wardells of 
Rathgar, Dublin, came A. Brauwer, The Card 
Players, 12 x 16, 270 guineas; G. Coques, Lady 


and Gentleman playing the guitar, from the Wynn 
Ellis collection, 15x22, 155 guineas; Van Delen 
and Van Harp, Palace Interior, with the return of 
the prodigal, 22 x 55, 165 guineas ; A. de Lorme, 
Interior of a Cathedral, with figures by Terburg, 
signed, 1655, 400 guineas; W. Mieris, The 
Guitar Players, with view of a garden and land- 
scape, signed, and dated 1705, 11x9, 490 guineas 
at the Levy Sale in 1876 this realized 460 
guineas ; A. Van de Velde, Gardens of a Palace, 
with figures, 14x13, 290 guineas; Rembrandt; 
Portrait of his wife already referred to on p. 299, 
Eglon Van der Neer, Interior, with a lady and 
gentleman, and a lady nursing an infant, signed, 
and dated 1664, 25 x 22, 290 guineas (from the 
Cope sale of 1872, when it realized 220 guineas) ; 
P. Wouverman, A Hawking Party, painted for 
Elizabeth de Bourbon, wife of Philip IV. of Spain, 
whose arms are on the back of" the panel, 1 2 x 1 6, 
750 guineas (from the Levy Sale of 1876); and 
G. Morland, Landscape, with figures at an inn 
door, 1794, 39x52, 320 guineas. The four 
pictures from the collection of George Faulkner, 
of Crumpshall, near Manchester, were : A. Ostade, 
Boors carousing, composition of five half-length 
figures looking out of a window, one holding a glass 
and another a flute, 11x9, 400 guineas ; and Karel 
Du Jardin, Italian landscape, with woman and a boy 
standing in a pool, donkey, ox, dog, and trees, 
signed and dated 1662, 16 x 19, 240 guineas. The 
pictures of the late Fuller Maitland, of Stanstead 
Hall, Essex (a selection from whose collection 


was made prior to the sale by the Trustees of the 
National Gallery), included : J. Constable, Vale of 
Dedham, on the Stour, 29 x 49, 300 guineas, 
and Weymouth Bay, a sketch for the large work 
now in the Louvre, 21 x 29, 150 guineas; three 
important works by John Crome, Oaks in Kim- 
berley Park, 46 x 36, 200 guineas ; Group of Oaks 
on Sandybank, with white heifer, 31x47, 340 
guineas, and a Barge, with wounded soldiers and 
other figures, 13 x 19, 160 guineas; J. S. Cotman, 
Barges on a Broad in a Mist, 170 guineas; 
Copley Fielding, Mountain Scene, 17x22, 170 
guineas; J. M. W. Turner, Entrance to Havre 
Harbour, 9X 12, no guineas; R. P. Bonington, 
View off S. Valery-sur-Somme, 12x15, 280 
guineas ; and the Chateau of the Duchess de Berri, 
on the Garonne, 14x20, 310 guineas; J. Ruys- 
dael, Edge of a Wood, with figures and sheep, 
i6x 10, 270 guineas; Van der Capella, Winter 
Scene, with barns and cottages, and man dragging 
a boat, 15 x 17, 200 guineas ; F. Francia, Madonna 
and Child and two angels, in landscape, balustrade 
in front, 12 x 10, 265 guineas ; and Rubens, Land- 
scape, with river and pollard willows, figures 
dancing, lady seated, and lady and gentleman and 
child holding two greyhounds, 34x51, 800 
guineas. This day's sale included the following 
pictures from other sources : J. M. W. Turner, 
Kilgarran Castle, 32 x 19, 210 guineas this pic- 
ture is said to be that which realized 600 guineas 
at the Gillott sale in 1872, and occurred in the 
Durand Ruel sale, in Paris, two years later, when 


it realized 33,000 francs ; W. Collins, Dartmouth 
Harbour, painted for Phillimore Hicks in 1821, 
36 x 48, i, 500 guineas ; Sir Joshua Reynolds, Por- 
trait of Mrs. Burrell, 200 guineas ; J. Crome, New 
Mills at Norwich, 14 x 16, 190 guineas ; W. Etty, 
Cymocles and Phaedra on the idle lake, 1835, 
500 guineas ; J. L. Gerome, " Voila celui qui va en 
enfer et en revient" (Dante), engraved by J. G. 
Levasseur, 510 guineas. 

Among the large stock of pictures of the late 
W. Benoni White, the picture dealer, sold on 
Friday and Saturday, May 23 and 24, 310 lots 
realized ,11,285 iSs. 6d. we may mention the 
following : T. Gainsborough, Landscape, evening 
effect, church in the middle distance, large tree 
bending over the road of the right foreground, 
ploughboy on a white horse and brown one by the 
side, woodman, painted at Bath in 1760 for Samuel 
Kilderbee, 39 x 49, 725 guineas; G. Morland, 
Nut Gatherers, 105 guineas, and Wreckers, 560 
guineas ; J. M. W. Turner, Fisherman on lee 
shore, squally weather, exhibited in 1802, 36 x 48, 
2, 300 guineas, and Boats carrying out anchors and 
cables to Dutch men-of-war in 1665, exhibited 
in 1804, 4 x 5> l >5 guineas l this fine pair of 
pictures (when the property of Lord Delamere) 
was purchased at Christie's on May 24th, 1856, by 
the late owner for 3,000 guineas ; John Burnet, 
View of East Cowes, from West Cowes Ferry, 

1 This picture was again sold as the property of Mr. W. 
Houldsworth on May i6th, 1896, and then realised 1,550 


1823, 310 guineas; J. Ruysdael, View near a 
village, with rustic bridge, 215 guineas, and a 
Rocky River Scene, 115 guineas ; T. S. Cooper, 
Mountain Scene, with cattle and sheep, 245 
guineas ; A. Stannard, Sluice-gate on the river 
Wensum, 315 guineas; and J. Stark, Cadmore 
End, near Wycombe, 170 guineas. 

The collection of Old Masters and pictures by 
modern artists formed by the late James Hughes 
Anderdon, of Upper Grosvenor Square, came under 
the hammer on May 3oth and 3ist, the 288 lots 
realizing ,9,270 175-. Comparatively few of the 
pictures (many of which were purchased for the 
National Gallery) reached three figures, and the 
following includes all those which seem to call for 
notice here: F. Mieris, Interior, lady in a white 
satin dress, lox 8, 195 guineas ; J. B. Pater, Fete 
Champetre, with Cupid, 18x21, 250 guineas; 
J. Van Goyen, River Scene, with boats and fisher- 
men, 12x10, 205 guineas; W. Collins, Cromer 
Sands, with children, 9x12, 155 guineas ; J. Con- 
stable, a Brook Scene, from the collection of 
C. R. Leslie, 1 19 guineas ; J. Crome, Old Mill on 
the Yare, from the Dawson Turner collection 
(1852), 115 guineas; Skirts of the Forest, 41 X3i, 
185 guineas, and View on Mousehold heath, Nor- 
wich, 184 guineas; J. Linnell, Landscape, with 
peasants under a pine tree, 1813, 3x10, 135 
guineas ; G. Morland, Farmer carrying pigs to 
market, 105 guineas; W. J. M tiller, Landscape, with 
old willows and sheep, 155 guineas; and an un- 
usually large number of works by G. Romney : 


Portrait of Mrs. Tickell in white dress, straw hat, 
with black and white feathers, 800 guineas ; Mrs. 
Thornhill, 320 guineas ; The Parson's Daughter, 
360 guineas, (National Gallery) ; Head of Mrs. 
Crouch the Actress, 250 guineas; Madame de 
Genlis, 250 guineas; Mrs. Trimmer, 130 guineas, 
and Bust of Mrs. Robinson as " Perdita," with 
head leaning on right hand, 380 guineas. Another 
property included : G. Romney, Lady Hamilton as 
Ariadne, nearly life size, in white dress and straw 
hat, in a cave by the sea, 220 guineas. A miscel- 
laneous sale on June 28th, included the Earl of 
Portarlington's fine Rembrandt, Portrait of the 
Artist in black, with gold chain, signed, and dated 
1635, i, 250 guineas. 

The Alexander Barker sale in June of this year, 
has been incorporated with that of 1874. A 
few important collections of porcelain were dis- 
persed during this year, notably that of Mr. Charles 
Dickins, of Sunnyside, Wimbledon, which brought 
a total of nearly ,6,000 ; the 249 lots included a 
gros-bleu Sevres lyre clock, mounted with a mask 
of Apollo, and ornaments of chased ormolu, with 
enamelled dial and pendulum set with pastes, 
^590 (apparently bought in) ; a pair of old Chelsea 
square vases, each side painted with groups of 
Chinese figures and small medallions of birds in 
deep blue and gold border, ^320 ; a fine turquoise 
vase of the same, with openwork neck, and ewer, 
painted with figures and animals in a landscape, 
^4/0 ; a large beaker-shaped vase of the same, 
brilliant deep-blue ground, painted with large 


medallions of exotic birds in richly gilt borders, 
^504 ; and a set of three vases, also old Chelsea, 
about 10 inches high, on flat oval-shaped deep- 
blue ground, richly gilt, each painted with two 
children in medallions, and group of birds, ,1,365 ; 
a set of three Worcester vases, each painted with 
medallion of horsemen and figures, in the style of 
Wouverman, with medallions of flowers on the 
necks, deep-blue ground, ^650. The old Dresden 
articles included a group of Venus and Cupid, in 
a car, supported by three Tritons, ^175; a fine 
group of a lady in a hooped dress, seated, with a 
gentleman standing by her side, and female pedlar 
offering wares, ^260, and a group of Venus and 
Cupid in a car drawn by two sea-horses, and 
Neptune, ^336 5*. 

The earliest picture sale of note in 1880 (Feb- 
ruary 2ist) comprised the works of modern artists, 
" the property of a gentleman [F. W. Hooper] near 
Manchester, and the 158 lots brought a total of 
,10,050 125-., of which about one-third represent 
actual sales. A few of the best prices are as 
follows : James Webb, Anglesea, with Beaumaris 
in the distance, 190 guineas; J. Holland, Rouen, 
290 guineas ; A. E. Mulready, Uncared For, 145 
guineas ; Sir John Gilbert, a Family Card-party, 
215 guineas; T. S. Cooper, Cows in a Landscape, 
215 guineas ; J. Pettie, The Hour, 500 guineas (ap- 
parently bought in and offered again in 1881, when 
it was knocked down for 400 guineas) ; Sir David 
Wilkie, Escape of Mary Queen of Scots from 
Lochleven Castle, 48 x 65, 700 guineas (from the 


Gillott sale); T. Faed, "God Bless It!" 30x20, 
400 guineas ; W. J. Miiller, the Old Snuff Mill, 
Stapleton, 780 guineas ; Frank Holl,The Deserter, 
330 guineas; J. M. W. Turner, The Brides of 
Venice, 42 x 60, 400 guineas (bought in). Another 
somewhat important sale took place during the 
following week (February 26th, 27th and 28th), 
namely, that of the large collection of pictures 
formed by James Fenton, Norton Hall, Glouces- 
tershire. There were 450 lots, and the total of 
the actual sales amounts to ,8,565 19^. 6d. It 
included : G. Morland, Butcher bargaining with 
Farmer, signed, and dated 1794, 20 x 25, 290 
guineas ; G. Romney, Portraits of Two Children, 
said to be the children of Lord Warwick, life size, 
24 x 30, 260 guineas (from the Alton Towers sale 
in 1868, when it sold for 25 guineas); Rubens, 
Helena Forman, and her two children as Infant 
Christ and St. John, 160 guineas, and Mercury 
and Argus, 160 guineas; J. M. W. Turner, The 
Tummel Bridge, 1812, 12 x 18, 220 guineas; Sir 
E. Landseer, Lion preying on a Fawn, 1840, 
16x12, 175 guineas; T. S. Cooper, Landscape 
with three Cows, 240 guineas ; J. B. Pyne, the 
Blind Beggar of the Lago Lugano, 210 guineas; 
J, Linnell, the Isle of Wight from Lymington, 480 
guineas, and Sheepfold, evening, 26 x 36, 455 
guineas ; W. Linnell, Landscape, peasant driving 
cattle up a hill, 185 guineas ; T. Creswick and W. 
P. Frith, a Glade in the Forest, 1849, 300 guineas ; 
T. Webster, the Young Fisherman, 1840, 235 
guineas; W. Collins, " Les Causeuses," 1830, 335 


guineas; A. Elmore, Rienzi in the Forum, 1844, 
66x48, 210 guineas, and Guardi, View of the 
Rialto, 410 guineas. 

The great picture sale of this year was that of 
the collection of the late Charles Kurtz, sold by 
direction of the executors under the order of the 
Court of Chancery on March 1 2th and i3th. The 
total of the 199 lots of water colour drawings and 
pictures amounted to ,17,822 14^., the nominal 
total being nearly 9,000 in excess of the actual 
sales. The drawings included L. Gallait, Corona- 
tion of Banderien, Emperor of Constantinople, in 
1204, 14 x 26, 1 90 guineas, and J. L. E. Meissonier, 
L'Attente, 13x7, 400 guineas. The pictures com- 
prised R. Ansdell and J. Phillip, The Spanish 
Muleteer, 21x24, 2O 5 guineas; R. Beavis, Col- 
lecting Wreck on the French Coast, 24x36, 135 
guineas ; F. Lee Bridell, The Coliseum by Moon- 
light, 30 x 40, 200 guineas ; T. S. Cooper, The 
Defeat of Kellerman's Cuirassiers and Carabineers 
by Somerset's Cavalry at Waterloo, 84 x 96, 600 
guineas (bought in, and offered again in 1881, when 
it fetched 400 guineas) ; T. Creswick and T. S. 
Cooper, "Good Evening," autumn, 36x51, 505 
guineas ; B. W. Leader, Autumn Sunset in the 
Lledr Valley, North Wales, 40 x 60, 430 guineas ; 
E. Nicol, His Legal Adviser, 31 x 43, 1877, 570 
guineas ; and " Examine your Change before you 
leave the Counter," 26 x 20, 240 guineas ; Alma 
Tadema, The Ambush Attack, 27 x 39, 550 
guineas ; A. Achenbach, A Torrent in Norway, 
210 guineas; O. Achenbach, Tivoli, 39x60, 150 


guineas ; Auguste Bonheur, Cattle on the Banks 
of a River, 39 x 55, 300 guineas ; Rosa Bonheur, 
The Shepherdess, 1846, 17 x 25, 650 guineas ; W. 
Bouguereau, an Italian Mother and Child, 240 
guineas ; Henriette Browne, An Armenian Cap- 
maker, 45 x 35, 300 guineas ; F. Domingo, The 
Ruined Gamester, 6x9, 430 guineas ; G. Dore, 
Christian Martyrs in the reign of Diocletian, 1870, 
56 x 90, 760 guineas, and an Alpine Scene, 44 x 67, 
305 guineas ; J. Dyckmans, Paying Accounts, 1837, 
31 x 27, 280 guineas; L. Escosura, The Singing 
Lesson, 32 x 42, 250 guineas ; L. Gallait, Columbus 
in Prison, 60 x 43, 750 guineas, and The Neapo- 
litan Flower Girl, 45 x 30, 475 guineas ; J. L. 
Gerome, Neapolitan Women, 35 x 27, 290 guineas; 
W. de Keyser, Columbus and his Child in the 
Convent of Petre Santa, 63 x 48, 300 guineas ; L. 
Knauss, Scene during the Rebel War in Germany 
in the Fourteenth Century, 1*852, 43 x 39, 600 
guineas ; G. Koller, Faust and Marguerite, 34 x 54, 
380 guineas ; B. C. Koekkoek, View on the 
Meuse, 35 x 45, 160 guineas (apparently bought in 
and again offered in 1881, when it realized 285 
guineas), and a Winter Scene in Belgium, 25 x 27, 
305 guineas; Baron H. Leys, Martin Luther in 
his study, with his wife and friends, 28 x 42, 1,150 
guineas ; J. L. E. Meissonier, The Commercial 
Traveller, man in green coat sitting at a table out- 
side an inn, 15x9, 1,250 guineas ; H. Merle, Mar- 
guerite trying on the Jewels, 60 x 39, 750 guineas, 
and Fairy Tales, 22 x 1 8, 230 guineas ; L. Perrault, 
Philippean Dancing, 28 x 43, 215 guineas; T. 


Sadee, Fishermen's Wives on the Look-out, 
25 x 39, 335 guineas ; J. E. Saintin, The Flower of 
Joy, 1 30 guineas; Van Schendel, a Market Square, 
candle and moonlight effect, 32 x 47, 240 guineas ; 
A. Toulmouche, The Secret, 25 x 19, 210 guineas ; 
C. Troyon, La Valle*e de la Tocque, 102 x 83, 700 
guineas ; and F. Willems, The Toilet, 215 guineas. 

The principal porcelain sales of 1 880 may be here 
bracketed together. The earliest of these comprised 
the blue and white collection of Dr. E. B. Shuldham, 
sold on February 24th ; there were over 160 lots, 
but the chief interest centred in the seven hawthorn 
jars, each about 13 inches high, some with covers 
complete, a fine set of three vases and a pair of 
beakers. " The prices," says The Times reporter, 
" to which these were run up were preposterous be- 
yond all precedent, scarce as these old jars may be." 
The highest prices were as follows : A globular 
hawthorn jar and cover, ,262 ; another jar, deep- 
blue marbled ground, branches of hawthorn in white, 
carved wood cover, ^232 ; another jar and cover, 
^410 us.', another, ^325 los. ; another, ^620, 
and yet another, ^650. A set of three jars and 
covers, 1 1 inches high, and a pair of beakers, 
painted with female figures, trees, and vases of 
flowers, necks painted with birds, 10^ inches high, 
120 ; a similar set, with female figures and vases 
of flowers in compartments, 18 inches high, ,320. 

The works of art and vertu of the late Dowager 
Lady Carington, sold in May (total i 1,744) also 
included some choice bits of Dresden, notably a 
group of two pug dogs, ^119; a large pug dog, 


124 ; a spaniel on a cushion, with chased Louis 
XV. ormolu plinth, ,325 ; lady with two pugs, on 
a white and gold pedestal, 210; lady seated, 
gentleman kissing her hand, and a negro attendant, 
210 ; and another, nearly similar, ,208. The 
choice collection of old English porcelain of the 
late George William Callender, F.R.S., was sold 
on May 6th, and comprised fine figures and other 
specimens of old Bristol porcelain, many of which 
form illustrations to Owen's " Two Centuries of 
Ceramic Art in Bristol " and a number of these 
illustrations were reproduced in the sale catalogue. 
The first important picture sale of 1881 com- 
prised the highly important collection of examples 
of modern artists formed by Colonel Holds worth, 
of Shaw Lodge, Halifax, sold on April 3Oth, 
eighty-three lots realizing ,33,040 js. The more 
notable pictures were : R. Ansdell, Gossip at 
Seville, 320 guineas, and Spate jn the Highlands, 
420 guineas ; E. W. Cooke, Grand Canal, Venice, 
sunset, 370 guineas, and Hastings, 36 x 60, 590 
guineas ; T. S. Cooper, Landscape, with cows, 
bull, and sheep, evening effect, 535 guineas; T. 
Creswick, Skirts of the Park, 27 x 34, 350 guineas; 
Barnard Castle, 36x48,410 guineas; a Watery 
Lane, 18 x 24, 320 guineas ; The Cottage and the 
Hall, with figures by Cooper and Stone, 550 
guineas ; and On Shore, with Figures by Frith, 
600 guineas ; A. Elmore, Hotspur and the Fop, 
12x24, 340 guineas; T. Faed, Winter, 300 
guineas, and Cottage Piety, 405 guineas ; W. P. 
Frith, Dolly Varden, signed, and dated 1843, 


340 guineas ; the finished sketch for the Derby 
Day, 16x36, 610 guineas; and Pope and Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu, upright, 48x36, 1,190 
guineas (from the Hargreaves sale of 1873, when it 
realized 1,350 guineas) ; W. E. Frost, Cupid and 
Nymphs, 310 guineas ; F. Goodall, Fete, Brittany, 
12 x 1 8, 350 guineas ; J. C. Hook, A Cornish Gift, 
24 x 26, 800 guineas, and Mending Nets, 300 
guineas ; J. Callcott Horsley, Stolen Glances, 400 
guineas ; Sir F. Leighton, A Roman Lady, 340 
guineas ; C. R. Leslie, A Picnic Party, 30 x 36, 
510 guineas; J. Linnell, English Pastoral, 850 
guineas ; The Sheep Drive, 800 guineas ; Barley 
Field, 950 guineas (these three pictures each 
measure 30x40); Bark Peelers, 14 x 20, 360 
guineas ; and Coming Storm, 18 x 27, 770 guineas ; 
J. T. Linnell, " A-top the Hill," 550 guineas ; W. 
Linnell, Under the Greenwood, 220 guineas ; W. 
J. M Ciller, Pandy Mill (erroneously catalogued as 
11 The old Mill, Pont-y-Pool"), 2,000 guineas ; W. 
Mulready, The Widow, 1,100 guineas ; P. Nas- 
myth, River Scene in Hampshire, 460 guineas ; 
H. O'Neil, Mary Queen of Scots' Adieu, 24 x 30, 
330 guineas ; J. Phillip, Scene from the " Heart of 
Midlothian," 12 x 16, 450 guineas ; Gentle Student, 
230 guineas ; and " O, Nannie, will ye gang wi' 
me ? " 800 guineas ; P. F. Poole, Greek Goatherd's 
Courtship, 280 guineas ; Mountain Spring, 26 x 20, 
300 guineas; and Lighting the Beacon, 670 guineas; 
D. Roberts, Piazza S. Mario, Venice, October 
1851, 42 x 92, 1,540 guineas ; C. Stanfield, On the 
Texel, 530 guineas ; T. Webster, See-Saw, 256 


guineas ; Punch, 310 guineas ; and The Gipsy, 230 
guineas; Rosa Bonheur, Les Paturages, 14 x 18, 
540 guineas ; and Landscape with cows, goat, and 
woman, 18 x 24, 820 guineas. 

But the principal art sale of 1881 was that of 
the extensive collection of pictures, drawings, etch- 
ings, miniatures, medals, coins, bronzes, jewels, 
and objects of decorative art generally, formed by 
the late Charles Sackville Bale. Mr. Bale col- 
lected objects of art in pretty much the same 
wholesale way as Heber collected books. His 
house from top to bottom was literally packed with 
treasures of the greatest interest and value, and all 
heaped in the most indiscriminate fashion. It 
would perhaps be too much to say that Mr. Bale 
knew where to lay his hands on every object in 
his collection, but it is quite certain that no one 
had ever collected with more judgment or with 
greater success in so many branches of art. The 
collection was dispersed as follows : 

FIRST PART. s. d. 

May 13, 14, and 16. Pictures and drawings of 

the English School (449 lots) .... 28,481 13 o 


May 17-19. Oriental porcelain, rock crystal, 
amber, Japanese lacquer, Chinese enamels, 
bronzes 6,750 2 o 

May 20. Silver and silver gilt, jewels, etc. . . 2,871 4 5 


May 23-24. Old Sevres, Dresden and English 
porcelain, majolica, Palissy ware, carvings 
in ivory, etc i3>53 6 6 


FIFTH PART. s. d. 
May 30-31. Coins, medals, gems, glass, terra- 
cottas, Etruscan ware, etc 8,711 1 8 o 

June 9, 10, n, and 13. Drawings, engravings, 

etchings u57 6 15 o 

July i. The library (360 lots) 1,078 18 6 

The total number of the lots, including the pictures and 
books, 3,500. 

The collection included the following drawings : 
Peter de Wint, Kenilworth Castle, 390 guineas ; 
View at Goodwood, 6f x 9^, 200 guineas ; grand 
Landscape, a river, I5fx24, 400 guineas; and 
London from Battersea, 5^ x 12, 195 guineas; 
Copley Fielding, coast scene, 7^ x 10^, 120 guineas; 
Thomas Girtin, Landscape, with mountains, 
23^ x 35! , 1 30 guineas ; The River Exe, 1 2\ x 20, 
154 guineas; Durham, 10^ x 14^, 135 guineas; 
and Morpeth Bridge, i2^x 2of, from the Redleaf 
collection, no guineas; W. Hunt, Grapes and 
Plums, 9^x 13^, 130 guineas; Samuel Prout, In- 
teriorof Chartres Cathedral, \2\ x 9^, 102 guineas ; 
and the following long series of drawings by 
Turner: Fall of the Trees, 1,210 guineas; and 
Chain Bridge over the Tees, 1,050 guineas both 
these drawings were engraved in the " England 
and Wales " series, and the latter is from the Novar 
collection, 1878; Rye, Sussex, 5f x 9}, 340 guineas; 

I. Y 


and Lyme Regis from the sea, 5f x 8f , 640 
guineas both engraved in the South Coast Series ; 
Hastings from the Sea, 15^ x 23! 1818, 1,050 
guineas ; Weymouth, 5f x 8f , 520 guineas ; Burn- 
ing of the Houses of Parliament, the engraved 
vignette, 200 guineas ; Rouen on the Seine, 5^- x 7 J, 
85 guineas ; Lanthony Abbey, 1 1 x 8^, 80 guineas ; 
View of Ingleborough, with Hornby Castle, en- 
graved, n|-xi6f, 2,200 guineas; and View in 
Switzerland, 9 j- x n^-, 210 guineas. 

The more important of the pictures were as 
follows : Fra Angelico, Virgin and Child enthroned, 
nine angels, i if x 8|-, from the Samuel Rogers col- 
lection, 360 guineas ; Giovanni Bellini, Portrait of 
a lady, from the Charles I. collection, 13 x u, 220 
guineas ; Velasquez, Portrait of Don Balthazar in 
black and gold dress, 20 x 15, 830 guineas pur- 
chased in 1868 for 185 guineas at the H. Baillie 
sale, Mr. Baillie having purchased it on June 
9th, 1827, for 27 8^. ; Claude, Herdsman feed- 
ing goats, 16x21, 400 guineas; and Mercury 
lulling Argus to Sleep, painted for Bafont, etched 
by the artist, No. i in the Choiseul Gallery, 
23 x 29, 610 guineas these two pictures were in 
the Redleaf sale of W. Wells in 1848; N. Berghem, 
Landscape, two men, cattle near fountain, 12 x 14, 
450 guineas ; A. Ostade, Cabaret, four men and 
dog, ii x 10, signed and dated 1663, 960 guineas ; 
and A Lawyer in his Study, signed and dated 
1664, 650 guineas ; William Van de Velde, Gentle 
Breeze, three men in a boat, 13 x 14^, from the Red- 
leaf collection, 1841, engraved by Canot, 460 


guineas ; A. Waterloo, Woody river, sportsman and 
dogs, figures by A. Van de Velde, 19 x 10, 210 
guineas; P. Wouverman, Hilly sandbank, horses 
and figures, from the Clewer Manor collection, 
7j x n, 300 guineas. 

As will be seen from the above summary, the 
drawings by the old masters formed perhaps the 
most valuable portion of this extensive collection ; 
but we have only room to mention a few articles 
as follows : A. Diirer, Head of a young man, black 
chalk, signed, and dated 1520, 180 guineas; 
Raphael, Group of the Holy Women and Apostles, 
pen and bistre, 9^ x 6J, from the Pieta, en- 
graved by M. Antonio, and from the collections 
of Mead and Barnard, ^535 (Malcolm) ; L. da 
Vinci, Study of a child, chalk on grey paper, from 
the Lely and Samuel Rogers collections, i6x 10, 
^309 ; and a Female head, chalk on grey paper, 
^204. The etchings and engravings included 
Rembrandt, Christ healing, second state, India 
paper, ^75 ; The Three Trees, ^101 ; Cottage 
with white pales, ^157 ; and Vandyck, Portrait of 
J. van den Wouver, first state, ^450. The minia- 
tures included Isaac Oliver, Richard, third Earl of 
Dorset, full length, standing, a magnificent example 
of this master, 9! x 6^, ^800. The most sensa- 
tional article in the whole sale was perhaps an 
oval locket of gold, chased and enamelled, the 
back of glass, inlaid with arabesques in coloured 
enamel, 2,025 guineas a writer in The Pall Mall 
Gazette of April 23rd, 1894, states that this beau- 
tiful locket, for there was neither medallion nor 


back, was bought of old John Webb of Bond 
Street by Mr. Bale in 1856 for 10. 

A number of important pictures occurred in the 
sale of May 28th, but six works from the collection 
of Mr. E. J. Coleman completely overshadowed 
the other properties, inasmuch as they realized the 
handsome total of ,26,355. Four of these were 
by Sir Edwin Landseer, namely, " Well-bred 
sitters who never say they are bored," upright, 
36 x 28, 5,000 guineas ; " Man proposes, God dis- 
poses," the bears and the Franklin relics, from the 
Albert Grant sale, 96 x 36, 6,300 guineas 
(Holloway) ; Digging out the Otter in the Valley 
of the Tay, figures finished by Sir J. E. Millais 
this picture realized in its unfinished state 630 
guineas at the artist's sale in 1874 60 x 98, 2,950 
guineas ; and Stag pursued by Greyhound, chalk 
cartoon, life size in colours, 72 x 96, 5,000 guineas 
(Holloway) ; and two pictures by Clarkson 
Stanfield, Pic du Midi d'Ossau, from the Bicknell 
collection, 2,550 guineas, and the Battle of 
Roveredo, from the Mendel and Albert Grant sales, 
(see p. 275) 3,300 guineas both purchased by 
Mr. Holloway, and now at the Royal Holloway 
College, Egham. The other properties sold dur- 
ing the same day included Sir J. E. Millais, The 
Princes in the Tower, 3,800 guineas, also purchased 
by Mr. Holloway ; C. Stanfield, Coast Scene, with 
wreck, 220 guineas ; J. Linnell, The Woodcutters, 
1861, 490 guineas ; C. Cole, Cornfield, 270 guineas ; 
J. Philip, The Music Lesson, Seville, 1860, 500 
guineas ; E. W. Copke, Bay of Carthagena, sunset, 


1 86 1, 240 guineas ; T. Creswick, The Trent Side, 
2,000 guineas (Holloway) the artist received 500 
guineas for this picture, and the last owner paid an 
advance of 50 guineas on that price ; D. Roberts, 
The Piazetta of St. Mark, Venice, 290 guineas ; 

C. W. Cope, Lear recovering at the sound of 
Cordelia's voice, painted in 1850 for the late Mr. 
Brunei's Shakespeare room, 270 guineas ; P. F. 
Poole, Job's Messengers, 1850, 60 x 72, 700 
guineas ; Sir A. W. Callcott, Approach to Verona 
from the Tyrol, 300 guineas ; W. Collins, The 
Cherryseller, a small replica of the celebrated 
picture, 29 x 25, 315 guineas. 

The last noteworthy sale of this year, comprised 
the collection of modern pictures formed by William 
Sharp of Handsworth, near Birmingham, sold on 
July 9th. The eighty lots realized ,22,967 14^. 
and included the following : W. Collins, Borrow- 
dale, a Landscape, with children, 34 x 44, 2,500 
guineas ; J. Constable, Hampstead Heath, 550 
guineas ; T. S. Cooper, Landscape, with sheep 
and goats, 520 guineas, and Mountain Sheep, 250 
guineas ; T. Creswick, The King of the Forest, a 
forest glade, with a stag and deer by R. Ansdell, 
27 x 35, 650 guineas ; C. Fielding, Travellers in a 
storm, on the road near Winchester, 40 x 49, 3,000 
guineas (Holloway), the late Mr. Sharp is said to 
have purchased this work for ^240 in 1862 ; F. 

D. Hardy, Interior, with fiddler and other figures, 
230 guineas ; H. Le Jeune, Consider the Lilies, 
the engraved picture, 260 guineas; J. Linnell, 
Hillside Farm, 16 x 23, 905 guineas ; The Eve of 


the Deluge, a small replica of the celebrated picture, 
25 x 34, 380 guineas, and a portrait of J. M. W. 
Turner, 82 guineas ; D. Maclise, Spirit of Justice, 
from the artist's great fresco in the House of 
Parliament, 96x60, 210 guineas. For the seven 
pictures by W. J. M tiller the late Mr. Sharp is said 
to have refused an offer of ,10,000 ; they now sold 
as follows: Frosty Morning, figures, 18 x 24, 
155 guineas; High Life, interior of a richly 
furnished house, with two men, 24 x 34, 105 
guineas ; Frost scene, with gamekeeper, and trees 
covered with frost, 1837, 72 x 48, 440 guineas; 
Arab Shepherds, a mountain landscape, with two 
figures under palm trees, arched, 1842, 33 x 65, 
2,600 guineas ; Tomb in the water, Telmessius, 
Lycia, 1845, 30x60, 2,250 guineas (Holloway), 
and Prayers in the Desert, landscape with distant 
mountains, 1843, arched, 40 x 72, 1,800 guineas ; 
J. P. Pyne, Haweswater, 260 guineas ; and T. 
Webster, The Pedlar, engraved, 550 guineas. 

The Hamilton Palace sale was naturally the 
great event of 1882, but prior to this sensation the 
choice collection of modern pictures formed by the 
late Edward Hermon, M.P. for Preston, and of 
Wyfold Court, Henley-on-Thames, came under the 
hammer on May i3th. The eighty-four lots 
realized the high total of ,34,380 19^. 6d. the 
nominal total of the sale shows about ,3,000 
beyond this amount, as a few articles were bought 
in. The principle pictures were as follows : E. 
de Schampheleer, Scene on the river Dort, 360 
guineas ; C. Troyon, Landscape, near Trouville, 


26 x 37, 400 guineas ; J. Holland, Gesuati-Chiesa, 
Venice, 9^ x 20, 230 guineas, and the Barbarigo 
Palace, 19 inches circular, 305 guineas ; W. Miiller, 
Gillingham Church, 1843, 23x16, 585 guineas; 
P. H. Calderon, In the cloisters at Aries, 1863, 
33 x 28, 425 guineas ; E. W. Cooke, A Dutch 
Vessel aground, 1865, 42 x 66, from the Leaf 
collection, 510 guineas (Martin Holloway) ; three 
examples in oils of David Cox, Carrying Vetches, 
1850, 14 x 21, 510 guineas; Going to the 
Hayfield, 1848, 23 x 33, 1,000 guineas, and 
Changing Pastures, 1,400 guineas these three 
were painted for the late Mr. Dawes of Birming- 
ham between 1848 and 1851, and the last one 
was again offered for sale in 1884, when it was 
knocked down for 1,200 guineas; Sir C. L. East- 
lake, Scene in the Anno Santo, pilgrims in sight 
of Rome, 1828, the engraved picture, 260 guineas; 
T. Faed, Taking Rest, a cottage woman and her 
baby, 1858, 33 x 25, 710 guineas (Martin Hol- 
loway) ; W. P. Frith, Altisidora pretending love 
for Don Quixote, 1869, 58 x 61, 480 guineas 
this picture is said to have cost Mr. Hermon 
2,000 guineas ; Peter Graham, A Spate in the 
Highlands, 1872, 27 x 41, 750 guineas, " this, 
not the picture of the same title which first 
brought the painter into notice when exhibited 
at the old Academy Galleries in Trafalgar Square, 
was a much larger work, now in the collection 
of Mr. Cunliffe Brooks " and is said to have cost 
about 1,300 guineas; and "Where Deep Seas 
Moan," rocky cliff, with seabirds, 65 x 52, 760 


guineas ; F. Holl, Newgate : Committed for trial, 
1878, 60x82, 770 guineas ( H olio way ); J. C. 
Horsley, The Duenna's Return (not The Duenna 
and her Cares), 170 guineas; Colin Hunter, Store for 
the Cabin, Connemara, a coast scene with figures, 
60 x 44, 320 guineas ; Sir E. Landseer, Poachers 
deerstalking, 1831, 20 x 26, 800 guineas, and " Old 
Brutus," a white, wire-haired, bull-terrier dog, 
43 x 55> fro m the artist's sale, 400 guineas; three 
pictures by E. Long, The Babylonian Marriage 
Market, exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1875, 
66 x 1 20, 6,300 guineas; The Suppliants, the 
subject taken from " The History of the Gipsies," 
painted in 1872, 72 x 113, 4,100 guineas for the 
former of these two pictures the artist is said to 
have received 7, i oo guineas, and for the latter i , 500 
guineas, and both were bought by Mr. Holloway 
for the Royal Holloway College Gallery ; and 
Billeting at Cadiz, 1868, 62 x 44, 500 guineas; J. 
MacWhirter, Moonlight, a coast scene, 39 x 65, 
270 guineas, and " Spindthrift," also a coast scene, 
with carting of seaweed, 32 x 56, 300 guineas both 
these pictures were also bought by Mr. Holloway ; 
Sir J. E. Millais, A Deserted Garden, early 
morning effect, exhibited in 1 875, with the following 
verse from Campbell : 

" Yet wandering I found in my ruinous walk, 

By the dial-stone, aged and green, 
One rose of the wilderness left on its stalk, 

To mark where a garden had been," 

48x72, 900 guineas, and Getting Better, 1876, 
41 x 35, 810 guineas; P. R. Morris, Bathers dis- 


turbed, 46 x 72,310 guineas ; J. Phillip, The Church 
Porch, selling relics, the artist's last work, begun in 
Seville in 1 86 1 , but left unfinished, from the Mendel 
collection, 60 x 84, 3,750 guineas, and a Highland 
Lassie Reading, exhibited 1867, 29 x 22, 900 
guineas; J. Pettie, A State Secret, a Cardinal 
burning a document in presence of his attendant 
monk, 48 x 63, 1,000 guineas (Martin Holloway); 
P. F. Poole, Wayfarers, a country woman 
with her baby, 29 x 26, 410 guineas ; J. M. W. 
Turner, Cicero at his villa at Tusculum, exhibited 
at the Royal Academy 1839, 36 x 48, 1,800 
guineas this picture is from the Novar collection, 
and was now understood to be bought in ; and 
E. M. Ward, The Return of Louis XVI. to Paris, 
43 x 51, 310 guineas. 



I. Z 



Roberts, William 

Memorials of Christie's